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Daniel 11:3

11:3 Then a powerful king 1  will arise, exercising great authority and doing as he pleases.

Daniel 11:5


11:5 “Then the king of the south 2  and one of his subordinates 3  will grow strong. His subordinate 4  will resist 5  him and will rule a kingdom greater than his. 6 

1 sn The powerful king mentioned here is Alexander the Great (ca. 336-323 B.C.).

2 sn The king of the south is Ptolemy I Soter (ca. 323-285 B.C.). The following reference to one of his subordinates apparently has in view Seleucus I Nicator (ca. 311-280 B.C.). Throughout the remainder of chap. 11 the expressions “king of the south” and “king of the north” repeatedly occur. It is clear, however, that these terms are being used generically to describe the Ptolemaic king (i.e., “of the south”) or the Seleucid king (i.e., “of the north”) who happens to be in power at any particular time. The specific identity of these kings can be established more or less successfully by a comparison of this chapter with the available extra-biblical records that discuss the history of the intertestamental period. In the following notes the generally accepted identifications are briefly mentioned.

3 tn Heb “princes.”

4 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the subordinate prince mentioned in the previous clause) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

5 tn Heb “be strong against.”

6 tn Heb “greater than his kingdom.”

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