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Acts 3:1--4:37

Context
Peter and John Heal a Lame Man at the Temple

3:1 Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the time 1  for prayer, 2  at three o’clock in the afternoon. 3  3:2 And a man lame 4  from birth 5  was being carried up, who was placed at the temple gate called “the Beautiful Gate” every day 6  so he could beg for money 7  from those going into the temple courts. 8  3:3 When he saw Peter and John about to go into the temple courts, 9  he asked them for money. 10  3:4 Peter looked directly 11  at him (as did John) and said, “Look at us!” 3:5 So the lame man 12  paid attention to them, expecting to receive something from them. 3:6 But Peter said, “I have no silver or gold, 13  but what I do have I give you. In the name 14  of Jesus Christ 15  the Nazarene, stand up and 16  walk!” 3:7 Then 17  Peter 18  took hold 19  of him by the right hand and raised him up, and at once the man’s 20  feet and ankles were made strong. 21  3:8 He 22  jumped up, 23  stood and began walking around, and he entered the temple courts 24  with them, walking and leaping and praising God. 3:9 All 25  the people saw him walking and praising God, 3:10 and they recognized him as the man who used to sit and ask for donations 26  at the Beautiful Gate of the temple, and they were filled with astonishment and amazement 27  at what had happened to him.

Peter Addresses the Crowd

3:11 While the man 28  was hanging on to Peter and John, all the people, completely astounded, ran together to them in the covered walkway 29  called Solomon’s Portico. 30  3:12 When Peter saw this, he declared to the people, “Men of Israel, 31  why are you amazed at this? Why 32  do you stare at us as if we had made this man 33  walk by our own power or piety? 3:13 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 34  the God of our forefathers, 35  has glorified 36  his servant 37  Jesus, whom you handed over and rejected 38  in the presence of Pilate after he had decided 39  to release him. 3:14 But you rejected 40  the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a man who was a murderer be released to you. 3:15 You killed 41  the Originator 42  of life, whom God raised 43  from the dead. To this fact we are witnesses! 44  3:16 And on the basis of faith in Jesus’ 45  name, 46  his very name has made this man – whom you see and know – strong. The 47  faith that is through Jesus 48  has given him this complete health in the presence 49  of you all. 3:17 And now, brothers, I know you acted in ignorance, 50  as your rulers did too. 3:18 But the things God foretold 51  long ago through 52  all the prophets – that his Christ 53  would suffer – he has fulfilled in this way. 3:19 Therefore repent and turn back so that your sins may be wiped out, 3:20 so that times of refreshing 54  may come from the presence of the Lord, 55  and so that he may send the Messiah 56  appointed 57  for you – that is, Jesus. 3:21 This one 58  heaven must 59  receive until the time all things are restored, 60  which God declared 61  from times long ago 62  through his holy prophets. 3:22 Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers. You must obey 63  him in everything he tells you. 64  3:23 Every person 65  who does not obey that prophet will be destroyed and thus removed 66  from the people.’ 67  3:24 And all the prophets, from Samuel and those who followed him, have spoken about and announced 68  these days. 3:25 You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant that God made with your ancestors, 69  saying to Abraham, ‘And in your descendants 70  all the nations 71  of the earth will be blessed.’ 72  3:26 God raised up 73  his servant and sent him first to you, to bless you by turning 74  each one of you from your iniquities.” 75 

The Arrest and Trial of Peter and John

4:1 While Peter and John 76  were speaking to the people, the priests and the commander 77  of the temple guard 78  and the Sadducees 79  came up 80  to them, 4:2 angry 81  because they were teaching the people and announcing 82  in Jesus the resurrection of the dead. 4:3 So 83  they seized 84  them and put them in jail 85  until the next day (for it was already evening). 4:4 But many of those who had listened to 86  the message 87  believed, and the number of the men 88  came to about five thousand.

4:5 On the next day, 89  their rulers, elders, and experts in the law 90  came together 91  in Jerusalem. 92  4:6 Annas the high priest was there, and Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and others who were members of the high priest’s family. 93  4:7 After 94  making Peter and John 95  stand in their midst, they began to inquire, “By what power or by what name 96  did you do this?” 4:8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, 97  replied, 98  “Rulers of the people and elders, 99  4:9 if 100  we are being examined 101  today for a good deed 102  done to a sick man – by what means this man was healed 103 4:10 let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel that by the name of Jesus Christ 104  the Nazarene whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, this man stands before you healthy. 4:11 This Jesus 105  is the stone that was rejected by you, 106  the builders, that has become the cornerstone. 107  4:12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among people 108  by which we must 109  be saved.”

4:13 When they saw the boldness 110  of Peter and John, and discovered 111  that they were uneducated 112  and ordinary 113  men, they were amazed and recognized these men had been with Jesus. 4:14 And because they saw the man who had been healed standing with them, they had nothing to say against this. 114  4:15 But when they had ordered them to go outside the council, 115  they began to confer with one another, 4:16 saying, “What should we do with these men? For it is plain 116  to all who live in Jerusalem that a notable miraculous sign 117  has come about through them, 118  and we cannot deny it. 4:17 But to keep this matter from spreading any further among the people, let us warn them to speak no more 119  to anyone in this name.” 4:18 And they called them in and ordered 120  them not to speak or teach at all in the name 121  of Jesus. 4:19 But Peter and John replied, 122  “Whether it is right before God to obey 123  you rather than God, you decide, 4:20 for it is impossible 124  for us not to speak about what we have seen and heard.” 4:21 After threatening them further, they released them, for they could not find how to punish them on account of the people, because they were all praising 125  God for what had happened. 4:22 For the man, on whom this miraculous sign 126  of healing had been performed, 127  was over forty years old.

The Followers of Jesus Pray for Boldness

4:23 When they were released, Peter and John 128  went to their fellow believers 129  and reported everything the high priests and the elders had said to them. 4:24 When they heard this, they raised their voices to God with one mind 130  and said, “Master of all, 131  you who made the heaven, the earth, 132  the sea, and everything that is in them, 4:25 who said by the Holy Spirit through 133  your servant David our forefather, 134 

Why do the nations 135  rage, 136 

and the peoples plot foolish 137  things?

4:26 The kings of the earth stood together, 138 

and the rulers assembled together,

against the Lord and against his 139  Christ. 140 

4:27 “For indeed both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, assembled together in this city against 141  your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, 142  4:28 to do as much as your power 143  and your plan 144  had decided beforehand 145  would happen. 4:29 And now, Lord, pay attention to 146  their threats, and grant 147  to your servants 148  to speak your message 149  with great courage, 150  4:30 while you extend your hand to heal, and to bring about miraculous signs 151  and wonders through the name of your holy servant Jesus.” 4:31 When 152  they had prayed, the place where they were assembled together was shaken, 153  and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak 154  the word of God 155  courageously. 156 

Conditions Among the Early Believers

4:32 The group of those who believed were of one heart and mind, 157  and no one said that any of his possessions was his own, but everything was held in common. 158  4:33 With 159  great power the apostles were giving testimony 160  to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and great grace was on them all. 4:34 For there was no one needy 161  among them, because those who were owners of land or houses were selling 162  them 163  and bringing the proceeds from the sales 4:35 and placing them at the apostles’ feet. The proceeds 164  were distributed to each, as anyone had need. 4:36 So Joseph, a Levite who was a native of Cyprus, called by the apostles Barnabas (which is translated “son of encouragement”), 165  4:37 sold 166  a field 167  that belonged to him and brought the money 168  and placed it at the apostles’ feet.

1 tn Grk “hour.”

2 sn Going up to the temple at the time for prayer. The earliest Christians, being of Jewish roots, were still participating in the institutions of Judaism at this point. Their faith in Christ did not make them non-Jewish in their practices.

3 tn Grk “at the ninth hour.” This is calculated from sunrise (Josephus, Ant. 14.4.3 [14.65]; Dan 9:21).

4 tn Or “crippled.”

5 tn Grk “from his mother’s womb.”

6 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.

7 tn Grk “alms.” The term “alms” is not in common use today, so what the man expected, “money,” is used in the translation instead. The idea is that of money given as a gift to someone who was poor. Giving alms was viewed as honorable in Judaism (Tob 1:3, 16; 12:8-9; m. Pe’ah 1:1). See also Luke 11:41; 12:33; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4, 31; 24:17.

8 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

sn Into the temple courts. The exact location of this incident is debated. The ‘Beautiful Gate’ referred either to the Nicanor Gate (which led from the Court of the Gentiles into the Court of Women) or the Shushan Gate at the eastern wall.

9 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

sn See the note on the phrase the temple courts in the previous verse.

10 tn Grk “alms.” See the note on the word “money” in the previous verse.

11 tn Grk “Peter, looking directly at him, as did John, said.” The participle ἀτενίσας (atenisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

12 tn Grk “So he”; the referent (the lame man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tn Or “I have no money.” L&N 6.69 classifies the expression ἀργύριον καὶ χρυσίον (argurion kai crusion) as an idiom that is a generic expression for currency, thus “money.”

14 sn In the name. Note the authority in the name of Jesus the Messiah. His presence and power are at work for the man. The reference to “the name” is not like a magical incantation, but is designed to indicate the agent who performs the healing. The theme is quite frequent in Acts (2:38 plus 21 other times).

15 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

16 tc The words “stand up and” (ἔγειρε καί, egeire kai) are not in a few mss (א B D sa), but are included in A C E Ψ 095 33 1739 Ï lat sy mae bo. The external testimony is thus fairly evenly divided, with few but important representatives of the Alexandrian and Western texttypes supporting the shorter reading. Internally, the words look like a standard scribal emendation, and may have been motivated by other healing passages where Jesus gave a similar double command (cf. Matt 9:5; Mark 2:9, [11]; Luke 5:23; [6:8]; John 5:8). On the other hand, there is some motivation for deleting ἔγειρε καί here, namely, unlike Jesus’ healing miracles, Peter raises (ἤγειρεν, hgeiren) the man to his feet (v. 7) rather than the man rising on his own. In light of the scribal tendency to harmonize, especially in immediate context, the longer reading is slightly preferred.

17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to reflect the sequence of events.

18 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

19 tn Grk “Peter taking hold of him…raised him up.” The participle πιάσας (piasas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

20 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

21 sn At once the man’s feet and ankles were made strong. Note that despite the past lameness, the man is immediately able to walk. The restoration of his ability to walk pictures the presence of a renewed walk, a fresh start at life; this was far more than money would have given him.

22 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

23 tn Grk “Jumping up, he stood.” The participle ἐξαλλόμενος (exallomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It is possible that the paralyzed man actually jumped off the ground, but more probably this term simply refers to the speed with which he stood up. See L&N 15.240.

24 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

25 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

26 tn Grk “alms,” but this term is not in common use today, so the closest modern equivalent, “donations,” is used instead. The idea is that of a donation to charity.

27 sn Amazement is a frequent response to miracles of Jesus or the apostles. These took the ancients by as much surprise as they would people today. But in terms of response to what God is doing, amazement does not equal faith (Luke 4:36; 5:9, 26; 7:16).

28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

29 tn Or “portico,” “colonnade”; Grk “stoa.” The translation “covered walkway” (a descriptive translation) was used here because the architectural term “portico” or “colonnade” is less familiar. However, the more technical term “portico” was retained in the actual name that follows.

30 sn Solomons Portico was a covered walkway formed by rows of columns supporting a roof and open on the inner side facing the center of the temple complex. It was located on the east side of the temple (Josephus, Ant. 15.11.3-5 [15.391-420], 20.9.7 [20.221]) and was a place of commerce and conversation.

31 tn Or perhaps “People of Israel,” since this was taking place in Solomon’s Portico and women may have been present. The Greek ἄνδρες ᾿Ισραηλῖται (andre" Israhlitai) used in the plural would normally mean “men, gentlemen” (BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).

32 tn Grk “or why.”

33 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

34 tc ‡ The repetition of ὁ θεός (Jo qeos, “God”) before the names of Isaac and Jacob is found in Ì74 א C (A D without article) 36 104 1175 pc lat. The omission of the second and third ὁ θεός is supported by B E Ψ 33 1739 Ï pc. The other time that Exod 3:6 is quoted in Acts (7:32) the best witnesses also lack the repeated ὁ θεός, but the three other times this OT passage is quoted in the NT the full form, with the thrice-mentioned θεός, is used (Matt 22:32; Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37). Scribes would be prone to conform the wording here to the LXX; the longer reading is thus most likely not authentic. NA27 has the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

35 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”

sn The reference to the God of the patriarchs is a reminder that God is the God of the nation and of promises. The phrase God of our forefathers is from the Hebrew scriptures (Exod 3:6, 15-16; 4:5; see also the Jewish prayer known as “The Eighteen Benedictions”). Once again, event has led to explanation, or what is called the “sign and speech” pattern.

36 sn Has glorified. Jesus is alive, raised and active, as the healing illustrates so dramatically how God honors him.

37 sn His servant. The term servant has messianic connotations given the context of the promise, the note of suffering, and the titles and functions noted in vv. 14-15.

38 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”

39 tn This genitive absolute construction could be understood as temporal (“when he had decided”) or concessive (“although he had decided”).

40 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”

41 tn Or “You put to death.”

42 tn Or “Founder,” “founding Leader.”

43 sn Whom God raised. God is the main actor here, as he testifies to Jesus and vindicates him.

44 tn Grk “whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the words “to this fact” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.

sn We are witnesses. Note the two witnesses here, Peter and John (Acts 5:32; Heb 2:3-4).

45 tn Grk “in his name”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

46 sn Here is another example of appeal to the person by mentioning the name. See the note on the word name in 3:6.

47 tn Grk “see and know, and the faith.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and καί (kai, “and”) has not been translated.

48 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn The faith that is through Jesus. Note how this verse explains how the claim to “faith in Jesus’ name” works and what it means. To appeal to the name is to point to the person. It is not clear that the man expressed faith before the miracle. This could well be a “grace-faith miracle” where God grants power through the apostles to picture how much a gift life is (Luke 17:11-19). Christology and grace are emphasized here.

49 tn Or “in full view.”

50 sn The ignorance Peter mentions here does not excuse them from culpability. It was simply a way to say “you did not realize the great mistake you made.”

51 sn God foretold. Peter’s topic is the working out of God’s plan and promise through events the scriptures also note.

52 tn Grk “by the mouth of” (an idiom).

53 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

54 tn Or “relief.”

sn Times of refreshing. The phrase implies relief from difficult, distressful or burdensome circumstances. It is generally regarded as a reference to the messianic age being ushered in.

55 tn The words “so that…Lord” are traditionally placed in v. 19 by most English translations, but in the present translation the verse division follows the standard critical editions of the Greek text (NA27, UBS4).

56 tn Or “the Christ”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn He may send the Messiah appointed for you – that is, Jesus. The language points to the expectation of Jesus’ return to gather his people. It is a development of the question raised in Acts 1:6.

57 tn Or “designated in advance.”

58 tn Grk “whom,” continuing the sentence from v. 20.

59 sn The term must used here (δεῖ, dei, “it is necessary”) is a key Lukan term to point to the plan of God and what must occur.

60 tn Grk “until the times of the restoration of all things.” Because of the awkward English style of the extended genitive construction, and because the following relative clause has as its referent the “time of restoration” rather than “all things,” the phrase was translated “until the time all things are restored.”

sn The time all things are restored. What that restoration involves is already recorded in the scriptures of the nation of Israel.

61 tn Or “spoke.”

62 tn Or “from all ages past.”

sn From times long ago. Once again, God’s plan is emphasized.

63 tn Grk “hear,” but the idea of “hear and obey” or simply “obey” is frequently contained in the Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw; see L&N 36.14) and the following context (v. 23) makes it clear that failure to “obey” the words of this “prophet like Moses” will result in complete destruction.

64 sn A quotation from Deut 18:15. By quoting Deut 18:15 Peter declared that Jesus was the eschatological “prophet like [Moses]” mentioned in that passage, who reveals the plan of God and the way of God.

65 tn Grk “every soul” (here “soul” is an idiom for the whole person).

66 tn Or “will be completely destroyed.” In Acts 3:23 the verb ἐξολεθρεύω (exoleqreuw) is translated “destroy and remove” by L&N 20.35.

67 sn A quotation from Deut 18:19, also Lev 23:29. The OT context of Lev 23:29 discusses what happened when one failed to honor atonement. One ignored the required sacrifice of God at one’s peril.

68 tn Or “proclaimed.”

sn All the prophets…have spoken about and announced. What Peter preaches is rooted in basic biblical and Jewish hope as expressed in the OT scriptures.

69 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

70 tn Or “in your offspring”; Grk “in your seed.”

sn In your descendants (Grk “in your seed”). Seed has an important ambiguity in this verse. The blessing comes from the servant (v. 26), who in turn blesses the responsive children of the covenant as the scripture promised. Jesus is the seed who blesses the seed.

71 tn Or “families.” The Greek word πατριά (patria) can indicate persons of succeeding generations who are related by birth (“lineage,” “family”) but it can also indicate a relatively large unit of people who make up a sociopolitical group and who share a presumed biological descent. In many contexts πατριά is very similar to ἔθνος (eqnos) and λαός (laos). In light of the context of the OT quotation, it is better to translate πατριά as “nations” here.

72 sn A quotation from Gen 22:18.

73 tn Grk “God raising up his servant, sent him.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Some translations (e.g., NIV, NRSV) render this participle as temporal (“when God raised up his servant”).

74 sn The picture of turning is again seen as the appropriate response to the message. See v. 19 above. In v. 19 it was “turning to,” here it is “turning away from.” The direction of the two metaphors is important.

75 tn For the translation of plural πονηρία (ponhria) as “iniquities,” see G. Harder, TDNT 6:565. The plural is important, since for Luke turning to Jesus means turning away from sins, not just the sin of rejecting Jesus.

76 tn Grk “While they”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

77 tn Or “captain.”

78 tn Grk “the official of the temple,” a title for the commander of the Jewish soldiers guarding the temple (thus the translation, “the commander of the temple guard”). See L&N 37.91.

sn The commander of the temple guard was the title of the officer commanding the Jewish soldiers responsible for guarding and keeping order in the temple courts in Jerusalem.

79 sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). See also Matt 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38; Acts 5:17; 23:6-8.

80 tn Or “approached.” This verb often denotes a sudden appearing (BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 1).

81 tn Or “greatly annoyed,” “provoked.”

82 tn Or “proclaiming.”

83 tn Grk “And” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the logical sequence of events.

84 tn Or “they arrested”; Grk “they laid hands on.”

85 tn Or “prison,” “custody.”

86 tn Or “had heard.”

87 tn Or “word.”

88 tn In the historical setting it is likely that only men are referred to here. The Greek term ἀνήρ (anhr) usually refers to males or husbands rather than people in general. Thus to translate “of the people” would give a false impression of the number, since any women and children were apparently not included in the count.

89 tn Grk “It happened that on the next day.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

90 tn Or “and scribes.” The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as “scribe” does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean “professional copyist,” if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus “expert in the law” comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.

sn Experts in the law would have been mostly like the Pharisees in approach. Thus various sects of Judaism were coming together against Jesus.

91 tn Or “law assembled,” “law met together.”

92 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

93 sn The high priest’s family. This family controlled the high priesthood as far back as a.d. 6. Annas, Caiaphas, and Alexander were all high priests at one time (though Alexander held that office after this event).

94 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new sentence is begun in the translation at the beginning of v. 7.

95 tn Grk “making them”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

96 sn By what name. The issue of the “name” comes up again here. This question, meaning “by whose authority,” surfaces an old dispute (see Luke 20:1-8). Who speaks for God about the ancient faith?

97 sn Filled with the Holy Spirit. The narrator’s remark about the Holy Spirit indicates that Peter speaks as directed by God and for God. This fulfills Luke 12:11-12 (1 Pet 3:15).

98 tn Grk “Spirit, said to them.”

99 tc The Western and Byzantine texts, as well as one or two Alexandrian witnesses, read τοῦ ᾿Ισραήλ (tou Israhl, “of Israel”) after πρεσβύτεροι (presbuteroi, “elders”; so D E Ψ 33 1739 Ï it), while most of the better witnesses, chiefly Alexandrian (Ì74 א A B 0165 1175 vg sa bo), lack this modifier. The longer reading was most likely added by scribes to give literary balance to the addressees in that “Rulers” already had an adjunct while “elders” was left absolute.

100 tn This clause is a first class condition. It assumes for the sake of argument that this is what they were being questioned about.

101 tn Or “questioned.” The Greek term ἀνακρίνω (anakrinw) points to an examination similar to a legal one.

102 tn Or “for an act of kindness.”

103 tn Or “delivered” (σέσωται [seswtai], from σώζω [swzw]). See 4:12.

104 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

105 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

106 tn The word “you” is inserted into the quotation because Peter is making a direct application of Ps 118:22 to his hearers. Because it is not in the OT, it has been left as normal type (rather than bold italic). The remarks are like Acts 2:22-24 and 3:12-15.

107 sn A quotation from Ps 118:22 which combines the theme of rejection with the theme of God’s vindication/exaltation.

108 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).

109 sn Must be saved. The term used here (δεῖ, dei, “it is necessary”) reflects the necessity set up by God’s directive plan.

110 tn Or “courage.”

111 tn Or “and found out.”

112 sn Uneducated does not mean “illiterate,” that is, unable to read or write. Among Jews in NT times there was almost universal literacy, especially as the result of widespread synagogue schools. The term refers to the fact that Peter and John had no formal rabbinic training and thus, in the view of their accusers, were not qualified to expound the law or teach publicly. The objection is like Acts 2:7.

113 tn For the translation of ἰδιῶται (idiwtai) as “ordinary men” see L&N 27.26.

114 tn Or “nothing to say in opposition.”

115 tn Or “the Sanhedrin” (the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).

116 tn Or “evident.”

117 tn Here σημεῖον (shmeion) has been translated as “miraculous sign” rather than simply “sign” or “miracle” since both components appear to be present in the context. It is clear that the healing of the lame man was a miracle, but for the Sanhedrin it was the value of the miraculous healing as a sign that concerned them because it gave attestation to the message of Peter and John. The sign “speaks” as Peter claimed in 3:11-16.

118 tn Or “has been done by them.”

119 tn Or “speak no longer.”

120 tn Or “commanded.”

121 sn In the name of Jesus. Once again, the “name” reflects the person. The person of Jesus and his authority is the “troubling” topic that, as far as the Jewish leadership is concerned, needs controlling.

122 tn Grk “answered and said to them.”

123 tn Grk “hear,” but the idea of “hear and obey” or simply “obey” is frequently contained in the Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw; see L&N 36.14).

124 tn Grk “for we are not able not to speak about what we have seen and heard,” but the double negative, which cancels out in English, is emphatic in Greek. The force is captured somewhat by the English translation “it is impossible for us not to speak…” although this is slightly awkward.

125 tn Or “glorifying.”

126 tn Here σημεῖον (shmeion) has been translated as “miraculous sign” rather than simply “sign” or “miracle” since both components appear to be present in the context. See also the note on this word in v. 16.

127 tn Or “had been done.”

128 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity, since a new topic begins in v. 23 and the last specific reference to Peter and John in the Greek text is in 4:19.

129 tn Grk “to their own [people].” In context this phrase is most likely a reference to other believers rather than simply their own families and/or homes, since the group appears to act with one accord in the prayer that follows in v. 24. At the literary level, this phrase suggests how Jews were now splitting into two camps, pro-Jesus and anti-Jesus.

130 sn With one mind. Compare Acts 1:14.

131 tn Or “Lord of all.”

sn The use of the title Master of all (δεσπότης, despoths) emphasizes that there is a sovereign God who is directing what is taking place.

132 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

133 tn Grk “by the mouth of” (an idiom).

134 tn Or “ancestor”; Grk “father.”

135 tn Or “Gentiles.”

136 sn The Greek word translated rage includes not only anger but opposition, both verbal and nonverbal. See L&N 88.185.

137 tn Or “futile”; traditionally, “vain.”

138 tn Traditionally, “The kings of the earth took their stand.”

139 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

140 sn A quotation from Ps 2:1-2.

141 sn The application of Ps 2:1-2 is that Jews and Gentiles are opposing Jesus. The surprise of the application is that Jews are now found among the enemies of God’s plan.

142 sn A wordplay on “Christ,” v. 26, which means “one who has been anointed.”

143 tn Grk “hand,” here a metaphor for God’s strength or power or authority.

144 tn Or “purpose,” “will.”

145 tn Or “had predestined.” Since the term “predestine” is something of a technical theological term, not in wide usage in contemporary English, the translation “decide beforehand” was used instead (see L&N 30.84). God’s direction remains as the major theme.

146 tn Or “Lord, take notice of.”

147 sn Grant to your servants to speak your message with great courage. The request is not for a stop to persecution or revenge on the opponents, but for boldness (great courage) to carry out the mission of proclaiming the message of what God is doing through Jesus.

148 tn Grk “slaves.” See the note on the word “servants” in 2:18.

149 tn Grk “word.”

150 tn Or “with all boldness.”

151 tn The miraculous nature of these signs is implied in the context.

152 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

153 sn The place where they were assembled…was shaken. This signifies that God is in their midst. See Acts 16:26; Exod 19:18; Ps 114:7; Isa 6:4.

154 tn The imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“began to speak”). Logical sequencing suggests that their speaking began after they were filled with the Spirit. The prayer was answered immediately.

155 tn Or “speak God’s message.”

156 tn Or “with boldness.”

157 tn Grk “soul.”

158 tn Grk “but all things were to them in common.”

sn Everything was held in common. The remark is not a reflection of political philosophy, but of the extent of their spontaneous commitment to one another. Such a response does not have the function of a command, but is reflective of an attitude that Luke commends as evidence of their identification with one another.

159 tn Grk “And with.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

160 tn Or “were witnessing.”

161 tn Or “poor.”

162 tn Grk “houses, selling them were bringing.” The participle πωλοῦντες (pwlounte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

163 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

164 tn Grk “It” (or “They,” plural). The referent of the understood pronoun subject, the proceeds from the sales, of the verb διεδίδετο (diedideto) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

165 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. Note how the actions of Barnabas are in keeping with the meaning of his nickname. He stands in contrast to Ananias and Sapphira in 5:1-11.

166 tn Grk “selling a field that belonged to him, brought” The participle πωλήσας (pwlhsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

167 tn Or “a farm.”

168 tn Normally a reference to actual coins (“currency”). See L&N 6.68.



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