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Acts 7:1--13:42

Context
Stephen’s Defense Before the Council

7:1 Then the high priest said, “Are these things true?” 1  7:2 So he replied, 2  “Brothers and fathers, listen to me. The God of glory appeared to our forefather 3  Abraham when he was in Mesopotamia, before he settled in Haran, 7:3 and said to him, ‘Go out from your country and from your relatives, and come to the land I will show you.’ 4  7:4 Then he went out from the country of the Chaldeans and settled in Haran. After his father died, God 5  made him move 6  to this country where you now live. 7:5 He 7  did not give any of it to him for an inheritance, 8  not even a foot of ground, 9  yet God 10  promised to give it to him as his possession, and to his descendants after him, 11  even though Abraham 12  as yet had no child. 7:6 But God spoke as follows: ‘Your 13  descendants will be foreigners 14  in a foreign country, whose citizens will enslave them and mistreat them for four hundred years. 15  7:7 But I will punish 16  the nation they serve as slaves,’ said God, ‘and after these things they will come out of there 17  and worship 18  me in this place.’ 19  7:8 Then God 20  gave Abraham 21  the covenant 22  of circumcision, and so he became the father of Isaac and circumcised him when he was eight days old, 23  and Isaac became the father of 24  Jacob, and Jacob of the twelve patriarchs. 25  7:9 The 26  patriarchs, because they were jealous of Joseph, sold 27  him into Egypt. But 28  God was with him, 7:10 and rescued him from all his troubles, and granted him favor and wisdom in the presence of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, who made 29  him ruler over Egypt and over all his household. 7:11 Then a famine occurred throughout 30  Egypt and Canaan, causing 31  great suffering, and our 32  ancestors 33  could not find food. 7:12 So when Jacob heard that there was grain 34  in Egypt, he sent our ancestors 35  there 36  the first time. 7:13 On their second visit Joseph made himself known to his brothers again, and Joseph’s family 37  became known to Pharaoh. 7:14 So Joseph sent a message 38  and invited 39  his father Jacob and all his relatives to come, seventy-five people 40  in all. 7:15 So Jacob went down to Egypt and died there, 41  along with our ancestors, 42  7:16 and their bones 43  were later moved to Shechem and placed in the tomb that Abraham had bought for a certain sum of money 44  from the sons of Hamor in Shechem.

7:17 “But as the time drew near for God to fulfill the promise he had declared to Abraham, 45  the people increased greatly in number 46  in Egypt, 7:18 until another king who did not know about 47  Joseph ruled 48  over Egypt. 49  7:19 This was the one who exploited 50  our people 51  and was cruel to our ancestors, 52  forcing them to abandon 53  their infants so they would die. 54  7:20 At that time Moses was born, and he was beautiful 55  to God. For 56  three months he was brought up in his father’s house, 7:21 and when he had been abandoned, 57  Pharaoh’s daughter adopted 58  him and brought him up 59  as her own son. 7:22 So Moses was trained 60  in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was powerful 61  in his words and deeds. 7:23 But when he was about forty years old, it entered his mind 62  to visit his fellow countrymen 63  the Israelites. 64  7:24 When 65  he saw one of them being hurt unfairly, 66  Moses 67  came to his defense 68  and avenged the person who was mistreated by striking down the Egyptian. 7:25 He thought his own people 69  would understand that God was delivering them 70  through him, 71  but they did not understand. 72  7:26 The next day Moses 73  saw two men 74  fighting, and tried to make peace between 75  them, saying, ‘Men, you are brothers; why are you hurting one another?’ 7:27 But the man who was unfairly hurting his neighbor pushed 76  Moses 77  aside, saying, ‘Who made 78  you a ruler and judge over us? 7:28 You don’t want to kill me the way you killed the Egyptian yesterday, do you? 79  7:29 When the man said this, 80  Moses fled and became a foreigner 81  in the land of Midian, where he became the father of two sons.

7:30 “After 82  forty years had passed, an angel appeared to him in the desert 83  of Mount Sinai, in the flame of a burning bush. 84  7:31 When Moses saw it, he was amazed at the sight, and when he approached to investigate, there came the voice of the Lord, 7:32I am the God of your forefathers, 85  the God of Abraham, Isaac, 86  and Jacob.’ 87  Moses began to tremble and did not dare to look more closely. 88  7:33 But the Lord said to him,Take the sandals off your feet, for the place where you are standing is holy ground. 89  7:34 I have certainly seen the suffering 90  of my people who are in Egypt and have heard their groaning, and I have come down to rescue them. 91  Now 92  come, I will send you to Egypt.’ 93  7:35 This same 94  Moses they had rejected, saying, ‘Who made you a ruler and judge? 95  God sent as both ruler and deliverer 96  through the hand of the angel 97  who appeared to him in the bush. 7:36 This man led them out, performing wonders and miraculous signs 98  in the land of Egypt, 99  at 100  the Red Sea, and in the wilderness 101  for forty years. 7:37 This is the Moses who said to the Israelites, 102 God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers.’ 103  7:38 This is the man who was in the congregation 104  in the wilderness 105  with the angel who spoke to him at Mount Sinai, and with our ancestors, 106  and he 107  received living oracles 108  to give to you. 109  7:39 Our 110  ancestors 111  were unwilling to obey 112  him, but pushed him aside 113  and turned back to Egypt in their hearts, 7:40 saying to Aaron, ‘Make us gods who will go in front of us, for this Moses, who led us out of the land of Egypt 114  – we do not know what has happened to him! 115  7:41 At 116  that time 117  they made an idol in the form of a calf, 118  brought 119  a sacrifice to the idol, and began rejoicing 120  in the works of their hands. 121  7:42 But God turned away from them and gave them over 122  to worship the host 123  of heaven, as it is written in the book of the prophets: ‘It was not to me that you offered slain animals and sacrifices 124  forty years in the wilderness, was it, 125  house of Israel? 7:43 But you took along the tabernacle 126  of Moloch 127  and the star of the 128  god Rephan, 129  the images you made to worship, but I will deport 130  you beyond Babylon.’ 131  7:44 Our ancestors 132  had the tabernacle 133  of testimony in the wilderness, 134  just as God 135  who spoke to Moses ordered him 136  to make it according to the design he had seen. 7:45 Our 137  ancestors 138  received possession of it and brought it in with Joshua when they dispossessed the nations that God drove out before our ancestors, 139  until the time 140  of David. 7:46 He 141  found favor 142  with 143  God and asked that he could 144  find a dwelling place 145  for the house 146  of Jacob. 7:47 But Solomon built a house 147  for him. 7:48 Yet the Most High 148  does not live in houses made by human hands, 149  as the prophet says,

7:49Heaven is my throne,

and earth is the footstool for my feet.

What kind of house will you build for me, says the Lord,

or what is my resting place? 150 

7:50 Did my hand 151  not make all these things? 152 

7:51 “You stubborn 153  people, with uncircumcised 154  hearts and ears! 155  You are always resisting the Holy Spirit, like your ancestors 156  did! 7:52 Which of the prophets did your ancestors 157  not persecute? 158  They 159  killed those who foretold long ago the coming of the Righteous One, 160  whose betrayers and murderers you have now become! 161  7:53 You 162  received the law by decrees given by angels, 163  but you did not obey 164  it.” 165 

Stephen is Killed

7:54 When they heard these things, they became furious 166  and ground their teeth 167  at him. 7:55 But Stephen, 168  full 169  of the Holy Spirit, looked intently 170  toward heaven and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing 171  at the right hand of God. 7:56 “Look!” he said. 172  “I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God!” 7:57 But they covered their ears, 173  shouting out with a loud voice, and rushed at him with one intent. 7:58 When 174  they had driven him out of the city, they began to stone him, 175  and the witnesses laid their cloaks 176  at the feet of a young man named Saul. 7:59 They 177  continued to stone Stephen while he prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit!” 7:60 Then he fell 178  to his knees and cried out with a loud voice, “Lord, do not hold this sin against them!” 179  When 180  he had said this, he died. 181  8:1 And Saul agreed completely with killing 182  him.

Saul Begins to Persecute the Church

Now on that day a great 183  persecution began 184  against the church in Jerusalem, 185  and all 186  except the apostles were forced to scatter throughout the regions 187  of Judea and Samaria. 8:2 Some 188  devout men buried Stephen and made loud lamentation 189  over him. 190  8:3 But Saul was trying to destroy 191  the church; entering one house after another, he dragged off 192  both men and women and put them in prison. 193 

Philip Preaches in Samaria

8:4 Now those who had been forced to scatter went around proclaiming the good news of the word. 8:5 Philip went down to the main city of Samaria 194  and began proclaiming 195  the Christ 196  to them. 8:6 The crowds were paying attention with one mind to what Philip said, 197  as they heard and saw the miraculous signs 198  he was performing. 8:7 For unclean spirits, 199  crying with loud shrieks, were coming out of many who were possessed, 200  and many paralyzed and lame people were healed. 8:8 So there was 201  great joy 202  in that city.

8:9 Now in that city was a man named Simon, who had been practicing magic 203  and amazing the people of Samaria, claiming to be someone great. 8:10 All the people, 204  from the least to the greatest, paid close attention to him, saying, “This man is the power of God that is called ‘Great.’” 205  8:11 And they paid close attention to him because he had amazed them for a long time with his magic. 8:12 But when they believed Philip as he was proclaiming the good news about the kingdom of God 206  and the name of Jesus Christ, 207  they began to be baptized, 208  both men and women. 8:13 Even Simon himself believed, and after he was baptized, he stayed close to 209  Philip constantly, and when he saw the signs and great miracles that were occurring, he was amazed. 210 

8:14 Now when the apostles in Jerusalem 211  heard that Samaria had accepted the word 212  of God, they sent 213  Peter and John to them. 8:15 These two 214  went down and prayed for them so that they would receive the Holy Spirit. 8:16 (For the Spirit 215  had not yet come upon 216  any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) 217  8:17 Then Peter and John placed their hands on the Samaritans, 218  and they received the Holy Spirit. 219 

8:18 Now Simon, when he saw that the Spirit 220  was given through the laying on of the apostles’ hands, offered them money, 8:19 saying, “Give me this power 221  too, so that everyone I place my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit.” 8:20 But Peter said to him, “May your silver perish with you, 222  because you thought you could acquire 223  God’s gift with money! 8:21 You have no share or part 224  in this matter 225  because your heart is not right before God! 8:22 Therefore repent of this wickedness of yours, and pray to the Lord 226  that he may perhaps forgive you for the intent of your heart. 227  8:23 For I see that you are bitterly envious 228  and in bondage to sin.” 8:24 But Simon replied, 229  “You pray to the Lord for me so that nothing of what you have said may happen to 230  me.”

8:25 So after Peter and John 231  had solemnly testified 232  and spoken the word of the Lord, 233  they started back to Jerusalem, proclaiming 234  the good news to many Samaritan villages 235  as they went. 236 

Philip and the Ethiopian Eunuch

8:26 Then an angel of the Lord 237  said to Philip, 238  “Get up and go south 239  on the road that goes down from Jerusalem 240  to Gaza.” (This is a desert 241  road.) 242  8:27 So 243  he got up 244  and went. There 245  he met 246  an Ethiopian eunuch, 247  a court official of Candace, 248  queen of the Ethiopians, who was in charge of all her treasury. He 249  had come to Jerusalem to worship, 250  8:28 and was returning home, sitting 251  in his chariot, reading 252  the prophet Isaiah. 8:29 Then the Spirit said to Philip, “Go over and join this chariot.” 8:30 So Philip ran up 253  to it 254  and heard the man 255  reading Isaiah the prophet. He 256  asked him, 257  “Do you understand what you’re reading?” 8:31 The man 258  replied, “How in the world can I, 259  unless someone guides me?” So he invited Philip to come up and sit with him. 8:32 Now the passage of scripture the man 260  was reading was this:

He was led like a sheep to slaughter,

and like a lamb before its shearer is silent,

so he did 261  not open his mouth.

8:33 In humiliation 262  justice was taken from him. 263 

Who can describe his posterity? 264 

For his life was taken away 265  from the earth. 266 

8:34 Then the eunuch said 267  to Philip, “Please tell me, 268  who is the prophet saying this about – himself or someone else?” 269  8:35 So Philip started speaking, 270  and beginning with this scripture 271  proclaimed the good news about Jesus to him. 8:36 Now as they were going along the road, they came to some water, and the eunuch said, “Look, there is water! What is to stop me 272  from being baptized?” 8:37 [[EMPTY]] 273  8:38 So he ordered the chariot to stop, and both Philip and the eunuch went down into the water, 274  and Philip baptized 275  him. 8:39 Now when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord snatched Philip away, and the eunuch did not see him any more, but 276  went on his way rejoicing. 277  8:40 Philip, however, found himself 278  at Azotus, 279  and as he passed through the area, 280  he proclaimed the good news 281  to all the towns 282  until he came to Caesarea. 283 

The Conversion of Saul

9:1 Meanwhile Saul, still breathing out threats 284  to murder 285  the Lord’s disciples, went to the high priest 9:2 and requested letters from him to the synagogues 286  in Damascus, so that if he found any who belonged to the Way, 287  either men or women, he could bring them as prisoners 288  to Jerusalem. 289  9:3 As he was going along, approaching 290  Damascus, suddenly a light from heaven flashed 291  around him. 9:4 He 292  fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, 293  why are you persecuting me?” 294  9:5 So he said, “Who are you, Lord?” He replied, “I am Jesus whom you are persecuting! 9:6 But stand up 295  and enter the city and you will be told 296  what you must do.” 9:7 (Now the men 297  who were traveling with him stood there speechless, 298  because they heard the voice but saw no one.) 299  9:8 So Saul got up from the ground, but although his eyes were open, 300  he could see nothing. 301  Leading him by the hand, his companions 302  brought him into Damascus. 9:9 For 303  three days he could not see, and he neither ate nor drank anything. 304 

9:10 Now there was a disciple in Damascus named Ananias. The 305  Lord 306  said to him in a vision, “Ananias,” and he replied, “Here I am, 307  Lord.” 9:11 Then the Lord told him, “Get up and go to the street called ‘Straight,’ 308  and at Judas’ house look for a man from Tarsus named Saul. For he is praying, 9:12 and he has seen in a vision 309  a man named Ananias come in and place his hands on him so that he may see again.” 9:13 But Ananias replied, 310  “Lord, I have heard from many people 311  about this man, how much harm he has done to your saints in Jerusalem, 9:14 and here he has authority from the chief priests to imprison 312  all who call on your name!” 313  9:15 But the Lord said to him, “Go, because this man is my chosen instrument 314  to carry my name before Gentiles and kings and the people of Israel. 315  9:16 For I will show him how much he must suffer for the sake of my name.” 316  9:17 So Ananias departed and entered the house, placed 317  his hands on Saul 318  and said, “Brother Saul, the Lord Jesus, who appeared to you on the road as you came here, 319  has sent me so that you may see again and be filled with the Holy Spirit.” 320  9:18 Immediately 321  something like scales 322  fell from his eyes, and he could see again. He 323  got up and was baptized, 9:19 and after taking some food, his strength returned.

For several days 324  he was with the disciples in Damascus, 9:20 and immediately he began to proclaim Jesus in the synagogues, 325  saying, “This man is the Son of God.” 326  9:21 All 327  who heard him were amazed and were saying, “Is this not 328  the man who in Jerusalem was ravaging 329  those who call on this name, and who had come here to bring them as prisoners 330  to the chief priests?” 9:22 But Saul became more and more capable, 331  and was causing consternation 332  among the Jews who lived in Damascus by proving 333  that Jesus 334  is the Christ. 335 

Saul’s Escape from Damascus

9:23 Now after some days had passed, the Jews plotted 336  together to kill him, 9:24 but Saul learned of their plot against him. 337  They were also watching 338  the city gates 339  day and night so that they could kill him. 9:25 But his disciples took him at night and let him down through an opening 340  in the wall by lowering him in a basket. 341 

Saul Returns to Jerusalem

9:26 When he arrived in Jerusalem, 342  he attempted to associate 343  with the disciples, and they were all afraid of him, because they did not believe 344  that he was a disciple. 9:27 But Barnabas took 345  Saul, 346  brought 347  him to the apostles, and related to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, that 348  the Lord had spoken to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out boldly 349  in the name of Jesus. 9:28 So he was staying with them, associating openly with them 350  in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord. 9:29 He was speaking and debating 351  with the Greek-speaking Jews, 352  but they were trying to kill him. 9:30 When the brothers found out about this, they brought him down to Caesarea 353  and sent him away to Tarsus.

9:31 Then 354  the church throughout Judea, Galilee, 355  and Samaria experienced 356  peace and thus was strengthened. 357  Living 358  in the fear of the Lord and in the encouragement of the Holy Spirit, the church 359  increased in numbers.

Peter Heals Aeneas

9:32 Now 360  as Peter was traveling around from place to place, 361  he also came down to the saints who lived in Lydda. 362  9:33 He found there a man named Aeneas who had been confined to a mattress for eight years because 363  he was paralyzed. 9:34 Peter 364  said to him, “Aeneas, Jesus the Christ 365  heals you. Get up and make your own bed!” 366  And immediately he got up. 9:35 All 367  those who lived in Lydda 368  and Sharon 369  saw him, and they 370  turned 371  to the Lord.

Peter Raises Dorcas

9:36 Now in Joppa 372  there was a disciple named Tabitha (which in translation means 373  Dorcas). 374  She was continually doing good deeds and acts of charity. 375  9:37 At that time 376  she became sick 377  and died. When they had washed 378  her body, 379  they placed it in an upstairs room. 9:38 Because Lydda 380  was near Joppa, when the disciples heard that Peter was there, they sent two men to him and urged him, “Come to us without delay.” 381  9:39 So Peter got up and went with them, and 382  when he arrived 383  they brought him to the upper room. All 384  the widows stood beside him, crying and showing him 385  the tunics 386  and other clothing 387  Dorcas used to make 388  while she was with them. 9:40 But Peter sent them all outside, 389  knelt down, 390  and prayed. Turning 391  to the body, he said, “Tabitha, get up.” Then she opened her eyes, and when she saw Peter, she sat up. 392  9:41 He gave 393  her his hand and helped her get up. Then he called 394  the saints and widows and presented her alive. 9:42 This became known throughout all 395  Joppa, and many believed in the Lord. 396  9:43 So 397  Peter 398  stayed many days in Joppa with a man named 399  Simon, a tanner. 400 

Peter Visits Cornelius

10:1 Now there was a man in Caesarea 401  named Cornelius, a centurion 402  of what was known as the Italian Cohort. 403  10:2 He 404  was a devout, God-fearing man, 405  as was all his household; he did many acts of charity for the people 406  and prayed to God regularly. 10:3 About three o’clock one afternoon 407  he saw clearly in a vision an angel of God 408  who came in 409  and said to him, “Cornelius.” 10:4 Staring at him and becoming greatly afraid, Cornelius 410  replied, 411  “What is it, Lord?” The angel 412  said to him, “Your prayers and your acts of charity 413  have gone up as a memorial 414  before God. 10:5 Now 415  send men to Joppa 416  and summon a man named Simon, 417  who is called Peter. 10:6 This man is staying as a guest with a man named Simon, a tanner, 418  whose house is by the sea.” 10:7 When the angel who had spoken to him departed, Cornelius 419  called two of his personal servants 420  and a devout soldier from among those who served him, 421  10:8 and when he had explained everything to them, he sent them to Joppa.

10:9 About noon 422  the next day, while they were on their way and approaching 423  the city, Peter went up on the roof 424  to pray. 10:10 He became hungry and wanted to eat, but while they were preparing the meal, a trance came over him. 425  10:11 He 426  saw heaven 427  opened 428  and an object something like a large sheet 429  descending, 430  being let down to earth 431  by its four corners. 10:12 In it 432  were all kinds of four-footed animals and reptiles 433  of the earth and wild birds. 434  10:13 Then 435  a voice said 436  to him, “Get up, Peter; slaughter 437  and eat!” 10:14 But Peter said, “Certainly not, Lord, for I have never eaten anything defiled and ritually unclean!” 438  10:15 The voice 439  spoke to him again, a second time, “What God has made clean, you must not consider 440  ritually unclean!” 441  10:16 This happened three times, and immediately the object was taken up into heaven. 442 

10:17 Now while Peter was puzzling over 443  what the vision he had seen could signify, the men sent by Cornelius had learned where Simon’s house was 444  and approached 445  the gate. 10:18 They 446  called out to ask if Simon, known as Peter, 447  was staying there as a guest. 10:19 While Peter was still thinking seriously about 448  the vision, the Spirit said to him, “Look! Three men are looking for you. 10:20 But get up, 449  go down, and accompany them without hesitation, 450  because I have sent them.” 10:21 So Peter went down 451  to the men and said, “Here I am, 452  the person you’re looking for. Why have you come?” 10:22 They said, “Cornelius the centurion, 453  a righteous 454  and God-fearing man, well spoken of by the whole Jewish nation, 455  was directed by a holy angel to summon you to his house and to hear a message 456  from you.” 10:23 So Peter 457  invited them in and entertained them as guests.

On the next day he got up and set out 458  with them, and some of the brothers from Joppa 459  accompanied him. 10:24 The following day 460  he entered Caesarea. 461  Now Cornelius was waiting anxiously 462  for them and had called together his relatives and close friends. 10:25 So when 463  Peter came in, Cornelius met 464  him, fell 465  at his feet, and worshiped 466  him. 10:26 But Peter helped him up, 467  saying, “Stand up. I too am a mere mortal.” 468  10:27 Peter 469  continued talking with him as he went in, and he found many people gathered together. 470  10:28 He said to them, “You know that 471  it is unlawful 472  for a Jew 473  to associate with or visit a Gentile, 474  yet God has shown me that I should call no person 475  defiled or ritually unclean. 476  10:29 Therefore when you sent for me, 477  I came without any objection. Now may I ask why 478  you sent for me?” 10:30 Cornelius 479  replied, 480  “Four days ago at this very hour, at three o’clock in the afternoon, 481  I was praying in my house, and suddenly 482  a man in shining clothing stood before me 10:31 and said, ‘Cornelius, your prayer has been heard and your acts of charity 483  have been remembered before God. 484  10:32 Therefore send to Joppa and summon Simon, who is called Peter. This man is staying as a guest in the house of Simon the tanner, 485  by the sea.’ 10:33 Therefore I sent for you at once, and you were kind enough to come. 486  So now we are all here in the presence of God 487  to listen 488  to everything the Lord has commanded you to say to us.” 489 

10:34 Then Peter started speaking: 490  “I now truly understand that God does not show favoritism in dealing with people, 491  10:35 but in every nation 492  the person who fears him 493  and does what is right 494  is welcomed before him. 10:36 You know 495  the message 496  he sent to the people 497  of Israel, proclaiming the good news of peace 498  through 499  Jesus Christ 500  (he is Lord 501  of all) – 10:37 you know what happened throughout Judea, beginning from Galilee after the baptism that John announced: 502  10:38 with respect to Jesus from Nazareth, 503  that 504  God anointed him with the Holy Spirit and with power. He 505  went around doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, 506  because God was with him. 507  10:39 We 508  are witnesses of all the things he did both in Judea 509  and in Jerusalem. 510  They 511  killed him by hanging him on a tree, 512  10:40 but 513  God raised him up on the third day and caused him to be seen, 514  10:41 not by all the people, but by us, the witnesses God had already chosen, 515  who ate and drank 516  with him after he rose from the dead. 10:42 He 517  commanded us to preach to the people and to warn 518  them 519  that he is the one 520  appointed 521  by God as judge 522  of the living and the dead. 10:43 About him all the prophets testify, 523  that everyone who believes in him receives forgiveness of sins 524  through his name.”

The Gentiles Receive the Holy Spirit

10:44 While Peter was still speaking these words, the Holy Spirit fell on 525  all those who heard the message. 526  10:45 The 527  circumcised believers 528  who had accompanied Peter were greatly astonished 529  that 530  the gift of the Holy Spirit 531  had been poured out 532  even on the Gentiles, 10:46 for they heard them speaking in tongues and praising 533  God. Then Peter said, 10:47 “No one can withhold the water for these people to be baptized, who have received the Holy Spirit just as we did, 534  can he?” 535  10:48 So he gave orders to have them baptized 536  in the name of Jesus Christ. 537  Then they asked him to stay for several days.

Peter Defends His Actions to the Jerusalem Church

11:1 Now the apostles and the brothers who were throughout Judea heard that the Gentiles too had accepted 538  the word of God. 539  11:2 So when Peter went up to Jerusalem, 540  the circumcised believers 541  took issue with 542  him, 11:3 saying, “You went to 543  uncircumcised men and shared a meal with 544  them.” 11:4 But Peter began and explained it to them point by point, 545  saying, 11:5 “I was in the city of Joppa praying, and in a trance I saw a vision, 546  an object something like a large sheet descending, 547  being let down from heaven 548  by its four corners, and it came to me. 11:6 As I stared 549  I looked into it and saw four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, 550  and wild birds. 551  11:7 I also heard a voice saying to me, ‘Get up, Peter; slaughter 552  and eat!’ 11:8 But I said, ‘Certainly not, Lord, for nothing defiled or ritually unclean 553  has ever entered my mouth!’ 11:9 But the voice replied a second time from heaven, ‘What God has made clean, you must not consider 554  ritually unclean!’ 11:10 This happened three times, and then everything was pulled up to heaven again. 11:11 At that very moment, 555  three men sent to me from Caesarea 556  approached 557  the house where we were staying. 558  11:12 The Spirit told me to accompany them without hesitation. These six brothers 559  also went with me, and we entered the man’s house. 11:13 He informed us how he had seen an angel standing in his house and saying, ‘Send to Joppa and summon Simon, who is called Peter, 11:14 who will speak a message 560  to you by which you and your entire household will be saved.’ 11:15 Then as I began to speak, the Holy Spirit fell on 561  them just as he did 562  on us at the beginning. 563  11:16 And I remembered the word of the Lord, 564  as he used to say, 565  ‘John baptized with water, but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit.’ 566  11:17 Therefore if God 567  gave them the same gift 568  as he also gave us after believing 569  in the Lord Jesus Christ, 570  who was I to hinder 571  God?” 11:18 When they heard this, 572  they ceased their objections 573  and praised 574  God, saying, “So then, God has granted the repentance 575  that leads to life even to the Gentiles.” 576 

Activity in the Church at Antioch

11:19 Now those who had been scattered because of the persecution that took place over Stephen 577  went as far as 578  Phoenicia, 579  Cyprus, 580  and Antioch, 581  speaking the message 582  to no one but Jews. 11:20 But there were some men from Cyprus 583  and Cyrene 584  among them who came 585  to Antioch 586  and began to speak to the Greeks 587  too, proclaiming the good news of the Lord Jesus. 11:21 The 588  hand of the Lord was with them, and a great number who believed 589  turned 590  to the Lord. 11:22 A report 591  about them came to the attention 592  of the church in Jerusalem, 593  and they sent Barnabas 594  to Antioch. 595  11:23 When 596  he came and saw the grace of God, he rejoiced and encouraged them all to remain true 597  to the Lord with devoted hearts, 598  11:24 because he was a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith, and a significant number of people 599  were brought to the Lord. 11:25 Then Barnabas departed for Tarsus to look for Saul, 11:26 and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. 600  So 601  for a whole year Barnabas and Saul 602  met with the church and taught a significant number of people. 603  Now it was in Antioch 604  that the disciples were first called Christians. 605 

Famine Relief for Judea

11:27 At that time 606  some 607  prophets 608  came down 609  from Jerusalem 610  to Antioch. 611  11:28 One of them, named Agabus, got up 612  and predicted 613  by the Spirit that a severe 614  famine 615  was about to come over the whole inhabited world. 616  (This 617  took place during the reign of Claudius.) 618  11:29 So the disciples, each in accordance with his financial ability, 619  decided 620  to send relief 621  to the brothers living in Judea. 11:30 They did so, 622  sending their financial aid 623  to the elders by Barnabas and Saul.

James is Killed and Peter Imprisoned

12:1 About that time King Herod 624  laid hands on 625  some from the church to harm them. 626  12:2 He had James, the brother of John, executed with a sword. 627  12:3 When he saw that this pleased the Jews, 628  he proceeded to arrest Peter too. (This took place during the feast of Unleavened Bread.) 629  12:4 When he had seized him, he put him in prison, handing him over to four squads 630  of soldiers to guard him. Herod 631  planned 632  to bring him out for public trial 633  after the Passover. 12:5 So Peter was kept in prison, but those in the church were earnestly 634  praying to God for him. 635  12:6 On that very night before Herod was going to bring him out for trial, 636  Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains, while 637  guards in front of the door were keeping watch 638  over the prison. 12:7 Suddenly 639  an angel of the Lord 640  appeared, and a light shone in the prison cell. He struck 641  Peter on the side and woke him up, saying, “Get up quickly!” And the chains fell off Peter’s 642  wrists. 643  12:8 The angel said to him, “Fasten your belt 644  and put on your sandals.” Peter 645  did so. Then the angel 646  said to him, “Put on your cloak 647  and follow me.” 12:9 Peter 648  went out 649  and followed him; 650  he did not realize that what was happening through the angel was real, 651  but thought he was seeing a vision. 12:10 After they had passed the first and second guards, 652  they came to the iron 653  gate leading into the city. It 654  opened for them by itself, 655  and they went outside and walked down one narrow street, 656  when at once the angel left him. 12:11 When 657  Peter came to himself, he said, “Now I know for certain that the Lord has sent his angel and rescued 658  me from the hand 659  of Herod 660  and from everything the Jewish people 661  were expecting to happen.”

12:12 When Peter 662  realized this, he went to the house of Mary, the mother of John Mark, 663  where many people had gathered together and were praying. 12:13 When he knocked at the door of the outer gate, a slave girl named Rhoda answered. 664  12:14 When she recognized Peter’s voice, she was so overjoyed she did not open the gate, but ran back in and told 665  them 666  that Peter was standing at the gate. 12:15 But they said to her, “You’ve lost your mind!” 667  But she kept insisting that it was Peter, 668  and they kept saying, 669  “It is his angel!” 670  12:16 Now Peter continued knocking, and when they opened the door 671  and saw him, they were greatly astonished. 672  12:17 He motioned to them 673  with his hand to be quiet and then related 674  how the Lord had brought 675  him out of the prison. He said, “Tell James and the brothers these things,” and then he left and went to another place. 676 

12:18 At daybreak 677  there was great consternation 678  among the soldiers over what had become of Peter. 12:19 When Herod 679  had searched 680  for him and did not find him, he questioned 681  the guards and commanded that they be led away to execution. 682  Then 683  Herod 684  went down from Judea to Caesarea 685  and stayed there.

12:20 Now Herod 686  was having an angry quarrel 687  with the people of Tyre 688  and Sidon. 689  So they joined together 690  and presented themselves before him. And after convincing 691  Blastus, the king’s personal assistant, 692  to help them, 693  they asked for peace, 694  because their country’s food supply was provided by the king’s country. 12:21 On a day determined in advance, Herod 695  put on his royal robes, 696  sat down on the judgment seat, 697  and made a speech 698  to them. 12:22 But the crowd 699  began to shout, 700  “The voice of a god, 701  and not of a man!” 12:23 Immediately an angel of the Lord 702  struck 703  Herod 704  down because he did not give the glory to God, and he was eaten by worms and died. 705  12:24 But the word of God 706  kept on increasing 707  and multiplying.

12:25 So Barnabas and Saul returned to 708  Jerusalem 709  when they had completed 710  their mission, 711  bringing along with them John Mark. 712 

The Church at Antioch Commissions Barnabas and Saul

13:1 Now there were these prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch: 713  Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, 714  Lucius the Cyrenian, 715  Manaen (a close friend of Herod 716  the tetrarch 717  from childhood 718 ) and Saul. 13:2 While they were serving 719  the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart 720  for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” 13:3 Then, after they had fasted 721  and 722  prayed and placed their hands 723  on them, they sent them off.

Paul and Barnabas Preach in Cyprus

13:4 So Barnabas and Saul, 724  sent out by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia, 725  and from there they sailed to Cyprus. 726  13:5 When 727  they arrived 728  in Salamis, 729  they began to proclaim 730  the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. 731  (Now they also had John 732  as their assistant.) 733  13:6 When they had crossed over 734  the whole island as far as Paphos, 735  they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet named Bar-Jesus, 736  13:7 who was with the proconsul 737  Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. The proconsul 738  summoned 739  Barnabas and Saul and wanted to hear 740  the word of God. 13:8 But the magician Elymas 741  (for that is the way his name is translated) 742  opposed them, trying to turn the proconsul 743  away from the faith. 13:9 But Saul (also known as Paul), 744  filled with the Holy Spirit, 745  stared straight 746  at him 13:10 and said, “You who are full of all deceit and all wrongdoing, 747  you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness – will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord? 748  13:11 Now 749  look, the hand of the Lord is against 750  you, and you will be blind, unable to see the sun for a time!” Immediately mistiness 751  and darkness came over 752  him, and he went around seeking people 753  to lead him by the hand. 13:12 Then when the proconsul 754  saw what had happened, he believed, 755  because he was greatly astounded 756  at the teaching about 757  the Lord.

Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Antioch

13:13 Then Paul and his companions put out to sea 758  from Paphos 759  and came to Perga 760  in Pamphylia, 761  but John 762  left them and returned to Jerusalem. 763  13:14 Moving on from 764  Perga, 765  they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, 766  and on the Sabbath day they went into 767  the synagogue 768  and sat down. 13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 769  the leaders of the synagogue 770  sent them a message, 771  saying, “Brothers, 772  if you have any message 773  of exhortation 774  for the people, speak it.” 775  13:16 So Paul stood up, 776  gestured 777  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 778  and you Gentiles who fear God, 779  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 780  chose our ancestors 781  and made the people great 782  during their stay as foreigners 783  in the country 784  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 785  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 786  a period of about forty years he put up with 787  them in the wilderness. 788  13:19 After 789  he had destroyed 790  seven nations 791  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 792  13:20 All this took 793  about four hundred fifty years. After this 794  he gave them judges until the time of 795  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 796  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 797  raised up 798  David their king. He testified about him: 799 I have found David 800  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 801  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 802  13:23 From the descendants 803  of this man 804  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 805  13:24 Before 806  Jesus 807  arrived, John 808  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 809  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 810  he said repeatedly, 811  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 812  13:26 Brothers, 813  descendants 814  of Abraham’s family, 815  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 816  the message 817  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 818  him, 819  and they fulfilled the sayings 820  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 821  him. 822  13:28 Though 823  they found 824  no basis 825  for a death sentence, 826  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 827  everything that was written 828  about him, they took him down 829  from the cross 830  and placed him 831  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 832  him from the dead, 13:31 and 833  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 834  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 835  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 836  13:33 that this promise 837  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 838  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 839  today I have fathered you.’ 840  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 841  from the dead, never 842  again to be 843  in a state of decay, God 844  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 845  the holy and trustworthy promises 846  made to David.’ 847  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 848 You will not permit your Holy One 849  to experience 850  decay.’ 851  13:36 For David, after he had served 852  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 853  was buried with his ancestors, 854  and experienced 855  decay, 13:37 but the one 856  whom God raised up did not experience 857  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 858  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 859  everyone who believes is justified 860  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 861  you. 862  13:40 Watch out, 863  then, that what is spoken about by 864  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 865 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 866 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 867  were going out, 868  the people 869  were urging 870  them to speak about these things 871  on the next Sabbath.

1 tn Grk “If it is so concerning these things” (see BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 10.a for this use).

2 tn Grk “said.”

3 tn Or “ancestor”; Grk “father.”

4 sn A quotation from Gen 12:1.

5 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

6 tn The translation “made him move” for the verb μετοικίζω (metoikizw) is given by L&N 85.83. The verb has the idea of “resettling” someone (BDAG 643 s.v.); see v. 43, where it reappears.

7 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

8 tn Grk “He did not give him an inheritance in it.” This could be understood to mean that God did not give something else to Abraham as an inheritance while he was living there. The point of the text is that God did not give any of the land to him as an inheritance, and the translation makes this clear.

9 tn Grk “a step of a foot” (cf. Deut 2:5).

10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 sn An allusion to Gen 12:7; 13:15; 15:2, 18; 17:8; 24:7; 48:4. On the theological importance of the promise and to his descendants after him, see Rom 4 and Gal 3.

12 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tn Grk “that his”; the discourse switches from indirect to direct with the following verbs. For consistency the entire quotation is treated as second person direct discourse in the translation.

14 tn Or “will be strangers,” that is, one who lives as a noncitizen of a foreign country.

15 sn A quotation from Gen 15:13. Exod 12:40 specifies the sojourn as 430 years.

16 tn BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.b.α states, “Oft. the emphasis is unmistakably laid upon that which follows the Divine Judge’s verdict, upon the condemnation or punishment: condemn, punishAc 7:7 (Gen 15:14).”

17 tn The words “of there” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

sn A quotation from Gen 15:14.

18 tn Or “and serve,” but with religious/cultic overtones (BDAG 587 s.v. λατρεύω).

19 sn An allusion to Exod 3:12.

20 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

21 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

22 sn God gave…the covenant. Note how the covenant of promise came before Abraham’s entry into the land and before the building of the temple.

23 tn Grk “circumcised him on the eighth day,” but many modern readers will not understand that this procedure was done on the eighth day after birth. The temporal clause “when he was eight days old” conveys this idea more clearly. See Gen 17:11-12.

24 tn The words “became the father of” are not in the Greek text due to an ellipsis, but must be supplied for the English translation. The ellipsis picks up the verb from the previous clause describing how Abraham fathered Isaac.

25 sn The twelve patriarchs refers to the twelve sons of Jacob, the famous ancestors of the Jewish race (see Gen 35:23-26).

26 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

27 tn The meaning “sell” for the middle voice of ἀποδίδωμι (apodidwmi) is given by BDAG 110 s.v. 5.a. See Gen 37:12-36, esp. v. 28.

28 tn Though the Greek term here is καί (kai), in context this remark is clearly contrastive: Despite the malicious act, God was present and protected Joseph.

29 tn Or “appointed.” See Gen 41:41-43.

30 tn Grk “came upon all Egypt.”

31 tn Grk “and,” but logically causal.

32 sn Our. Stephen spoke of “our” ancestors (Grk “fathers”) in an inclusive sense throughout the speech until his rebuke in v. 51, where the nation does what “your” ancestors did, at which point an exclusive pronoun is used. This serves to emphasize the rebuke.

33 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

34 tn Or possibly “food,” since in a number of extrabiblical contexts the phrase σιτία καὶ ποτά (sitia kai pota) means “food and drink,” where solid food is contrasted with liquid nourishment (L&N 3.42).

35 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

36 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

37 tn BDAG 194 s.v. γένος 2. gives “family, relatives” here; another alternative is “race” (see v. 19).

38 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

39 tn Or “Joseph had his father summoned” (BDAG 121 s.v. ἀποστέλλω 2.b).

40 tn Grk “souls” (here an idiom for the whole person).

41 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

42 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

43 tn “and they.”

44 sn See Gen 49:29-32.

45 tn Grk “But as the time for the fulfillment of the promise drew near that God had declared to Abraham.” The order of the clauses has been rearranged to improve English style. See vv. 6-7 above.

46 tn Grk “the people increased and multiplied.”

47 tn Or simply “did not know.” However, in this context the point is that the new king knew nothing about Joseph, not whether he had known him personally (which is the way “did not know Joseph” could be understood).

48 tn Grk “arose,” but in this context it clearly refers to a king assuming power.

49 sn A quotation from Exod 1:8.

50 tn According to L&N 88.147 it is also possible to translate κατασοφισάμενος (katasofisameno") as “took advantage by clever words” or “persuaded by sweet talk.”

51 tn Or “race.”

52 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

53 tn Or “expose” (BDAG 303 s.v. ἔκθετος).

54 tn Grk “so that they could not be kept alive,” but in this context the phrase may be translated either “so that they would not continue to live,” or “so that they would die” (L&N 23.89).

55 tn Or “was well-formed before God,” or “was well-pleasing to God” (BDAG 145 s.v. ἀστεῖος suggests the meaning is more like “well-bred” as far as God was concerned; see Exod 2:2).

56 tn Grk “who was brought up for three months.” The continuation of the sentence as a relative clause is awkward in English, so a new sentence was started in the translation by changing the relative pronoun to a regular pronoun (“he”).

57 tn Or “exposed” (see v. 19).

58 tn Grk “Pharaoh’s daughter took him up for herself.” According to BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω, “The pap. exx. involve exposed children taken up and reared as slaves…The rendering ‘adopt’ lacks philological precision and can be used only in a loose sense (as NRSV), esp. when Gr-Rom. terminology relating to adoption procedures is taken into account.” In this instance both the immediate context and the OT account (Exod 2:3-10) do support the normal sense of the English word “adopt,” although it should not be understood to refer to a technical, legal event.

59 tn Or “and reared him” (BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατρέφω b).

60 tn Or “instructed.”

61 tn Or “was able” (BDAG 264 s.v. δυνατός 1.b.α).

62 tn Grk “heart.”

63 tn Grk “brothers.” The translation “compatriot” is given by BDAG 18-19 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.b.

64 tn Grk “the sons of Israel.”

65 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

66 tn “Hurt unfairly” conveys a better sense of the seriousness of the offense against the Israelite than “treated unfairly,” which can sometimes refer to slight offenses, or “wronged,” which can refer to offenses that do not involve personal violence, as this one probably did.

67 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

68 tn Or “he defended,” “he retaliated” (BDAG 55 s.v. ἀμύνομαι).

69 tn Grk “his brothers.”

70 tn Grk “was granting them deliverance.” The narrator explains that this act pictured what Moses could do for his people.

71 tn Grk “by his hand,” where the hand is a metaphor for the entire person.

72 sn They did not understand. Here is the theme of the speech. The people did not understand what God was doing through those he chose. They made the same mistake with Joseph at first. See Acts 3:17; 13:27. There is good precedent for this kind of challenging review of history in the ancient scriptures: Ps 106:6-46; Ezek 20; and Neh 9:6-38.

73 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

74 tn Grk “saw them”; the context makes clear that two individuals were involved (v. 27).

75 tn Or “tried to reconcile” (BDAG 964-65 s.v. συναλλάσσω).

76 tn Or “repudiated Moses,” “rejected Moses” (BDAG 126-27 s.v. ἀπωθέω 2).

77 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

78 tn Or “appointed.”

79 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “do you?”

sn A quotation from Exod 2:14. Even though a negative reply was expected, the question still frightened Moses enough to flee, because he knew his deed had become known. This understanding is based on the Greek text, not the Hebrew of the original setting. Yet the negative here expresses the fact that Moses did not want to kill the other man. Once again the people have badly misunderstood the situation.

80 tn Grk “At this word,” which could be translated either “when the man said this” or “when Moses heard this.” Since λόγος (logos) refers to the remark made by the Israelite, this translation has followed the first option.

81 tn Or “resident alien.” Traditionally πάροικος (paroiko") has been translated “stranger” or “alien,” but the level of specificity employed with “foreigner” or “resident alien” is now necessary in contemporary English because a “stranger” is a person not acquainted with someone, while an “alien” can suggest science fiction imagery.

82 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and contemporary English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

83 tn Or “wilderness.”

84 sn An allusion to Exod 3:2.

85 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”

86 tn Grk “and Isaac,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

87 sn A quotation from Exod 3:6. The phrase suggests the God of promise, the God of the nation.

88 tn Or “to investigate,” “to contemplate” (BDAG 522 s.v. κατανοέω 2).

89 sn A quotation from Exod 3:5. The phrase holy ground points to the fact that God is not limited to a particular locale. The place where he is active in revealing himself is a holy place.

90 tn Or “mistreatment.”

91 tn Or “to set them free.”

92 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

93 sn A quotation from Exod 3:7-8, 10.

94 sn This same. The reference to “this one” occurs five times in this speech. It is the way the other speeches in Acts refer to Jesus (e.g., Acts 2:23).

95 sn A quotation from Exod 2:14 (see Acts 7:27). God saw Moses very differently than the people of the nation did. The reference to a ruler and a judge suggests that Stephen set up a comparison between Moses and Jesus, but he never finished his speech to make the point. The reader of Acts, however, knowing the other sermons in the book, recognizes that the rejection of Jesus is the counterpoint.

96 tn Or “liberator.” The meaning “liberator” for λυτρωτήν (lutrwthn) is given in L&N 37.129: “a person who liberates or releases others.”

97 tn Or simply “through the angel.” Here the “hand” could be understood as a figure for the person or the power of the angel himself. The remark about the angel appearing fits the first century Jewish view that God appears to no one (John 1:14-18; Gal 3:19; Deut 33:2 LXX).

98 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned.

sn Performing wonders and miraculous signs. Again Moses acted like Jesus. The phrase appears 9 times in Acts (2:19, 22, 43; 4:30; 5:12; 6:8; 7:36; 14:3; 15:12).

99 tn Or simply “in Egypt.” The phrase “the land of” could be omitted as unnecessary or redundant.

100 tn Grk “and at,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

101 tn Or “desert.”

102 tn Grk “to the sons of Israel.”

103 sn A quotation from Deut 18:15. This quotation sets up Jesus as the “leader-prophet” like Moses (Acts 3:22; Luke 9:35).

104 tn This term, ἐκκλησία (ekklhsia), is a secular use of the term that came to mean “church” in the epistles. Here a reference to an assembly is all that is intended.

105 tn Or “desert.”

106 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

107 tn Grk “fathers, who.” The relative pronoun was replaced by the pronoun “he” and a new clause introduced by “and” was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style.

108 tn Or “messages.” This is an allusion to the law given to Moses.

109 tc ‡ The first person pronoun ἡμῖν (Jhmin, “to us”) is read by A C D E Ψ 33 1739 Ï lat sy, while the second person pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”) is read by Ì74 א B 36 453 al co. The second person pronoun thus has significantly better external support. As well, ὑμῖν is a harder reading in this context, both because it is surrounded by first person pronouns and because Stephen perhaps “does not wish to disassociate himself from those who received God’s revelation in the past, but only from those who misinterpreted and disobeyed that revelation” (TCGNT 307). At the same time, Stephen does associate himself to some degree with his disobedient ancestors in v. 39, suggesting that the decisive break does not really come until v. 51 (where both his present audience and their ancestors are viewed as rebellious). Thus, both externally and internally ὑμῖν is the preferred reading.

110 tn Grk “whom our.” The continuation of the sentence as a relative clause is awkward in English, so a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

111 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

112 sn To obey. Again the theme of the speech is noted. The nation disobeyed the way of God and opted for Egypt over the promised land.

113 sn Pushed him aside. This is the second time Moses is “pushed aside” in Stephen’s account (see v. 27).

114 tn Or simply “of Egypt.” The phrase “the land of” could be omitted as unnecessary or redundant.

115 sn A quotation from Exod 32:1, 23. Doubt (we do not know what has happened to him) expresses itself in unfaithful action. The act is in contrast to God’s promise in Exod 23:20.

116 tn Grk “And.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

117 tn Grk “In those days.”

118 tn Or “a bull calf” (see Exod 32:4-6). The term μοσχοποιέω (moscopoiew) occurs only in Christian writings according to BDAG 660 s.v.

119 tn Grk “and brought,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

120 tn The imperfect verb εὐφραίνοντο (eufrainonto) has been translated ingressively. See BDAG 414-15 s.v. εὐφραίνω 2.

121 tn Or “in what they had done.”

122 sn The expression and gave them over suggests similarities to the judgment on the nations described by Paul in Rom 1:18-32.

123 tn Or “stars.”

sn To worship the hosts of heaven. Their action violated Deut 4:19; 17:2-5. See Ps 106:36-43.

124 tn The two terms for sacrifices “semantically reinforce one another and are here combined essentially for emphasis” (L&N 53.20).

125 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ question, “was it?”

126 tn Or “tent.”

sn A tabernacle was a tent used to house religious objects or a shrine (i.e., a portable sanctuary).

127 sn Moloch was a Canaanite deity who was believed to be the god of the sky and the sun.

128 tc ‡ Most mss, including several important ones (Ì74 א A C E Ψ 33 1739 Ï h p vg syh mae bo Cyr), have ὑμῶν (Jumwn, “your”) here, in conformity with the LXX of Amos 5:26. But other significant and diverse witnesses lack the pronoun: The lack of ὑμῶν in B D 36 453 gig syp sa Irlat Or is difficult to explain if it is not the original wording here. NA27 has the word in brackets, indicating some doubt as to its authenticity.

129 sn Rephan (῾Ραιφάν, RJaifan) was a pagan deity. The term was a name for Saturn. It was variously spelled in the mss (BDAG 903 s.v. has Rompha as an alternate spelling). The references cover a range of deities and a history of unfaithfulness.

130 tn Or “I will make you move.”

131 sn A quotation from Amos 5:25-27. This constituted a prediction of the exile.

132 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

133 tn Or “tent.”

sn The tabernacle was the tent used to house the ark of the covenant before the construction of Solomon’s temple. This is where God was believed to reside, yet the people were still unfaithful.

134 tn Or “desert.”

135 tn Grk “the one”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

136 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

137 tn Grk “And.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

138 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

139 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Before our ancestors. Stephen has backtracked here to point out how faithful God had been before the constant move to idolatry just noted.

140 tn Grk “In those days.”

141 tn Grk “David, who” The relative pronoun was replaced by the pronoun “he” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style.

142 tn Or “grace.”

143 tn Grk “before,” “in the presence of.”

144 tn The words “that he could” are not in the Greek text, but are implied as the (understood) subject of the infinitive εὑρεῖν (Jeurein). This understands David’s request as asking that he might find the dwelling place. The other possibility would be to supply “that God” as the subject of the infinitive: “and asked that God find a dwelling place.” Unfortunately this problem is complicated by the extremely difficult problem with the Greek text in the following phrase (“house of Jacob” vs. “God of Jacob”).

145 tn On this term see BDAG 929 s.v. σκήνωμα a (Ps 132:5).

146 tc Some mss read θεῷ (qew, “God”) here, a variant much easier to understand in the context. The reading “God” is supported by א2 A C E Ψ 33 1739 Ï lat sy co. The more difficult οἴκῳ (oikw, “house”) is supported by Ì74 א* B D H 049 pc. Thus the second reading is preferred both externally because of better ms evidence and internally because it is hard to see how a copyist finding the reading “God” would change it to “house,” while it is easy to see how (given the LXX of Ps 132:5) a copyist might assimilate the reading and change “house” to “God.” However, some scholars think the reading “house” is so difficult as to be unacceptable. Others (like Lachmann and Hort) resorted to conjectural emendation at this point. Others (Ropes) sought an answer in an underlying Aramaic expression. Not everyone thinks the reading “house” is too difficult to be accepted as original (see Lake and Cadbury). A. F. J. Klijn, “Stephen’s Speech – Acts vii.2-53,” NTS 4 (1957): 25-31, compared the idea of a “house within the house of Israel” with the Manual of Discipline from Qumran, a possible parallel that seems to support the reading “house” as authentic. (For the more detailed discussion from which this note was derived, see TCGNT 308-9.)

147 sn See 1 Kgs 8:1-21.

148 sn The title the Most High points to God’s majesty (Heb 7:1; Luke 1:32, 35; Acts 16:7).

149 sn The phrase made by human hands is negative in the NT: Mark 14:58; Acts 17:24; Eph 2:11; Heb 9:11, 24. It suggests “man-made” or “impermanent.” The rebuke is like parts of the Hebrew scripture where the rebuke is not of the temple, but for making too much of it (1 Kgs 8:27; Isa 57:15; 1 Chr 6:8; Jer 7:1-34).

150 sn What kind…resting place? The rhetorical questions suggest mere human beings cannot build a house to contain God.

151 tn Or “Did I.” The phrase “my hand” is ultimately a metaphor for God himself.

152 tn The question in Greek introduced with οὐχί (ouci) expects a positive reply.

sn A quotation from Isa 66:1-2. If God made the heavens, how can a human building contain him?

153 sn Traditionally, “stiff-necked people.” Now the critique begins in earnest.

154 tn The term ἀπερίτμητοι (aperitmhtoi, “uncircumcised”) is a NT hapax legomenon (occurs only once). See BDAG 101-2 s.v. ἀπερίτμητος and Isa 52:1.

155 tn Or “You stubborn and obstinate people!” (The phrase “uncircumcised hearts and ears” is another figure for stubbornness.)

156 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

157 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

158 sn Which…persecute. The rhetorical question suggests they persecuted them all.

159 tn Grk “And they.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

160 sn The Righteous One is a reference to Jesus Christ.

161 sn Whose betrayers and murderers you have now become. The harsh critique has OT precedent (1 Kgs 19:10-14; Neh 9:26; 2 Chr 36:16).

162 tn Grk “whose betrayers and murderers you have now become, who received the law” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the pronoun “You” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.

163 tn Traditionally, “as ordained by angels,” but εἰς (eis) with the accusative here should be understood as instrumental (a substitute for ἐν [en]); so BDAG 291 s.v. εἰς 9, BDF §206. Thus the phrase literally means “received the law by the decrees [orders] of angels” with the genitive understood as a subjective genitive, that is, the angels gave the decrees.

sn Decrees given by angels. According to Jewish traditions in the first century, the law of Moses was mediated through angels. See also the note on “angel” in 7:35.

164 tn The Greek word φυλάσσω (fulassw, traditionally translated “keep”) in this context connotes preservation of and devotion to an object as well as obedience.

165 tn Or “did not obey it.”

166 tn This verb, which also occurs in Acts 5:33, means “cut to the quick” or “deeply infuriated” (BDAG 235 s.v. διαπρίω).

167 tn Or “they gnashed their teeth.” This idiom is a picture of violent rage (BDAG 184 s.v. βρύχω). See also Ps 35:16.

168 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Stephen) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

169 tn Grk “being full,” but the participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) has not been translated since it would be redundant in English.

170 tn Grk “looking intently toward heaven, saw.” The participle ἀτενίσας (atenisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

171 sn The picture of Jesus standing (rather than seated) probably indicates his rising to receive his child. By announcing his vision, Stephen thoroughly offended his audience, who believed no one could share God’s place in heaven. The phrase is a variation on Ps 110:1.

172 tn Grk “And he said, ‘Look!’” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, καί (kai) has not been translated here; a new sentence is begun instead.

173 sn They covered their ears to avoid hearing what they considered to be blasphemy.

174 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, καί (kai) has not been translated here; a new sentence is begun instead.

175 sn They began to stone him. The irony of the scene is that the people do exactly what the speech complains about in v. 52.

176 tn Or “outer garments.”

sn Laid their cloaks. The outer garment, or cloak, was taken off and laid aside to leave the arms free (in this case for throwing stones).

177 tn Grk “And they.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, καί (kai) has not been translated here; a new sentence is begun instead.

178 tn Grk “Then falling to his knees he cried out.” The participle θείς (qeis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

179 sn The remarks Lord Jesus, receive my spirit and Lord, do not hold this sin against them recall statements Jesus made on the cross (Luke 23:34, 46).

180 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, καί (kai) has not been translated here; a new sentence is begun instead.

181 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

182 tn The term ἀναίρεσις (anairesi") can refer to murder (BDAG 64 s.v.; 2 Macc 5:13; Josephus, Ant. 5.2.12 [5.165]).

183 tn Or “severe.”

184 tn Grk “Now there happened on that day a great persecution.” It is less awkward to say in English “Now on that day a great persecution began.”

185 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

186 sn All. Given that the Jerusalem church is still active after this and that the Hellenists are the focus of Acts 6-8, it is possible to argue that only the Hellenistic Christians were forced to scatter.

187 tn Or “countryside.”

188 tn “Some” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

189 sn Made loud lamentation. For someone who was stoned to death, lamentation was normally not allowed (m. Sanhedrin 6:6). The remark points to an unjust death.

190 tn Or “mourned greatly for him.”

191 tn Or “began to harm [the church] severely.” If the nuance of this verb is “destroy,” then the imperfect verb ἐλυμαίνετο (elumaineto) is best translated as a conative imperfect as in the translation above. If instead the verb is taken to mean “injure severely” (as L&N 20.24), it should be translated in context as an ingressive imperfect (“began to harm the church severely”). Either option does not significantly alter the overall meaning, since it is clear from the stated actions of Saul in the second half of the verse that he intended to destroy or ravage the church.

192 tn The participle σύρων (surwn) has been translated as an finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

193 tn BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 1.b has “εἰς φυλακήν put in prison Ac 8:3.”

194 tn The word “main” is supplied in the translation to clarify that “Samaria” is not the name of the city (at least in NT times). See both BDAG 912 s.v. Σαμάρεια, and L&N 93.568.

sn The main city of Samaria most likely refers to the principal city of Samaria, rebuilt by Herod the Great as Sebaste in honor of Augustus (J. Boehmer, “Studien zur Geographie Palästinas bes. im Neuen Testament,” ZNW 9 [1908]: 216-18; D. Gill and C. Gempf, eds., The Book of Acts in its Graeco-Roman Setting, 272). This is the best option if the article before “city” is taken as original. If the reading without the article is taken as original, then another city may be in view: Gitta, the hometown of Simon Magus according to Justin Martyr (cf. C. K. Barrett, Acts [ICC], 1:402-3; F. F. Bruce, Acts [NICNT], 165).

195 tn The imperfect ἐκήρυσσεν (ekhrussen) has been translated as an ingressive, since this is probably the first time such preaching took place.

196 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

197 tn Grk “to what was being said by Philip,” a passive construction that has been changed to active voice in the translation.

198 tn Here the following context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned. This term appears 13 times in Acts, but only twice more after Acts 8:13 (i.e., 14:3; 15:12).

199 sn The expression unclean spirits refers to evil supernatural spirits which were ceremonially unclean, and which caused the persons possessed by them to be ceremonially unclean.

200 tn Grk “For [in the case of] many who had unclean spirits, they were coming out, crying in a loud voice.”

201 tn Grk “and there came about,” but this is somewhat awkward in English.

202 sn Great joy. The reason for eschatological joy was that such events pointed to God’s decisive deliverance (Luke 7:22-23). Note how the acts of healing extend beyond the Twelve here.

203 tn On the idiom προϋπῆρχεν μαγεύων (prouphrcen mageuwn) meaning “had been practicing magic” see BDAG 889 s.v. προϋπάρχω.

204 tn Grk “all of them”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

205 tn Or “This man is what is called the Great Power of God.” The translation “what is called the Great Power of God” is given by BDAG 263 s.v. δύναμις 5, but the repetition of the article before καλουμένη μεγάλη (kaloumenh megalh) suggests the translation “the power of God that is called ‘Great.’”

206 sn The kingdom of God is also what Jesus preached: Acts 1:3. The term reappears in 14:22; 19:8; 28:23, 31.

207 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

208 tn The imperfect verb ἐβαπτίζοντο (ebaptizonto) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

209 tn Or “he kept close company with.”

210 sn He was amazed. Now Simon, the one who amazed others, is himself amazed, showing the superiority of Philip’s connection to God. Christ is better than anything the culture has to offer.

211 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

212 tn Or “message.”

213 sn They sent. The Jerusalem church with the apostles was overseeing the expansion of the church, as the distribution of the Spirit indicates in vv. 15-17.

214 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun was replaced by the phrase “these two” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style.

215 tn Grk “For he”; the referent (the Spirit) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

216 tn Or “fallen on.”

217 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

218 tn Grk “on them”; the referent (the Samaritans) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

219 sn They received the Holy Spirit. It is likely this special distribution of the Spirit took place because a key ethnic boundary was being crossed. Here are some of “those far off” of Acts 2:38-40.

220 tc Most witnesses (Ì45,74 A* C D E Ψ 33 1739 Ï latt sy bo) here read “the Holy Spirit” (τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, to pneuma to {agion), while a few key mss have simply τὸ πνεῦμα (א Ac B sa mae). Although it is possible that some scribes omitted τὸ ἅγιον because of its perceived superfluity (note vv. 15, 17, 19), it is far more likely that others added the adjective out of pious motives.

221 tn Or “ability”; Grk “authority.”

222 tn Grk “May your silver together with you be sent into destruction.” This is a strong curse. The gifts of God are sovereignly bestowed and cannot be purchased.

223 tn Or “obtain.”

224 tn The translation “share or part” is given by L&N 63.13.

225 tn Since the semantic range for λόγος (logos) is so broad, a number of different translations could be given for the prepositional phrase here. Something along the lines of “in this thing” would work well, but is too colloquial for the present translation.

226 tn Or “and implore the Lord.”

227 tn Grk “that if possible the intent of your heart may be forgiven you.” The passive construction is somewhat awkward in contemporary English and has thus been converted to an active construction in the translation.

228 tn Grk “in the gall of bitterness,” an idiom meaning to be particularly envious or resentful of someone. In this case Simon was jealous of the apostles’ power to bestow the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands, and wanted that power for himself. The literal phrase does not convey this to the modern reader, and in fact some modern translations have simply rendered the phrase as involving bitterness, which misses the point of the envy on Simon’s part. See L&N 88.166. The OT images come from Deut 29:17-18 and Isa 58:6.

229 tn Grk “Simon answered and said.”

sn Given that Simon does not follow Peter’s call for repentance, many interpreters read this reply as flippant rather than sincere. But the exact nature of Simon’s reply is not entirely clear.

230 tn Grk “may come upon.”

231 tn Grk “after they”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

232 tn The verb διαμαρτύρομαι (diamarturomai) can mean “warn,” and could be taken to refer specifically to the warning given to Simon in the preceding verses. However, a more general reference is more likely, referring to parting exhortations from Peter and John to the entire group of believers.

233 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in Acts 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

234 tn Grk “they were returning to Jerusalem and were proclaiming.” The first imperfect is taken ingressively and the second is viewed iteratively (“proclaiming…as they went”).

235 sn By proclaiming the good news to many Samaritan villages, the apostles now actively share in the broader ministry the Hellenists had started.

236 tn “As they went” is not in the Greek text, but is implied by the imperfect tense (see tn above).

237 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 5:19.

238 tn Grk “Lord spoke to Philip, saying.” The redundant participle λέγων (legwn) has not been translated.

239 tn Or “Get up and go about noon.” The phrase κατὰ μεσημβρίαν (kata meshmbrian) can be translated either “about noon” (L&N 67.74) or “toward the south” (L&N 82.4). Since the angel’s command appears to call for immediate action (“Get up”) and would not therefore need a time indicator, a directional reference (“toward the south”) is more likely here.

240 map For the location of Jerusalem see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

241 tn Or “wilderness.”

242 tn The words “This is a desert road” are probably best understood as a comment by the author of Acts, but it is possible they form part of the angel’s speech to Philip, in which case the verse would read: “Get up and go south on the road that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza – the desert road.”

sn The concluding note about the road appears to be a parenthetical note by the author.

243 tn Grk “And,” but καί (kai) carries something of a resultative force in this context because what follows describes Philip’s response to the angel’s command.

244 tn Grk “So getting up he went.” The aorist participle ἀναστάς (anastas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

245 tn Grk “And there.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

246 tn Grk “and behold.” This expression is used to portray Philip’s encounter with the Ethiopian in a vivid way. In the English translation this vividness is difficult to convey; it is necessary to supply the words “he met.”

247 sn The term eunuch normally referred to a man who had been castrated, but this was not always the case (see Gen 39:1 LXX, where Potiphar is called a eunuch). Such castrated individuals were preferred as court officials in the East, although Judaism opposed the practice. The Mosaic law excluded eunuchs from Israel (Deut 23:1), although God certainly accepted them (Isa 56:3-5; Wis 3:14). This individual was a high official, since he was said to be in charge of all her treasury. He may or may not have been a eunuch physically. He appears to be the first fully Gentile convert to Christianity, since the Samaritans mentioned previously (Acts 8:4-25) were regarded as half-breeds.

248 tn Or “the Candace” (the title of the queen of the Ethiopians). The term Κανδάκης (Kandakh") is much more likely a title rather than a proper name (like Pharaoh, which is a title); see L&N 37.77. A few, however, still take the word to be the name of the queen (L&N 93.209). BDAG 507 s.v. Κανδάκη, treats the term as a title and lists classical usage by Strabo (Geography 17.1.54) and others.

sn Candace was the title of the queen of the Ethiopians. Ethiopia refers to the kingdom of Nubia in the northern Sudan, whose capital was Meroe (not to be confused with Abyssinia, which was later called Ethiopia and converted to Christianity in the 4th century a.d.). Classical writers refer to several queens of Meroe in the 1st century b.c. and 1st century a.d. who had the title Candace (Kandake). The Candace referred to here was probably Amantitere, who ruled a.d. 25-41.

249 tn Grk “who was over all her treasury, who.” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the pronoun “he” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.

250 sn Since this man had come to Jerusalem to worship, he may have been a proselyte to Judaism. This event is a precursor to Acts 10.

251 tn Grk “and was sitting.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

252 tn Grk “and was reading.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

sn The fact that this man was reading from a scroll (an expensive item in the first century) indicates his connection to a wealthy house.

253 tn The participle προσδραμών (prosdramwn) is regarded as attendant circumstance.

254 tn The words “to it” are not in the Greek text but are implied.

255 tn Grk “heard him”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

256 tn Grk “and he.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

257 tn Grk “he said”; but since what follows is a question, it is better English style to translate the introduction to the question “he asked him.”

258 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

259 tn Grk “How am I able, unless…” The translation is based on the force of the conjunction γάρ (gar) in this context. The translation “How in the world can I?” is given in BDAG 189 s.v. γάρ 1.f.

260 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

261 tn Grk “does.” The present tense here was translated as a past tense to maintain consistency with the first line of the quotation (“he was led like a sheep to slaughter”), which has an aorist passive verb normally translated as a past tense in English.

262 tc ‡ Most later mss (C E Ψ 33vid Ï sy) read “In his humiliation,” adding αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) after ταπεινώσει (tapeinwsei, “humiliation”), while the earlier and better witnesses lack the pronoun (so Ì74 א A B 1739 pc lat). However, the LXX of Isa 53:8 also lacks the pronoun, supplying motivation for scribes to omit it here. At the same time, scribes would also be motivated to add the pronoun both for clarity’s sake (note the similar impulse that led to the addition of δέ [de] by many of the same mss at the beginning of the next line) and to give balance to the lines (the pronoun is indisputably used five other times in vv. 32-33 in quoting Isa 53). On balance, the shorter reading is preferred.

263 tn Or “justice was denied him”; Grk “his justice was taken away.”

264 tn Or “family; or “origin.” The meaning of γενεά (genea) in the quotation is uncertain; BDAG 192 s.v. γενεά 4 suggests “family history.”

sn The rhetorical question suggests the insensitivity of this generation for its act against God’s servant, who was slain unjustly as he was silent.

265 tn Grk “is taken away.” The present tense here was translated as a past tense to maintain consistency with the rest of the quotation.

266 sn A quotation from Isa 53:7-8.

267 tn Grk “answered and said.” The redundant participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqei") has not been translated.

268 tn Grk “I beg you,” “I ask you.”

269 sn About himself, or about someone else? It is likely in 1st century Judaism this would have been understood as either Israel or Isaiah.

270 tn Grk “opening his mouth” (a Semitic idiom for beginning to speak in a somewhat formal manner). The participle ἀνοίξας (anoixa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

271 sn Beginning with this scripture. The discussion likely included many of the scriptures Acts has already noted for the reader in earlier speeches. At the least, readers of Acts would know what other scriptures might be meant.

272 tn Or “What prevents me.” The rhetorical question means, “I should get baptized, right?”

273 tc A few later mss (E 36 323 453 945 1739 1891 pc) add, with minor variations, 8:37 “He said to him, ‘If you believe with your whole heart, you may.’ He replied, ‘I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.’” Verse 37 is lacking in {Ì45,74 א A B C 33 614 vg syp,h co}. It is clearly not a part of the original text of Acts. The variant is significant in showing how some in the early church viewed a confession of faith. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

274 tn Grk “and they both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch.” Since this is somewhat redundant in English, it was simplified to “and both Philip and the eunuch went down into the water.”

275 sn Philip baptized. Again, someone beyond the Twelve has ministered an ordinance of faith.

276 tn BDAG 189 s.v. γάρ 2 indicates that under certain circumstances γάρ (gar) has the same meaning as δέ (de).

277 sn Note that the response to the gospel is rejoicing (joy, cf. Acts 11:23; 13:48).

278 tn Or “appeared.”

279 sn Azotus was a city on the coast of southern Palestine, known as Ashdod in OT times.

280 tn The words “the area” are not in the Greek text but are implied.

281 tn Or “he preached the gospel.”

282 tn Or “cities.”

283 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

284 tn Or “Saul, making dire threats.”

285 tn The expression “breathing out threats and murder” is an idiomatic expression for “making threats to murder” (see L&N 33.293). Although the two terms “threats” and “murder” are syntactically coordinate, the second is semantically subordinate to the first. In other words, the content of the threats is to murder the disciples.

286 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

287 sn The expression “the way” in ancient religious literature refers at times to “the whole way of life fr. a moral and spiritual viewpoint” (BDAG 692 s.v. ὁδός 3.c), and it has been so used of Christianity and its teachings in the book of Acts (see also 19:9, 23; 22:4; 24:14, 22). It is a variation of Judaism’s idea of two ways, the true and the false, where “the Way” is the true one (1 En. 91:18; 2 En. 30:15).

288 tn Grk “bring them bound”; the translation “bring someone as prisoner” for δεδεμένον ἄγειν τινά (dedemenon agein tina) is given by BDAG 221 s.v. δέω 1.b.

289 sn From Damascus to Jerusalem was a six-day journey. Christianity had now expanded into Syria.

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

290 tn Grk “As he was going along, it happened that when he was approaching.” The phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

291 tn Or “shone” (BDAG 799 s.v. περιαστράπτω). The light was more brilliant than the sun according to Acts 26:13.

292 tn Grk “and he.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

293 tn The double vocative suggests emotion.

294 sn Persecuting me. To persecute the church is to persecute Jesus.

295 tn Or “But arise.”

296 tn Literally a passive construction, “it will be told to you.” This has been converted to another form of passive construction in the translation.

297 tn The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which is used only rarely in a generic sense of both men and women. In the historical setting here, Paul’s traveling companions were almost certainly all males.

298 tn That is, unable to speak because of fear or amazement. See BDAG 335 s.v. ἐνεός.

299 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. Acts 22:9 appears to indicate that they saw the light but did not hear a voice. They were “witnesses” that something happened.

300 tn Grk “his eyes being open,” a genitive absolute construction that has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

301 sn He could see nothing. This sign of blindness, which was temporary until v. 18, is like the sign of deafness experienced by Zechariah in Luke 1. It allowed some time for Saul (Paul) to reflect on what had happened without distractions.

302 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Saul’s companions) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

303 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

304 tn The word “anything” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader. The fasting might indicate an initial realization of Luke 5:33-39. Fasting was usually accompanied by reflective thought.

305 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

306 sn The Lord is directing all the events leading to the expansion of the gospel as he works on both sides of the meeting between Paul and Ananias. “The Lord” here refers to Jesus (see v. 17).

307 tn Grk “behold, I,” but this construction often means “here is/there is” (cf. BDAG 468 s.v. ἰδού 2).

308 sn The noting of the detail of the locale, ironically called ‘Straight’ Street, shows how directive and specific the Lord was.

309 tc ‡ The words ἐν ὀράματι (en oramati, “in a vision”) are not found in some of the earliest and best mss (Ì74 א A 81 pc lat sa bo), but are implied from the context. The phrase is included, although sometimes in a different order with ἄνδρα (andra, “man”) or omitting ἄνδρα altogether, by B C E Ψ 33 1175 1739 Ï. The order of words in NA27, ἄνδρα ἐν ὁράματι, is supported only by B C 1175. Generally speaking, when there are three or more variants, with one an omission and the others involving rearrangements, the longer readings are later scribal additions. Further, the reading looks like a clarifying note, for an earlier vision is explicitly mentioned in v. 10. On the other hand, it is possible that some scribes deleted the words because of perceived repetition, though this is unlikely since it is a different vision two verses back. It is also possible that some scribes could have confused ὁράματι with ὀνόματι (onomati, “name”); TCGNT 319 notes that several mss place ονόματι before ᾿Ανανίαν (Ananian, “Ananias”) while a few others drop ὀνόματι altogether. The Sahidic mss are among those that drop the word, however, and they also lack ἐν ὁράματι; all that is left is one version and father that drops ὀνόματι. Perhaps the best argument for the authenticity of the phrase is that B C 1175 preserve a rare, distinctively Lukan word order, but this is not nearly as harsh or unusual as what Luke does elsewhere. A decision is difficult in this case, but on balance the omission of the phrase seems to be authentic. The words are nevertheless added in the translation because of contextual considerations. NA27 places the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

sn Apparently while in Damascus Paul had a subsequent vision in the midst of his blindness, fulfilling the prediction in 9:6.

310 sn Ananias replied. Past events might have suggested to Ananias that this was not good counsel, but like Peter in Acts 10, Ananias’ intuitions were wrong.

311 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

312 tn Grk “to bind.”

313 sn The expression “those who call on your name” is a frequent description of believers (Acts 2:21; 1 Cor 1:2; Rom 10:13).

314 tn Or “tool.”

315 tn Grk “the sons of Israel.” In Acts, Paul is a minister to all nations, including Israel (Rom 1:16-17).

316 tn Or “because of my name.” BDAG 1031 s.v. ὑπέρ 2 lists Acts 9:16 as an example of ὑπέρ (Juper) used to indicate “the moving cause or reason, because of, for the sake of, for.”

317 tn Grk “and placing his hands on Saul, he said.” The participle ἐπιθείς (epiqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. For the same reason καί (kai) has not been translated before the participle.

318 tn Grk “on him”; the referent (Saul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

319 tn Grk “on the road in which you came,” but the relative clause makes for awkward English style, so it was translated as a temporal clause (“as you came here”).

320 sn Be filled with the Holy Spirit. Here someone who is not an apostle (Ananias) commissions another person with the Spirit.

321 tn Grk “And immediately.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

322 tn The comparison to “scales” suggests a crusty covering which peeled away (cf. BDAG 592 s.v. λεπίς 2).

323 tn Grk “and he.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence was started, with “and” placed before the final element of the previous clause as required by English style.

324 tn Grk “It happened that for several days.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

325 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

326 tn The ὅτι (Joti) is understood to introduce direct (“This man is the Son of God”) rather than indirect discourse (“that this man is the Son of God”) because the pronoun οὗτος (Jouto") combined with the present tense verb ἐστιν (estin) suggests the contents of what was proclaimed are a direct (albeit summarized) quotation.

sn This is the only use of the title Son of God in Acts. The book prefers to allow a variety of descriptions to present Jesus.

327 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

328 tn The Greek interrogative particle used in this verse (οὐχ, ouc) expects a positive reply. They all knew about Saul’s persecutions.

329 tn Normally, “destroying,” but compare 4 Macc 4:23; 11:4 and MM 529 s.v. πορθέω for examples from Koine papyri. See also BDAG 853 s.v. πορθέω.

330 tn Grk “bring them bound”; the translation “bring someone as prisoner” for δεδεμένον ἄγειν τινά (dedemenon agein tina) is given by BDAG 221 s.v. δέω 1.b.

331 tn Grk “was becoming stronger,” but this could be understood in a physical sense, while the text refers to Saul’s growing ability to demonstrate to fellow Jews that Jesus was the Messiah. The translation “to become capable” for ἐνδυναμόω (endunamow) is given in L&N 74.7, with this specific verse as an example.

332 tn Or “was confounding.” For the translation “to cause consternation” for συγχέω (suncew) see L&N 25.221.

333 tn Or “by showing for certain.”

334 tn Grk “that this one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

335 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” Note again the variation in the titles used.

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

336 sn Fitting the pattern emphasized earlier with Stephen and his speech in Acts 7, some Jews plotted to kill God’s messenger (cf. Luke 11:53-54).

337 tn The words “against him” are implied, as suggested by L&N 30.71.

338 tn Or “guarding.” This is a negative term in Luke-Acts (Luke 6:7; 14:1; 20:20).

339 tn The word πύλη (pulh) may refer to a house door or gate, or to the large gates used in a palace, temple, or city wall. Here the context clearly indicates a reference to the latter, so the translation “city gates” is used.

340 tn The opening in the wall is not specifically mentioned here, but the parallel account in 2 Cor 11:33 mentions a “window” or “opening” (θυρίς, quris) in the city wall through which Paul was lowered. One alternative to introducing mention of the opening is to translate Acts 9:25 “they let him down over the wall,” as suggested in L&N 7.61. This option is not employed by many translations, however, because for the English reader it creates an (apparent) contradiction between Acts 9:25 and 2 Cor 11:33. In reality the account here is simply more general, omitting the detail about the window.

341 tn On the term for “basket” used here, see BDAG 940 s.v. σπυρίς.

342 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

343 tn Or “join.”

344 tn The participle πιστεύοντες (pisteuonte") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

345 tn Grk “taking Saul, brought him.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενος (epilabomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

346 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Saul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

347 tn Grk “and brought,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

348 tn Grk “and that,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

349 tn On this verb which is used 7 times in Acts, see BDAG 782 s.v. παρρησιάζομαι 1. See also v. 28.

350 tn Grk “he was with them going in and going out in Jerusalem.” The expression “going in and going out” is probably best taken as an idiom for association without hindrance. Some modern translations (NASB, NIV) translate the phrase “moving about freely in Jerusalem,” although the NRSV retains the literal “he went in and out among them in Jerusalem.”

351 tn Or “arguing.” BDAG 954 s.v. συζητέω 2 gives “dispute, debate, argueτινί ‘w. someone’” for συνεζήτει (sunezhtei).

352 tn Grk “the Hellenists,” but this descriptive term is largely unknown to the modern English reader. The translation “Greek-speaking Jews” attempts to convey something of who these were, but it was more than a matter of language spoken; it involved a degree of adoption of Greek culture as well.

353 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine, south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

354 tn Or “Therefore.” This verse is another summary text in Acts (cf. 2:41-47; 4:32-37; 5:12-16; 6:7).

355 tn Grk “and Galilee,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

356 tn Grk “had.”

357 tn Or “Built up.” The participle οἰκοδομουμένη (oikodomoumenh) has been translated as a participle of result related to εἶχεν (eicen). It could also be understood as adverbial to ἐπληθύνετο (eplhquneto): “Then the church throughout Judea, Galilee, and Samaria experienced peace. Strengthened and living in the fear of the Lord and in the encouragement of the Holy Spirit, it increased in numbers.” Although some scholars do not regard the participle of result as a legitimate category, it is actually fairly common (see ExSyn 637-39).

358 tn Grk “And living.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

359 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the church) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

360 tn Grk “Now it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

361 tn Grk “As Peter was going through all [the places],” which is somewhat awkward in English. The meaning is best expressed by a phrase like “going around from place to place” or “traveling around from place to place.”

362 sn Lydda was a city northwest of Jerusalem on the way to Joppa. It was about 10.5 miles (17 km) southeast of Joppa.

363 tn Since the participle κατακείμενον (katakeimenon), an adjectival participle modifying Αἰνέαν (Ainean), has been translated into English as a relative clause (“who had been confined to a mattress”), it would be awkward to follow with a second relative clause (Grk “who was paralyzed”). Furthermore, the relative pronoun here has virtually a causal force, giving the reason for confinement to the mattress, so it is best translated “because.”

364 tn Grk “And Peter.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

365 tc ‡ Several variants occur at this juncture. Some of the earliest and best witnesses (Ì74 א B* C Ψ 33vid Didpt) read “Jesus Christ” (᾿Ιησοῦς Χριστός, Ihsou" Cristo"); others ([A] 36 1175 it) have “the Lord Jesus Christ” (ὁ κύριος ᾿Ιησοῦς Χριστός, Jo kurio" Ihsou" Cristo"); a few read simply ὁ Χριστός (614 1241 1505); the majority of mss (B2 E 1739 Ï Didpt) have “Jesus the Christ” ( ᾿Ιησοῦς ὁ Χριστός). Although the pedigree of this last reading is relatively weak, it draws strength from the fact that (a) the other readings are much more natural and thus more predictable, and (b) there are several variants for this text. It seems hardly likely that scribes would intentionally change a more common expression into a title that is used nowhere else in the NT (although 1 John 2:22; 5:1 come close with “Jesus is the Christ”), nor would they unintentionally change a frequently used designation into an unusual one. Thus, in spite of the external evidence (which is nevertheless sufficient to argue for authenticity), ᾿Ιησοῦς ὁ Χριστός is the reading that best explains the rise of the others.

tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

366 tn The translation “make your own bed” for στρῶσον σεαυτῷ (strwson seautw) is given by BDAG 949 s.v. στρωννύω 1. Naturally this involves some adaptation, since a pallet or mat would not be ‘made up’ in the sense that a modern bed would be. The idea may be closer to “straighten” or “rearrange,” and the NIV’s “take care of your mat” attempts to reflect this, although this too probably conveys a slightly different idea to the modern English reader.

367 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

368 sn Lydda was a city northwest of Jerusalem on the way to Joppa.

369 sn Sharon refers to the plain of Sharon, a region along the coast of Palestine.

370 tn Repetition of the pronoun “they” as subject of ἐπέστρεψαν (epestreyan) is not strictly necessary in English, but emphasizes slightly the resultative nature of the final clause: They turned to the Lord as a result of seeing Aeneas after he was healed.

371 sn They turned. To “turn” is a good summary term for the response to the gospel.

372 sn Joppa was a seaport on the Philistine coast, in the same location as modern Jaffa. “Though Joppa never became a major seaport, it was of some importance as a logistical base and an outlet to the Mediterranean” (A. F. Rainey, ISBE 2:1118-19).

373 tn Grk “which being translated is called.” In English this would normally be expressed “which is translated as” or “which in translation means.” The second option is given by L&N 33.145.

374 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. Dorcas is the Greek translation of the Aramaic name Tabitha. Dorcas in Greek means “gazelle” or “deer.”

375 tn Or “and helping the poor.” Grk “She was full of good deeds and acts of charity which she was continually doing.” Since it is somewhat redundant in English to say “she was full of good deeds…which she was continually doing,” the translation has been simplified to “she was continually doing good deeds and acts of charity.” The imperfect verb ἐποίει (epoiei) has been translated as a progressive imperfect (“was continually doing”).

376 tn Grk “It happened that in those days.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

377 tn Grk “becoming sick, she died.” The participle ἀσθενήσασαν (asqenhsasan) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

378 tn The participle λούσαντες (lousante") is taken temporally.

379 tn Grk “washed her,” but the reference is to her corpse.

380 sn Lydda was a city northwest of Jerusalem on the way to Joppa.

381 tn Grk “Do not delay to come to us.” It is somewhat smoother to say in English, “Come to us without delay.”

382 tn Grk “who.” The relative clause makes for awkward English style here, so the following clause was made coordinate with the conjunction “and” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun.

383 tn The participle παραγενόμενον (paragenomenon) is taken temporally.

384 tn Grk “and all.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

385 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

386 tn Or “shirts” (a long garment worn under the cloak next to the skin). The name for this garment (χιτών, citwn) presents some difficulty in translation. Most modern readers would not understand what a ‘tunic’ was any more than they would be familiar with a ‘chiton.’ On the other hand attempts to find a modern equivalent are also a problem: “shirt” conveys the idea of a much shorter garment that covers only the upper body, and “undergarment” (given the styles of modern underwear) is more misleading still. “Tunic” was therefore employed, but with a note to explain its nature.

387 tn Grk “and garments,” referring here to other types of clothing besides the tunics just mentioned.

388 tn The verb ἐποίει (epoiei) has been translated as a customary imperfect.

389 tn Grk “Peter, sending them all outside, knelt down.” The participle ἐκβαλών (ekbalwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

390 tn Grk “and kneeling down,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. Instead the “and” is placed before the verb προσηύξατο (proshuxato, “and prayed”). The participle θείς (qeis) is taken as a participle of attendant circumstance.

391 tn Grk “and turning.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

392 sn She sat up. This event is told much like Luke 8:49-56 and Mark 5:35-43. Peter’s ministry mirrored that of Jesus.

393 tn Grk “Giving her his hand, he helped her.” The participle δούς (dous) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

394 tn Grk “Then calling the saints…he presented her.” The participle φωνήσας (fwnhsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style; it could also be taken temporally (“After he called”).

395 tn Or “known all over.” BDAG 511 s.v. κατά A.1.c. has “became known throughout all Joppa” for γνωστὸν γενέσθαι καθ᾿ ὅλης ᾿Ιόππης (gnwston genesqai kaq{olh" Iopph").

396 sn This became known…many believed in the Lord. This is a “sign” miracle that pictures how the Lord can give life.

397 tn Grk “So it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

398 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

399 tn Grk “with a certain Simon.”

400 tn Or “with a certain Simon Berseus.” Although most modern English translations treat βυρσεῖ (bursei) as Simon’s profession (“Simon the tanner”), it is possible that the word is actually Simon’s surname (“Simon Berseus” or “Simon Tanner”). BDAG 185 s.v. βυρσεύς regards it as a surname. See also MM 118.

401 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). It was known as “Caesarea by the sea” (BDAG 499 s.v. Καισάρεια 2). Largely Gentile, it was a center of Roman administration and the location of many of Herod the Great’s building projects (Josephus, Ant. 15.9.6 [15.331-341]).

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

402 sn A centurion was a noncommissioned officer in the Roman army or one of the auxiliary territorial armies, commanding a centuria of (nominally) 100 men. The responsibilities of centurions were broadly similar to modern junior officers, but there was a wide gap in social status between them and officers, and relatively few were promoted beyond the rank of senior centurion. The Roman troops stationed in Judea were auxiliaries, who would normally be rewarded with Roman citizenship after 25 years of service. Some of the centurions may have served originally in the Roman legions (regular army) and thus gained their citizenship at enlistment. Others may have inherited it, like Paul.

403 sn A cohort was a Roman military unit of about 600 soldiers, one-tenth of a legion (BDAG 936 s.v. σπεῖρα). The Italian Cohort has been identified as cohors II Italica which is known to have been stationed in Syria in a.d. 88.

404 tn In the Greek text this represents a continuation of the previous sentence. Because of the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was begun here in the translation.

405 sn The description of Cornelius as a devout, God-fearing man probably means that he belonged to the category called “God-fearers,” Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 43-44, and Sir 11:17; 27:11; 39:27.

406 tn Or “gave many gifts to the poor.” This was known as “giving alms,” or acts of mercy (Sir 7:10; BDAG 315-16 s.v. ἐλεημοσύνη).

407 tn Grk “at about the ninth hour of the day.” This would be the time for afternoon prayer.

408 tn Or “the angel of God.” Linguistically, “angel of God” is the same in both testaments (and thus, he is either “an angel of God” or “the angel of God” in both testaments). For arguments and implications, see ExSyn 252; M. J. Davidson, “Angels,” DJG, 9; W. G. MacDonald argues for “an angel” in both testaments: “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’,” Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation, 324-35.

409 tn The participles εἰσελθόντα (eiselqonta) and εἰπόντα (eiponta) are accusative, and thus best taken as adjectival participles modifying ἄγγελον (angelon): “an angel who came in and said.”

410 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Cornelius) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

411 tn Grk “said,” but in response to the angel’s address, “replied” is better English style.

412 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

413 tn Or “your gifts to the needy.”

414 sn The language used in the expression gone up as a memorial before God parallels what one would say of acceptable sacrifices (Ps 141:2; Sir 35:6; 50:16).

415 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

416 sn Joppa was a seaport on the Philistine coast, in the same location as modern Jaffa.

417 tn Grk “a certain Simon.”

418 tn Or “with a certain Simon Berseus.” Although most modern English translations treat βυρσεῖ (bursei) as Simon’s profession (“Simon the tanner”), it is possible that the word is actually Simon’s surname (“Simon Berseus” or “Simon Tanner”). BDAG 185 s.v. βυρσεύς regards it as a surname. See also MM 118.

419 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Cornelius) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

420 tn Or “domestic servants.” The Greek word here is οἰκέτης (oiketh"), which technically refers to a member of the household, but usually means a household servant (slave) or personal servant rather than a field laborer.

421 tn The meaning of the genitive participle προσκαρτερούντων (proskarterountwn) could either be “a soldier from the ranks of those who served him” (referring to his entire command) or “a soldier from among his personal staff” (referring to a group of soldiers who were his personal attendants). The translation “from among those who served him” is general enough to cover either possibility.

422 tn Grk “about the sixth hour.”

423 tn The participles ὁδοιπορούντων (Jodoiporountwn, “while they were on their way”) and ἐγγιζόντων (engizontwn, “approaching”) have been translated as temporal participles.

424 sn Went up on the roof. Most of the roofs in the NT were flat roofs made of pounded dirt, sometimes mixed with lime or stones, supported by heavy wooden beams. They generally had an easy means of access, either a sturdy wooden ladder or stone stairway, sometimes on the outside of the house.

425 tn The traditional translation, “he fell into a trance,” is somewhat idiomatic; it is based on the textual variant ἐπέπεσεν (epepesen, “he fell”) found in the Byzantine text but almost certainly not original.

426 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

427 tn Or “the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

428 tn On the heavens “opening,” see Matt 3:16; Luke 3:21; Rev 19:11 (cf. BDAG 84 s.v. ἀνοίγω 2). This is the language of a vision or a revelatory act of God.

429 tn Or “a large linen cloth” (the term was used for the sail of a ship; BDAG 693 s.v. ὀθόνη).

430 tn Or “coming down.”

431 tn Or “to the ground.”

432 tn Grk “in which.” The relative pronoun was replaced by the pronoun “it,” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style.

433 tn Or “snakes.” Grk “creeping things.” According to L&N 4.51, in most biblical contexts the term (due to the influence of Hebrew classifications such as Gen 1:25-26, 30) included small four-footed animals like rats, mice, frogs, toads, salamanders, and lizards. In this context, however, where “creeping things” are contrasted with “four-footed animals,” the English word “reptiles,” which primarily but not exclusively designates snakes, is probably more appropriate. See also Gen 6:20, as well as the law making such creatures unclean food in Lev 11:2-47.

434 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

435 tn Grk “And there came.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

436 tn Grk “a voice to him”; the word “said” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

437 tn Or “kill.” Traditionally θῦσον (quson) is translated “kill,” but in the case of animals intended for food, “slaughter” is more appropriate.

438 tn Possibly there is a subtle distinction in meaning between κοινός (koinos) and ἀκάθαρτος (akaqarto") here, but according to L&N 53.39 it is difficult to determine precise differences in meaning based on existing contexts.

sn Peter insisted he would not violate the law by eating anything defiled and ritually unclean. These food laws were one of the practices that distinguished Jews from their Gentile neighbors. The practice made table fellowship with Gentiles awkward. For an example of Jewish attitudes to this, see Dan 1:8-16; 1 Macc 1:41-64; Letter of Aristeas 142; Tacitus, History 5.5.

439 tn Grk “And the voice.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

440 tn Or “declare.”

441 sn For the significance of this vision see Mark 7:14-23; Rom 14:14; Eph 2:11-22. God directed this change in practice.

442 tn Or “into the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

443 tn Or “was greatly confused over.” The term means to be perplexed or at a loss (BDAG 235 s.v. διαπορέω).

444 tn Grk “having learned.” The participle διερωτήσαντες (dierwthsante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

445 tn BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 1 has “ἐπί τι approach or stand by someth. (Sir 41:24) Ac 10:17.”

sn As Peter puzzled over the meaning of the vision, the messengers from Cornelius approached the gate. God’s direction here had a sense of explanatory timing.

446 tn Grk “and.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun by supplying the pronoun “they” as the subject of the following verb.

447 tn Grk “Simon, the one called Peter.” This qualification was necessary because the owner of the house was also named Simon (Acts 9:43).

448 tn The translation “think seriously about” for διενθυμέομαι (dienqumeomai) is given in L&N 30.2. Peter was “pondering” the vision (BDAG 244 s.v.).

449 tn Grk “But getting up, go down.” The participle ἀναστάς (anastas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

450 tn The term means “without doubting” or “without deliberation.” It is a term of conscience and discernment. In effect, Peter is to listen to them rather than hesitate (BDAG 231 s.v. διακρίνω 6).

451 tn Grk “Peter going down to the men, said.” The participle καταβάς (katabas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

452 tn Grk “Behold, it is I whom you seek,” or “Behold, I am the one you seek.” “Here I am” is used to translate ἰδοὺ ἐγώ εἰμι (idou egw eimi).

453 sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1.

454 tn Or “just.”

455 tn The phrase τοῦ ἔθνους τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων (tou eqnou" twn Ioudaiwn) is virtually a technical term for the Jewish nation (1 Macc 10:25; 11:30, 33; Josephus, Ant. 14.10.22 [14.248]). “All the Jewish people,” while another possible translation of the Greek phrase, does not convey the technical sense of a reference to the nation in English.

sn The long introduction of Cornelius by his messengers is an attempt to commend this Gentile to his Jewish counterpart, which would normally be important to do in the culture of the time.

456 tn Grk “hear words.”

457 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn When Peter entertained them as guests, he performed a culturally significant act denoting acceptance.

458 tn Or “went forth.”

459 sn Some of the brothers from Joppa. As v. 45 makes clear, there were Jewish Christians in this group of witnesses.

460 tn Grk “On the next day,” but since this phrase has already occurred in v. 23, it would be redundant in English to use it again here.

461 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi).

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

462 tn Normally προσδοκάω (prosdokaw) means “to wait with apprehension or anxiety for something,” often with the implication of impending danger or trouble (L&N 25.228), but in this context the anxiety Cornelius would have felt came from the importance of the forthcoming message as announced by the angel.

463 tn Grk “So it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

464 tn Grk “meeting him.” The participle συναντήσας (sunanthsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

465 tn Grk “falling at his feet, worshiped.” The participle πεσών (peswn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

466 sn When Cornelius worshiped Peter, it showed his piety and his respect for Peter, but it was an act based on ignorance, as Peter’s remark in v. 26 indicates.

467 tn BDAG 271 s.v. ἐγείρω 3 has “raise, help to rise….Stretched out Ac 10:26.”

468 tn Although it is certainly true that Peter was a “man,” here ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") has been translated as “mere mortal” because the emphasis in context is not on Peter’s maleness, but his humanity. Contrary to what Cornelius thought, Peter was not a god or an angelic being, but a mere mortal.

469 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

470 tn Or “many people assembled.”

471 tn Here ὡς (Jws) is used like ὅτι (Joti) to introduce indirect discourse (cf. BDAG 1105 s.v. ὡς 5).

472 tn This term is used of wanton or callously lawless acts (BDAG 24 s.v. ἀθέμιτος).

473 tn Grk “a Jewish man” (ἀνδρὶ ᾿Ιουδαίῳ, andri Ioudaiw).

474 tn Grk “a foreigner,” but in this context, “a non-Jew,” that is, a Gentile. This term speaks of intimate association (BDAG 556 s.v. κολλάω 2.b.α). On this Jewish view, see John 18:28, where a visit to a Gentile residence makes a Jewish person unclean.

475 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").

476 tn Possibly there is a subtle distinction in meaning between κοινός (koinos) and ἀκάθαρτος (akaqartos) here, but according to L&N 53.39 it is difficult to determine precise differences in meaning based on existing contexts.

sn God has shown me…unclean. Peter sees the significance of his vision as not about food, but about open fellowship between Jewish Christians and Gentiles.

477 tn Grk “Therefore when I was sent for.” The passive participle μεταπεμφθείς (metapemfqei") has been taken temporally and converted to an active construction which is less awkward in English.

478 tn Grk “ask for what reason.”

479 tn Grk “And Cornelius.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

480 tn Grk “said.”

481 tn Grk “at the ninth hour.” Again, this is the hour of afternoon prayer.

482 tn Grk “and behold.” The interjection ἰδού (idou) is difficult at times to translate into English. Here it has been translated as “suddenly” to convey the force of Cornelius’ account of the angel’s appearance.

483 tn Or “your gifts to the needy.”

484 sn This statement is a paraphrase rather than an exact quotation of Acts 10:4.

485 tn Or “with a certain Simon Berseus.” Although most modern English translations treat βυρσεῖ (bursei) as Simon’s profession (“Simon the tanner”), it is possible that the word is actually Simon’s surname (“Simon Berseus” or “Simon Tanner”). BDAG 185 s.v. βυρσεύς regards it as a surname.

486 tn Grk “you have done well by coming.” The idiom καλῶς ποιεῖν (kalw" poiein) is translated “be kind enough to do someth.” by BDAG 505-6 s.v. καλῶς 4.a. The participle παραγενόμενος (paragenomeno") has been translated as an English infinitive due to the nature of the English idiom (“kind enough to” + infinitive).

487 tn The translation “we are here in the presence of God” for ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ πάρεσμεν (enwpion tou qeou paresmen) is given by BDAG 773 s.v. πάρειμι 1.a.

488 tn Or “to hear everything.”

489 tn The words “to say to us” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Cornelius knows Peter is God’s representative, bringing God’s message.

490 tn Grk “Opening his mouth Peter said” (a Semitic idiom for beginning to speak in a somewhat formal manner). The participle ἀνοίξας (anoixa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

491 tn Grk “God is not one who is a respecter of persons,” that is, “God is not one to show partiality” (cf. BDAG 887 s.v. προσωπολήμπτης). L&N 88.239 translates this verse “I realize that God does not show favoritism (in dealing with people).” The underlying Hebrew idiom includes the personal element (“respecter of persons”) so the phrase “in dealing with people” is included in the present translation. It fits very well with the following context and serves to emphasize the relational component of God’s lack of partiality. The latter is a major theme in the NT: Rom 2:11; Eph 2:11-22; Col 3:25; Jas 2:1; 1 Pet 1:17. This was the lesson of Peter’s vision.

492 sn See Luke 24:47.

493 tn Or “shows reverence for him.”

494 tn Grk “works righteousness”; the translation “does what is right” for this phrase in this verse is given by L&N 25.85.

sn Note how faith and response are linked here by the phrase and does what is right.

495 tn The subject and verb (“you know”) do not actually occur until the following verse, but have been repeated here because of the requirements of English word order.

496 tn Grk “the word.”

497 tn Grk “to the sons.”

498 sn Peace is a key OT concept: Isa 52:7; Nah 1:15; also for Luke: Luke 1:79; 2:14; Acts 9:31. See also the similar phrase in Eph 2:17.

499 tn Or “by.”

500 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

501 sn He is Lord of all. Though a parenthetical remark, this is the theological key to the speech. Jesus is Lord of all, so the gospel can go to all. The rest of the speech proclaims Jesus’ authority.

502 tn Or “proclaimed.”

503 sn The somewhat awkward naming of Jesus as from Nazareth here is actually emphatic. He is the key subject of these key events.

504 tn Or “how.” The use of ὡς (Jws) as an equivalent to ὅτι (Joti) to introduce indirect or even direct discourse is well documented. BDAG 1105 s.v. ὡς 5 lists Acts 10:28 in this category.

505 tn Grk “power, who.” The relative pronoun was replaced by the pronoun “he,” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

506 tn The translation “healing all who were oppressed by the devil” is given in L&N 22.22.

sn All who were oppressed by the devil. Note how healing is tied to the cosmic battle present in creation. Christ’s power overcomes the devil and his forces, which seek to destroy humanity.

507 sn See Acts 7:9.

508 tn Grk “And we.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

509 tn Grk “the land of the Jews,” but this is similar to the phrase used as the name of the province of Judea in 1 Macc 8:3 (see BDAG 1093-94 s.v. χώρα 2.b).

510 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

511 tn Grk “in Jerusalem, whom they killed.” The relative pronoun was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

512 tn Or “by crucifying him” (“hang on a tree” is by the time of the 1st century an idiom for crucifixion). The allusion is to the judgment against Jesus as a rebellious figure, appealing to the language of Deut 21:23. The Jewish leadership has badly “misjudged” Jesus.

513 tn The conjunction “but” is not in the Greek text, but the contrast is clearly implied in the context. This is technically asyndeton, or lack of a connective, in Greek.

514 tn Grk “and granted that he should become visible.” The literal Greek idiom is somewhat awkward in English. L&N 24.22 offers the translation “caused him to be seen” for this verse.

515 tn Or “the witnesses God had previously chosen.” See Acts 1:8.

516 sn Ate and drank. See Luke 24:35-49.

517 tn Grk “and he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

518 tn The verb διαμαρτύρομαι (diamarturomai) can mean “warn,” and such a meaning is highly probable in this context where a reference to the judgment of both the living and the dead is present. The more general meaning “to testify solemnly” does not capture this nuance.

519 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

520 tn Grk “that this one is the one,” but this is awkward in English and has been simplified to “that he is the one.”

521 tn Or “designated.” BDAG 723 s.v. ὁρίζω 2.b has “the one appointed by God as judge” for this phrase.

522 sn Jesus has divine authority as judge over the living and the dead: Acts 17:26-31; Rom 14:9; 1 Thess 5:9-10; 1 Tim 4:1; 1 Pet 4:5.

523 tn Or “All the prophets testify about him.” Although modern English translations tend to place “about him” after “testify” (so NIV, NRSV) the phrase “about him” has been left at the beginning of v. 43 for emphatic reasons.

524 sn Forgiveness of sins. See Luke 24:47; also Acts 14:23; 19:4; 9:42; 11:17; 16:31. The gospel is present in the prophetic promise, Rom 1:1-7. The message is in continuity with the ancient hope.

525 tn Or “came down on.” God now acted to confirm the point of Peter’s speech.

526 tn Or “word.”

527 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

528 tn Or “The Jewish Christians”; Grk “The believers from the circumcision.”

529 sn The Jewish Christians who were with Peter were greatly astonished because they thought the promise of the Spirit would be limited only to those of Israel. God’s plan was taking on fresh dimensions even as it was a reflection of what the prophets had promised.

530 tn Or “because.”

531 tn That is, the gift consisting of the Holy Spirit. Here τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the gift consists of the Spirit.

532 sn The gift of the Holy Spirit had been poured out. Compare the account in Acts 2, especially 2:33. Note also Joel 2:17-21 and Acts 11:15-18.

533 tn Or “extolling,” “magnifying.”

534 tn Grk “just as also we.” The auxiliary verb in English must be supplied. This could be either “have” (NIV, NRSV) or “did” (NASB). “Did” is preferred here because the comparison Peter is making concerns not just the fact of the present possession of the Spirit (“they received the Spirit we now possess”), but the manner in which the Gentiles in Cornelius’ house received the Spirit (“they received the Spirit in the same manner we did [on the day of Pentecost]”).

535 tn The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ question, “can he?” The question is rhetorical. Peter was saying these Gentiles should be baptized since God had confirmed they were his.

536 tn The Greek construction (passive infinitive with accusative subject) could be translated either “he ordered them to be baptized” or “he ordered that they be baptized,” but the implication in English in either case is that Peter was giving orders to the Gentiles in Cornelius’ house, telling them to get baptized. It is much more likely in the context that Peter was ordering those Jewish Christians who accompanied him to baptize the new Gentile converts. They would doubtless have still had misgivings even after witnessing the outpouring of the Spirit and hearing the tongues. It took Peter’s apostolic authority (“ordered”) to convince them to perform the baptisms.

537 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” Jesus’ right to judge as the provider of forgiveness is highlighted here.

538 tn See BDAG 221 s.v. δέχομαι 5 for this translation of ἐδέξαντο (edexanto) here.

539 tn Here the phrase “word of God” is another way to describe the gospel (note the preceding verb ἐδέξαντο, edexanto, “accepted”). The phrase could also be translated “the word [message] from God.”

540 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

541 tn Or “the Jewish Christians”; Grk “those of the circumcision.” Within the larger group of Christians were some whose loyalties ran along ethnic-religious lines.

542 tn Or “believers disputed with,” “believers criticized” (BDAG 231 s.v. διακρίνω 5.b).

543 tn Or “You were a guest in the home of” (according to L&N 23.12).

544 tn Or “and ate with.” It was table fellowship and the possibility of eating unclean food that disturbed them.

545 tn Or “to them in logical sequence,” “to them in order.” BDAG 490 s.v. καθεξῆς has “explain to someone point by point” for this phrase. This is the same term used in Luke 1:3.

546 tn This term describes a supernatural vision and reflects a clear distinction from something imagined (BDAG 718 s.v. ὅραμα 1). Peter repeated the story virtually word for word through v. 13. The repetition with this degree of detail shows the event’s importance.

547 tn Or “coming down.”

548 tn Or “the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

549 tn Grk “Staring I looked into it.” The participle ἀτενίσας (atenisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

550 tn Or “snakes.” Grk “creeping things.” According to L&N 4.51, in most biblical contexts the term (due to the influence of Hebrew classifications such as Gen 1:25-26, 30) included small four-footed animals like rats, mice, frogs, toads, salamanders, and lizards. In this context, however, where “creeping things” are contrasted with “four-footed animals,” the English word “reptiles,” which primarily but not exclusively designates snakes, is probably more appropriate.

551 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

552 tn Or “kill.” Traditionally θῦσον (quson) is translated “kill,” but in the case of animals intended for food, “slaughter” is more appropriate.

553 tn Possibly there is a subtle distinction in meaning between κοινός (koinos) and ἀκάθαρτος (akaqartos) here, but according to L&N 53.39 it is difficult to determine precise differences in meaning based on existing contexts. The sentiment Peter expressed is like Ezek 4:14.

554 tn Or “declare.” The wording matches Acts 10:15.

555 tn Grk “And behold.”

556 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

557 tn See BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 1 for this meaning for ἐπέστησαν (epesthsan) here.

558 tn The word “staying” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

559 sn Six witnesses is three times more than what would normally be required. They could confirm the events were not misrepresented by Peter.

560 tn Grk “words” (ῥήματα, rJhmata), but in this context the overall message is meant rather than the individual words.

561 tn Or “came down on.”

562 tn The words “he did” are not in the Greek text but are implied. They form an ellipsis which must be supplied for the modern English reader. Some modern translations supply “it” rather than “he” because the gender of πνεῦμα (pneuma) in Greek is neuter, but there are sufficient NT contexts that use masculine pronouns to refer to the Spirit to justify the use of a masculine pronoun here in the translation.

563 sn At the beginning is an allusion to Acts 2 and Pentecost. The beginning is a way to refer to the start of the period of the realization of Jesus’ promise in Luke 24:49 and Acts 1:8. Peter was arguing that God gave Gentiles the same benefits he gave the Jews at the start of their mission.

564 sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; here and in Luke 22:61, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

565 tn The imperfect verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) is taken as a customary imperfect.

566 sn John…Spirit. This remark repeats Acts 1:5.

567 tc Codex Bezae (D) and {a few other Western witnesses} here lack ὁ θεός (Jo qeo", “God”), perhaps because these scribes considered the Holy Spirit to be the gift of Christ rather than the gift of God; thus leaving the subject implicit would naturally draw the reader back to v. 16 to see the Lord Jesus as the bestower of the Spirit.

568 sn That is, the same gift of the Holy Spirit.

569 tn Or “gave us when we believed”; or “gave us after we believed”; or “gave us who believed”; or “gave them when they believed the same gift as he also gave us.” The aorist dative plural participle πιστεύσασιν (pisteusasin) can be understood in several different ways: (1) It could modify ἡμῖν (Jhmin, “us”) or αὐτοῖς (autois, “them”). Proximity (it immediately follows ἡμῖν) would suggest that it belongs with ἡμῖν, so the last option (“gave them when they believed the same gift he also gave us”) is less likely. (2) The participle could be either adverbial or adjectival, modifying ἡμῖν. This decision is primarily a contextual one. The point Peter made is not whether or not the Gentiles believed, since both groups (“us” and “they”) had believed in the Lord Jesus Christ. The point was whether or not the Gentiles received the Spirit when they believed, just as Jewish Christians had received the Spirit on the day of Pentecost when they believed. Translated as an adjectival participle, πιστεύσασιν only affirms the fact of belief, however, and raises somewhat of a theological problem if one realizes, “Would God have given the Gentiles the Spirit if they had not believed?” (In other words, belief in itself is a theological prerequisite for receiving the Spirit. As such, in the case of the Gentiles, it is assumed.) Thus in context it makes more sense to understand the participle πιστεύσασιν as adverbial, related to the time of belief in connection with the giving of the Spirit. (3) The participle πιστεύσασιν as a temporal participle can refer to action antecedent to the action of the main verb ἔδωκεν (edwken) or contemporaneous with it. Logically, at least, the gift of the Spirit followed belief in the case of the original Christians, who had believed before the day of Pentecost. In the case of Cornelius and his household, belief and the reception of the Spirit were virtually simultaneous. One can argue that Peter is “summarizing” the experience of Jewish Christians, and therefore the actions of belief and reception of the Spirit, while historically separate, have been “telescoped” into one (“gave them the same gift as he gave us when we believed”), but to be technically accurate the participle πιστεύσασιν should be translated “gave them the same gift as he also gave us after we believed.” A number of these problems can be avoided, however, by using a translation in English that maintains some of the ambiguity of the Greek original. Thus “if God gave them the same gift as he also gave us after believing” is used, where the phrase “after believing” can refer either to “them” or to “us,” or both.

570 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

571 tn Or “prevent,” “forbid” (BDAG 580 s.v. κωλύω 1.a). Peter’s point is that he will not stand in the way of God.

572 tn Grk “these things.”

573 tn Or “became silent,” but this would create an apparent contradiction with the subsequent action of praising God. The point, in context, is that they ceased objecting to what Peter had done.

574 tn Or “glorified.”

575 sn Here the summary phrase for responding to the gospel is the repentance that leads to life. Note how the presence of life is tied to the presence of the Spirit (cf. John 4:7-42; 7:37-39).

576 sn In the Greek text the phrase even to the Gentiles is in an emphatic position.

577 sn The phrase over Stephen means in connection with Stephen’s death. See Acts 8:1b-3.

578 tn Or “finally reached.” The translations “went as far as” and “finally reached” for διῆλθον (dihlqon) in this verse are given in L&N 15.17.

579 sn Phoenicia was an area along the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine.

580 tn Grk “and Cyprus,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

581 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). This was probably the third largest city in the Greco-Roman world (Alexandria in Egypt was the second largest, and Rome the largest) and was the seat of government in Syria. Five miles away was a major temple to Artemis, Apollo, and Astarte, major pagan deities.

map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

582 tn Grk “word.”

583 sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

584 sn Cyrene was a city on the northern African coast west of Egypt.

585 tn Grk “among them, coming to Antioch began to speak.” The participle ἐλθόντες (elqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

586 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

587 sn The statement that some men from Cyprus and Cyrene…began to speak to the Greeks shows that Peter’s experience of reaching out to the Gentiles was not unique.

588 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

589 tn The participle πιστεύσας (pisteusa") is articular and thus cannot be adverbial. It is adjectival, modifying ἀριθμός (ariqmo"), but has been translated into English as a relative clause (“who believed”).

590 sn Again, the expression turned is a summary term for responding to the gospel.

591 tn Grk “Word.”

592 tn Grk “was heard in the ears,” an idiom. L&N 24.67 states that the idiom means “to hear in secret” (which it certainly does in Matt 10:27), but secrecy does not seem to be part of the context here, and there is no particular reason to suggest the report was made in secret.

593 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

594 tc ‡ Most mss read the infinitive “to travel” after “Barnabas.” διελθεῖν (dielqein) is found before ἕως (Jews) in D E Ψ 33 Ï and some versional mss. It is lacking in Ì74 א A B 81 1739 pc and some versional mss. Although the infinitive with ἕως fits Lukan style, it has the appearance of a scribal clarification. The infinitive has the earmarks of a Western expansion on the text and thus is unlikely to be original. NA27 has the infinitive in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.

595 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19. Again the Jerusalem church exercised an oversight role.

596 tn Grk “Antioch, who when.” The relative pronoun was omitted and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

597 tn BDAG 883 s.v. προσμένω 1.a.β has “remain true to the Lord” for προσμένειν (prosmenein) in this verse.

sn He…encouraged them all to remain true to the Lord. The call to faithfulness is frequent in Acts (2:40; 14:22; 15:32; 16:39; 20:1-2).

598 tn Grk “with purpose of heart”; BDAG 869 s.v. πρόθεσις 2.a translates this phrase “purpose of heart, i.e. devotion” here.

599 tn Grk “a significant crowd.”

600 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

601 tn Grk “So it happened that” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

602 tn Grk “year they”; the referents (Barnabas and Saul) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

603 tn Grk “a significant crowd.”

604 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

605 sn The term Christians appears only here, in Acts 26:28, and 1 Pet 4:16 in the NT.

606 tn Grk “In these days,” but the dative generally indicates a specific time.

607 tn The word “some” is not in the Greek text, but is usually used in English when an unspecified number is mentioned.

608 sn Prophets are mentioned only here and in 13:1 and 21:10 in Acts.

609 sn Came down from Jerusalem. Antioch in Syria lies due north of Jerusalem. In Western languages it is common to speak of north as “up” and south as “down,” but the NT maintains the Hebrew idiom which speaks of any direction away from Jerusalem as down (since Mount Zion was thought of in terms of altitude).

610 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

611 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia). See the note in 11:19.

map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2

612 tn Grk “getting up, predicted.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

613 tn Or “made clear”; Grk “indicated beforehand” (BDAG 920 s.v. σημαίνω 2).

614 tn Grk “great.”

615 sn This famine is one of the firmly fixed dates in Acts. It took place from a.d. 45-48. The events described in chap. 11 of Acts occurred during the early part of that period.

616 tn Or “whole Roman Empire.” While the word οἰκουμένη (oikoumenh) does occasionally refer specifically to the Roman Empire, BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουνένη 2 does not list this passage (only Acts 24:5 and 17:6).

617 tn Grk “world, which.” The relative pronoun (“which”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “this” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

618 sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author. Claudius was the Roman emperor Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus, known as Claudius, who ruled from a.d. 41-54.

619 tn So BDAG 410 s.v. εὐπορέω.

620 tn Or “determined,” “resolved.”

621 tn Grk “to send [something] for a ministry,” but today it is common to speak of sending relief for victims of natural disasters.

sn The financial relief reflects the oneness of the church, meeting the needs of another (even racially distinct) community. Jerusalem, having ministered to them, now received ministry back. A later collection from Greece is noted in Rom 15:25-27, but it reflects the same spirit as this gift.

622 tn Grk “Judea, which they did.” The relative pronoun was omitted and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

623 tn The words “their financial aid” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

624 sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great). His mediocre career is summarized in Josephus, Ant. 18-19. This event took place in a.d. 42 or 43.

625 tn Or “King Herod had some from the church arrested.”

626 tn Or “to cause them injury.”

627 sn The expression executed with a sword probably refers to a beheading. James was the first known apostolic martyr (Eusebius, Eccl. Hist. 2.9.1-3). On James, not the Lord’s brother, see Luke 5:10; 6:14. This death ended a short period of peace noted in Acts 9:31 after the persecution mentioned in 8:1-3.

628 tn This could be a reference to the Jewish people (so CEV) or to the Jewish leaders (so NLT). The statement in v. 4 that Herod intended to bring Peter “out to the people” (i.e., for a public trial) may suggest the former is somewhat more likely.

629 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

630 sn Four squads of soldiers. Each squad was a detachment of four soldiers.

631 tn Grk “guard him, planning to bring him out.” The Greek construction continues with a participle (βουλόμενος, boulomeno") and an infinitive (ἀναγαγεῖν, anagagein), but this creates an awkward and lengthy sentence in English. Thus a reference to Herod was introduced as subject and the participle translated as a finite verb (“Herod planned”).

632 tn Or “intended”; Grk “wanted.”

633 tn Grk “to bring him out to the people,” but in this context a public trial (with certain condemnation as the result) is doubtless what Herod planned. L&N 15.176 translates this phrase “planning to bring him up for a public trial after the Passover.”

634 tn Or “constantly.” This term also appears in Luke 22:14 and Acts 26:7.

635 tn Grk “but earnest prayer was being made by the church to God for him.” The order of the clauses has been rearranged to follow English style, and the somewhat awkward passive “prayer was being made” has been changed to the simpler active verb “were praying.” Luke portrays what follows as an answer to prayer.

636 tn Grk “was going to bring him out,” but the upcoming trial is implied. See Acts 12:4.

637 tn Grk “two chains, and.” Logically it makes better sense to translate this as a temporal clause, although technically it is a coordinate clause in Greek.

638 tn Or “were guarding.”

639 tn Grk “And behold.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. The interjection ἰδού (idou), often difficult to translate into English, expresses the suddenness of the angel’s appearance.

640 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 5:19.

641 tn Grk “striking the side of Peter, he awoke him saying.” The term refers to a push or a light tap (BDAG 786 s.v. πατάσσω 1.a). The participle πατάξας (pataxa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

642 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

643 tn Grk “the hands,” but the wrist was considered a part of the hand.

644 tn While ζώννυμι (zwnnumi) sometimes means “to dress,” referring to the fastening of the belt or sash as the final act of getting dressed, in this context it probably does mean “put on your belt” since in the conditions of a prison Peter had probably not changed into a different set of clothes to sleep. More likely he had merely removed his belt or sash, which the angel now told him to replace. The translation “put on your belt” is given by L&N 49.14 for this verse. The archaic English “girdle” for the sash or belt has an entirely different meaning today.

645 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

646 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

647 tn Or “outer garment.”

648 tn Grk “And going out he followed.”

649 tn Grk “Peter going out followed him.” The participle ἐξελθών (exelqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

650 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

651 tn Grk “what was done through the angel was a reality” (see BDAG 43 s.v. ἀληθής 3).

652 tn Or perhaps, “guard posts.”

653 sn The iron gate shows how important security was here. This door was more secure than one made of wood (which would be usual).

654 tn Grk “which.” The relative pronoun (“which”) was replaced by the pronoun “it,” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek.

655 tn The Greek term here, αὐτομάτη (automath), indicates something that happens without visible cause (BDAG 152 s.v. αὐτόματος).

656 tn Or “lane,” “alley” (BDAG 907 s.v. ῥύμη).

657 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

658 tn Or “delivered.”

659 sn Here the hand of Herod is a metaphor for Herod’s power or control.

660 sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

661 sn Luke characterizes the opposition here as the Jewish people, including their leadership (see 12:3).

662 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

663 tn Grk “John who was also called Mark.”

sn John Mark becomes a key figure in Acts 12:25; 13:5, 13; 15:37-39.

664 tn Or “responded.”

665 tn Or “informed.”

666 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

667 sn “You’ve lost your mind!” Such a response to the miraculous is not unusual in Luke-Acts. See Luke 24:11; Acts 26:25. The term μαίνομαι (mainomai) can have the idea of being “raving mad” or “totally irrational” (BDAG 610 s.v.). It is a strong expression.

668 tn Grk “she kept insisting that the situation was thus” (cf. BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 10.a). Most translations supply a less awkward English phrase like “it was so”; the force of her insistence, however, is that “it was Peter,” which was the point under dispute.

669 tn The two imperfect tense verbs, διϊσχυρίζετο (diiscurizeto) and ἔλεγον (elegon), are both taken iteratively. The picture is thus virtually a shouting match between Rhoda and the rest of the believers.

670 sn The assumption made by those inside, “It is his angel,” seems to allude to the idea of an attending angel (cf. Gen 48:16 LXX; Matt 18:10; Test. Jacob 1:10).

671 tn The words “the door” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (see Acts 12:13).

672 sn That they were greatly astonished is a common response in Luke-Acts to God’s work (Luke 8:56; Acts 2:7, 12; 8:13; 9:21; 10:45).

673 tn Or “He gave them a signal.” Grk “Giving them a signal…he related to them.” The participle κατασείσας (kataseisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

674 tc ‡ Most mss, including some of the most important ones (B D E Ψ Ï sy), read αὐτοῖς (autoi", “to them”) here, while some excellent and early witnesses (Ì45vid,74vid א A 33 81 945 1739 pc) lack the pronoun. Although it is possible that the pronoun was deleted because it was seen as superfluous, it is also possible that it was added as a natural expansion on the text, strengthening the connection between Peter and his listeners. Although a decision is difficult, the shorter reading is slightly preferred. NA27 puts the pronoun in brackets, indicating some doubts as to its authenticity.

675 tn Or “led.”

676 sn He…went to another place. This is Peter’s last appearance in Acts with the exception of the Jerusalem council in Acts 15.

677 tn BDAG 436 s.v. ἡμέρα 1.a has “day is breaking” for ἡμέρα γίνεται (Jhmera ginetai) in this verse.

678 tn Grk “no little consternation.” The translation given for τάραχος (taraco") in this verse by BDAG 991 s.v. τάραχος 1 is “mental agitation.” The situation indicated by the Greek word is described in L&N 25.243 as “a state of acute distress and great anxiety, with the additional possible implications of dismay and confusion – ‘great distress, extreme anxiety.’” The English word “consternation” is preferred here because it conveys precisely such a situation of anxiety mixed with fear. The reason for this anxiety is explained in the following verse.

679 sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

680 tn Or “had instigated a search” (Herod would have ordered the search rather than conducting it himself).

681 tn “Questioned” is used to translate ἀνακρίνας (anakrina") here because a possible translation offered by BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω for this verse is “examined,” which could be understood to mean Herod inspected the guards rather than questioned them. The translation used by the NIV, “cross-examined,” also avoids this possible misunderstanding.

682 tn The meaning “led away to execution” for ἀπαχθῆναι (apacqhnai) in this verse is given by BDAG 95 s.v. ἀπάγω 2.c. Although an explicit reference to execution is lacking here, it is what would usually occur in such a case (Acts 16:27; 27:42; Code of Justinian 9.4.4). “Led away to torture” is a less likely option (Pliny the Younger, Letters 10, 96, 8).

683 tn Grk “and,” but the sequence of events is better expressed in English by “then.” A new sentence is begun in the translation because of the length of the sentence in Greek, which exceeds normal English sentence length.

684 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Since Herod has been the subject of the preceding material, and the circumstances of his death are the subject of the following verses (20-23), it is best to understand Herod as the subject here. This is especially true since according to Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 [19.343-352], Herod Agrippa I died at Caesarea in a.d. 44, and vv. 20-23 here describe his death. Thus the end of v. 19 provides Luke’s transition to explain how Herod got from Jerusalem to Caesarea where he died. In spite of all this evidence, the NRSV translates this phrase “Then Peter went down from Judea to Caesarea and stayed there,” understanding the referent to be Peter rather than Herod Agrippa I.

sn King Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great), who died at Caesarea in a.d. 44 according to Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 [19.343-352].

685 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

686 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

687 tn Or “was extremely angry.” L&N 33.453 gives the meaning “be angry and quarrel, quarrel angrily” here. However, in L&N 88.180 the alternative “to be violently angry, to be furious” is given. The term is used only once in the NT (BDAG 461 s.v. θυμομαχέω).

688 sn Tyre was a city and seaport on the coast of Phoenicia.

map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

689 sn Sidon was an ancient Phoenician royal city on the coast between Berytus (Beirut) and Tyre (BDAG 923 s.v. Σιδών).

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

690 tn Or “with one accord.”

691 tn Or “persuading.”

692 tn On the term translated “personal assistant” BDAG 554 s.v. κοιτῶν states, “used as part of a title: ὁ ἐπὶ τοῦ κοιτῶνος the one in charge of the bed-chamber, the chamberlain.” This individual was not just a domestic servant or butler, but a highly respected person who had considerable responsibility for the king’s living quarters and personal affairs. The English word “chamberlain” corresponds very closely to this meaning but is not in common use today. The term “personal assistant,” while it might convey more business associations than management of personal affairs, nevertheless communicates the concept well in contemporary English.

693 tn The words “to help them” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

694 tn Or “for a reconciliation.” There were grave political risks in having Herod angry at them. The detail shows the ruler’s power.

695 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn Herod was Herod Agrippa I, the grandson of Herod I (Herod the Great).

696 tn Or “apparel.” On Herod’s robes see Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 (19.344), summarized in the note at the end of v. 23.

697 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “speakers platform” for this verse, and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“rostrum,” NASB; “platform,” NRSV), since the bema was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time, there is no need for an alternative translation here.

sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city.

698 tn Or “delivered a public address.”

699 tn The translation “crowd” is given by BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος; the word often means a gathering of citizens to conduct public business. Here it is simply the group of people gathered to hear the king’s speech.

700 tn The imperfect verb ἐπεφώνει (epefwnei) is taken ingressively in the sequence of events. Presumably the king had started his speech when the crowd began shouting.

701 sn The voice of a god. Contrast the response of Paul and Barnabas in Acts 14:13-15.

702 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 5:19.

703 sn On being struck…down by an angel, see Acts 23:3; 1 Sam 25:28; 2 Sam 12:15; 2 Kgs 19:35; 2 Chr 13:20; 2 Macc 9:5.

704 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

705 sn He was eaten by worms and died. Josephus, Ant. 19.8.2 (19.343-352), states that Herod Agrippa I died at Caesarea in a.d. 44. The account by Josephus, while not identical to Luke’s account, is similar in many respects: On the second day of a festival, Herod Agrippa appeared in the theater with a robe made of silver. When it sparkled in the sun, the people cried out flatteries and declared him to be a god. The king, carried away by the flattery, saw an owl (an omen of death) sitting on a nearby rope, and immediately was struck with severe stomach pains. He was carried off to his house and died five days later. The two accounts can be reconciled without difficulty, since while Luke states that Herod was immediately struck down by an angel, his death could have come several days later. The mention of worms with death adds a humiliating note to the scene. The formerly powerful ruler had been thoroughly reduced to nothing (cf. Jdt 16:17; 2 Macc 9:9; cf. also Josephus, Ant. 17.6.5 [17.168-170], which details the sickness which led to Herod the Great’s death).

706 sn A metonymy for the number of adherents to God’s word.

707 tn Or “spreading.”

708 tc There are a number of variants at this point in the text: εἰς (eis, “to”) in א B Ï sams syhmg; ἀπό (apo, “from”) in D E Ψ 36 323 453 614 1175 al; ἐξ (ex, “from”) in Ì74 A 33 945 1739 al; ἐξ ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν (ex Ierousalhm ei" Antioceian, “from Jerusalem to Antioch”) in {a few later manuscripts and part of the Itala}. A decision on this problem is very difficult, but for several reasons εἰς can be preferred. It is the most difficult reading by far in light of the context, since Paul and Barnabas were going to Jerusalem in 11:30. It is found in better witnesses, א and B being very strong evidence. The other readings, ἐξ and ἀπό, are different from εἰς yet bear essentially the same meaning as each other; this seems to suggest that scribes had problems with εἰς and tried to choose an acceptable revision. If εἰς is the earliest reading, ἀπό may be a clarification of ἐξ, and ἐξ could have arisen through confusion of letters. Or ἐξ and ἀπό could both have independently arisen from εἰς as a more acceptable preposition. Despite such arguments, however, the case for εἰς is not airtight: either ἐξ or ἀπό could be preferred on other lines of reasoning. The reading ἐξ enjoys the earliest support, and εἰς could have arisen through the same confusion of letters mentioned above. The immediate and wider context seems to mitigate against εἰς as the original reading: The aorist participle πληρώσαντες (plhrwsante", “when they had completed”) seems to signal the end of the mission to Jerusalem with the famine relief, so it would make sense in the context for the team to be coming from Jerusalem (to Antioch) rather than to Jerusalem, and 13:1 certainly presents the scene at Antioch. The later addition εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν after ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ in some mss seems to be a clarification in light of 13:1 (notice that some of the mss that read ἐξ add εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν [945 1739], and some that read ἀπό also add εἰς ᾿Αντιόχειαν [E 323 1175]). Thus, the idea of spatial separation from Jerusalem is strongly implied by the context. This problem is so difficult that some scholars resort to conjectural emendation to determine the original reading. All in all, the reading εἰς should be preferred as original, recognizing that there is a good measure of uncertainty with this solution. For additional discussion, see TCGNT 350-52.

709 sn That is, from Jerusalem to Antioch (see Acts 11:29-30).

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

710 tn Grk “fulfilled.”

711 tn Grk “ministry” or “service.”

712 tn Grk “John who was also called Mark.”

713 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

714 sn Simeon may well have been from North Africa, since the Latin loanword Niger refers to someone as “dark-complexioned.”

715 sn The Cyrenian refers to a native of the city of Cyrene, on the coast of northern Africa west of Egypt.

716 sn Herod is generally taken as a reference to Herod Antipas, who governed Galilee from 4 b.c. to a.d. 39, who had John the Baptist beheaded, and who is mentioned a number of times in the gospels.

717 tn Or “the governor.”

sn A tetrarch was a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king, who ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. Several times in the NT, Herod tetrarch of Galilee is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage.

718 tn Or “(a foster brother of Herod the tetrarch).” The meaning “close friend from childhood” is given by L&N 34.15, but the word can also mean “foster brother” (L&N 10.51). BDAG 976 s.v. σύντροφας states, “pert. to being brought up with someone, either as a foster-brother or as a companion/friend,” which covers both alternatives. Context does not given enough information to be certain which is the case here, although many modern translations prefer the meaning “close friend from childhood.”

719 tn This term is frequently used in the LXX of the service performed by priests and Levites in the tabernacle (Exod 28:35, 43; 29:30; 30:20; 35:19; 39:26; Num 1:50; 3:6, 31) and the temple (2 Chr 31:2; 35:3; Joel 1:9, 13; 2:17, and many more examples). According to BDAG 591 s.v. λειτουργέω 1.b it is used “of other expression of religious devotion.” Since the previous verse described the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, it is probable that the term here describes two of them (Barnabas and Saul) as they were serving in that capacity. Since they were not in Jerusalem where the temple was located, general religious service is referred to here.

720 tn Or “Appoint.”

721 tn The three aorist participles νηστεύσαντες (nhsteusante"), προσευξάμενοι (proseuxamenoi), and ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") are translated as temporal participles. Although they could indicate contemporaneous time when used with an aorist main verb, logically here they are antecedent. On fasting and prayer, see Matt 6:5, 16; Luke 2:37; 5:33; Acts 14:23.

722 tn Normally English style, which uses a coordinating conjunction between only the last two elements of a series of three or more, would call for omission of “and” here. However, since the terms “fasting and prayer” are something of a unit, often linked together, the conjunction has been retained here.

723 sn The placing of hands on Barnabas and Saul (traditionally known as “the laying on of hands”) refers to an act picturing the commission of God and the church for the task at hand.

724 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Barnabas and Saul) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

725 sn Seleucia was the port city of Antioch in Syria.

726 sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

727 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

728 tn The participle γενόμενοι (genomenoi) is taken temporally.

729 sn Salamis was a city on the southeastern coast of the island of Cyprus. This was a commercial center and a center of Judaism.

730 tn The imperfect verb κατήγγελλον (kathngellon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

731 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

732 sn John refers here to John Mark (see Acts 12:25).

733 tn The word ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") usually has the meaning “servant,” but it is doubtful John Mark fulfilled that capacity for Barnabas and Saul. He was more likely an apprentice or assistant to them.

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

734 tn Or “had passed through,” “had traveled through.”

735 sn Paphos. A city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. It was the seat of the Roman proconsul.

736 sn Named Bar-Jesus. “Jesus” is the Latin form of the name “Joshua.” The Aramaic “bar” means “son of,” so this man was surnamed “son of Joshua.” The scene depicts the conflict between Judaism and the emerging new faith at a cosmic level, much like the Simon Magus incident in Acts 8:9-24. Paul’s ministry looks like Philip’s and Peter’s here.

737 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

738 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (the proconsul) is specified in the translation for clarity.

739 tn Grk “summoning Barnabas and Saul, wanted to hear.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

740 sn The proconsul…wanted to hear the word of God. This description of Sergius Paulus portrays him as a sensitive, secular Gentile leader.

741 tn On the debate over what the name “Elymas” means, see BDAG 320 s.v. ᾿Ελύμας. The magician’s behavior is more directly opposed to the faith than Simon Magus’ was.

742 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

743 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

744 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

745 sn This qualifying clause in the narrative indicates who represented God in the dispute.

746 tn Or “gazed intently.”

747 tn Or “unscrupulousness.”

748 sn “You who…paths of the Lord?” This rebuke is like ones from the OT prophets: Jer 5:27; Gen 32:11; Prov 10:7; Hos 14:9. Five separate remarks indicate the magician’s failings. The closing rhetorical question of v. 10 (“will you not stop…?”) shows how opposed he is to the way of God.

749 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

750 tn Grk “upon,” but in a negative sense.

751 sn The term translated mistiness here appears in the writings of the physician Galen as a medical technical description of a person who is blind. The picture of judgment to darkness is symbolic as well. Whatever power Elymas had, it represented darkness. Magic will again be an issue in Acts 19:18-19. This judgment is like that of Ananias and his wife in Acts 5:1-11.

752 tn Grk “fell on.”

753 tn The noun χειραγωγός (ceiragwgo") is plural, so “people” is used rather than singular “someone.”

754 sn See the note on proconsul in v. 8.

755 sn He believed. The faith of the proconsul in the face of Jewish opposition is a theme of the rest of Acts. Paul has indeed become “a light to the Gentiles” (Acts 13:47).

756 tn The translation “greatly astounded” for ἐκπλησσόμενος (ekplhssomeno") is given by L&N 25.219.

757 tn Grk “of,” but this could give the impression the Lord himself had done the teaching (a subjective genitive) when actually the Lord was the object of the teaching (an objective genitive).

758 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

759 sn Paphos was a city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. See Acts 13:6.

760 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor. The journey from Paphos to Perga is about 105 mi (175 km).

761 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor.

762 sn That is, John Mark.

763 sn Returned to Jerusalem. John Mark had originally accompanied them from Jerusalem (see Acts 12:25). John Mark’s decision to leave became an issue later for Barnabas and Paul (Acts 15:36-39).

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

764 tn Or “Passing by.”

765 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

766 tn Or “at Antioch in Pisidia.”

sn Pisidian Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 100 mi (160 km) north of Perga. It was both a Roman colony and the seat of military and civil authority in S. Galatia. One had to trek over the Taurus Mountains to get there, since the city was 3,600 ft (1,100 m) above sea level.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

767 tn Grk “going into the synagogue they sat down.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

768 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

769 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

770 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

771 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

772 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

773 tn Or “word.”

774 tn Or “encouragement.”

775 tn Or “give it.”

776 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

777 tn Or “motioned.”

778 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

779 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

780 tn Or “people of Israel.”

781 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

782 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

783 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

784 tn Or “land.”

785 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

786 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

787 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

788 tn Or “desert.”

789 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

790 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

791 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

792 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

793 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

794 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

795 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

796 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

797 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

798 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

799 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

800 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

801 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

802 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

803 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

804 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

805 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

806 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

807 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

808 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

809 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

810 tn Or “task.”

811 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

812 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

813 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

814 tn Grk “sons”

815 tn Or “race.”

816 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

817 tn Grk “word.”

818 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

819 tn Grk “this one.”

820 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

821 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

822 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

823 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

824 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

825 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

826 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

827 tn Or “carried out.”

828 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

829 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

830 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

831 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

832 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

833 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

834 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

835 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

836 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

837 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

838 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

839 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

840 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

841 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

842 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

843 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

844 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

845 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

846 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

847 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

848 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

849 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

850 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

851 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

852 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

853 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

854 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

855 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

856 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

857 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

858 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

859 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

860 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

861 tn Or “could not free.”

862 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

863 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

864 tn Or “in.”

865 tn Or “and die!”

866 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

867 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

868 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

869 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

870 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

871 tn Or “matters.”



TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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