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Amos 1:4

Context

1:4 So I will set Hazael’s house 1  on fire;

fire 2  will consume Ben Hadad’s 3  fortresses.

Amos 1:7

Context

1:7 So I will set Gaza’s city wall 4  on fire;

fire 5  will consume her fortresses.

Amos 1:10

Context

1:10 So I will set fire to Tyre’s city wall; 6 

fire 7  will consume her fortresses.”

Amos 1:12

Context

1:12 So I will set Teman 8  on fire;

fire 9  will consume Bozrah’s 10  fortresses.”

Amos 1:14

Context

1:14 So I will set fire to Rabbah’s 11  city wall; 12 

fire 13  will consume her fortresses.

War cries will be heard on the day of battle; 14 

a strong gale will blow on the day of the windstorm. 15 

Amos 2:2

Context

2:2 So I will set Moab on fire, 16 

and it will consume Kerioth’s 17  fortresses.

Moab will perish 18  in the heat of battle 19 

amid war cries and the blaring 20  of the ram’s horn. 21 

Amos 2:5

Context

2:5 So I will set Judah on fire,

and it will consume Jerusalem’s fortresses.” 22 

Amos 5:6

Context

5:6 Seek the Lord so you can live!

Otherwise he will break out 23  like fire against Joseph’s 24  family; 25 

the fire 26  will consume

and no one will be able to quench it and save Bethel. 27 

1 tn “Hazael’s house” (“the house of Hazael”) refers to the dynasty of Hazael.

sn Hazael took the throne of Aram in 843 b.c. and established a royal dynasty. See 2 Kgs 8:7-15 and W. Pitard, Ancient Damascus, 145-60.

2 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 sn Ben-hadad may refer to Hazael’s son and successor (2 Kgs 13:3, 24) or to an earlier king (see 1 Kgs 20), perhaps the ruler whom Hazael assassinated when he assumed power.

4 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

5 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

6 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

7 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 sn Teman was an important region (or perhaps city) in Edom.

9 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 sn Bozrah was a city located in northern Edom.

11 sn Rabbah was the Ammonite capital.

12 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

13 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn Heb “with a war cry in the day of battle.”

15 tn Heb “with wind in the day of the windstorm.”

sn A windstorm is a metaphor for judgment and destruction in the OT (see Isa 29:6; Jer 23:19) and ancient Near Eastern literature.

16 sn The destruction of Moab by fire is an example of a judgment in kind – as the Moabites committed the crime of “burning,” so the Lord will punish them by setting them on fire.

17 sn Kerioth was an important Moabite city. See Jer 48:24, 41.

18 tn Or “die” (KJV, NASB, NRSV, TEV); NAB “shall meet death.”

19 tn Or “in the tumult.” This word refers to the harsh confusion of sounds that characterized an ancient battle – a mixture of war cries, shouts, shrieks of pain, clashes of weapons, etc.

20 tn Heb “sound” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).

21 sn The ram’s horn (used as a trumpet) was blown to signal the approaching battle.

22 map For the location of Jerusalem see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

23 tn Heb “rush.” The verb depicts swift movement.

24 sn Here Joseph (= Ephraim and Manasseh), as the most prominent of the Israelite tribes, represents the entire northern kingdom.

25 tn Heb “house.”

26 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

27 tn Heb “to/for Bethel.” The translation assumes that the preposition indicates advantage, “on behalf of.” Another option is to take the preposition as vocative, “O Bethel.”



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