11:36 “Then the king 1 will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every deity and he will utter presumptuous things against the God of gods. He will succeed until the time of 2 wrath is completed, for what has been decreed must occur. 3 11:37 He will not respect 4 the gods of his fathers – not even the god loved by women. 5 He will not respect any god; he will elevate himself above them all.
1 sn The identity of this king is problematic. If vv. 36-45 continue the description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the account must be viewed as erroneous, since the details do not match what is known of Antiochus’ latter days. Most modern scholars take this view, concluding that this section was written just shortly before the death of Antiochus and that the writer erred on several key points as he tried to predict what would follow the events of his own day. Conservative scholars, however, usually understand the reference to shift at this point to an eschatological figure, viz., the Antichrist. The chronological gap that this would presuppose to be in the narrative is not necessarily a problem, since by all accounts there are many chronological gaps throughout the chapter, as the historical figures intended by such expressions as “king of the north” and “king of the south” repeatedly shift.
2 tn The words “the time of” are added in the translation for clarification.
3 tn Heb “has been done.” The Hebrew verb used here is the perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of fulfillment.
4 tn Heb “consider.”
5 tn Heb “[the one] desired by women.” The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.