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Amos 1:4

Context

1:4 So I will set Hazael’s house 1  on fire;

fire 2  will consume Ben Hadad’s 3  fortresses.

Amos 1:7

Context

1:7 So I will set Gaza’s city wall 4  on fire;

fire 5  will consume her fortresses.

Amos 1:10

Context

1:10 So I will set fire to Tyre’s city wall; 6 

fire 7  will consume her fortresses.”

Amos 1:12

Context

1:12 So I will set Teman 8  on fire;

fire 9  will consume Bozrah’s 10  fortresses.”

Amos 1:14

Context

1:14 So I will set fire to Rabbah’s 11  city wall; 12 

fire 13  will consume her fortresses.

War cries will be heard on the day of battle; 14 

a strong gale will blow on the day of the windstorm. 15 

1 tn “Hazael’s house” (“the house of Hazael”) refers to the dynasty of Hazael.

sn Hazael took the throne of Aram in 843 b.c. and established a royal dynasty. See 2 Kgs 8:7-15 and W. Pitard, Ancient Damascus, 145-60.

2 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 sn Ben-hadad may refer to Hazael’s son and successor (2 Kgs 13:3, 24) or to an earlier king (see 1 Kgs 20), perhaps the ruler whom Hazael assassinated when he assumed power.

4 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

5 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

6 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

7 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 sn Teman was an important region (or perhaps city) in Edom.

9 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 sn Bozrah was a city located in northern Edom.

11 sn Rabbah was the Ammonite capital.

12 sn The city wall symbolizes the city’s defenses and security.

13 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fire mentioned in the previous line) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn Heb “with a war cry in the day of battle.”

15 tn Heb “with wind in the day of the windstorm.”

sn A windstorm is a metaphor for judgment and destruction in the OT (see Isa 29:6; Jer 23:19) and ancient Near Eastern literature.



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