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Acts 2:30-36

Context
2:30 So then, because 1  he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants 2  on his throne, 3  2:31 David by foreseeing this 4  spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, 5  that he was neither abandoned to Hades, 6  nor did his body 7  experience 8  decay. 9  2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 10  2:33 So then, exalted 11  to the right hand 12  of God, and having received 13  the promise of the Holy Spirit 14  from the Father, he has poured out 15  what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

The Lord said to my lord,

Sit 16  at my right hand

2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool 17  for your feet.”’ 18 

2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt 19  that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified 20  both Lord 21  and Christ.” 22 

Acts 13:32-39

Context
13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 23  13:33 that this promise 24  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 25  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 26  today I have fathered you.’ 27  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 28  from the dead, never 29  again to be 30  in a state of decay, God 31  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 32  the holy and trustworthy promises 33  made to David.’ 34  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 35 You will not permit your Holy One 36  to experience 37  decay.’ 38  13:36 For David, after he had served 39  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 40  was buried with his ancestors, 41  and experienced 42  decay, 13:37 but the one 43  whom God raised up did not experience 44  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 45  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 46  everyone who believes is justified 47  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 48  you. 49 

1 tn The participles ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) and εἰδώς (eidw") are translated as causal adverbial participles.

2 tn Grk “one from the fruit of his loins.” “Loins” is the traditional translation of ὀσφῦς (osfu"), referring to the male genital organs. A literal rendering like “one who came from his genital organs” would be regarded as too specific and perhaps even vulgar by many contemporary readers. Most modern translations thus render the phrase “one of his descendants.”

3 sn An allusion to Ps 132:11 and 2 Sam 7:12-13, the promise in the Davidic covenant.

4 tn Grk “David foreseeing spoke.” The participle προϊδών (proidwn) is taken as indicating means. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance: “David foresaw [this] and spoke.” The word “this” is supplied in either case as an understood direct object (direct objects in Greek were often omitted, but must be supplied for the modern English reader).

5 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul’s letters to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.

6 tn Or “abandoned in the world of the dead.” The translation “world of the dead” for Hades is suggested by L&N 1.19. The phrase is an allusion to Ps 16:10.

7 tn Grk “flesh.” See vv. 26b-27. The reference to “body” in this verse picks up the reference to “body” in v. 26. The Greek term σάρξ (sarx) in both verses literally means “flesh”; however, the translation “body” stresses the lack of decay of his physical body. The point of the verse is not merely the lack of decay of his flesh alone, but the resurrection of his entire person, as indicated by the previous parallel line “he was not abandoned to Hades.”

8 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

9 sn An allusion to Ps 16:10.

10 tn Or “of him”; Grk “of which [or whom] we are all witnesses” (Acts 1:8).

11 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

12 sn The expression the right hand of God represents supreme power and authority. Its use here sets up the quotation of Ps 110:1 in v. 34.

13 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

14 tn Here the genitive τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the promise consists of the Holy Spirit.

15 sn The use of the verb poured out looks back to 2:17-18, where the same verb occurs twice.

16 sn Sit at my right hand. The word “sit” alludes back to the promise of “seating one on his throne” in v. 30.

17 sn The metaphor make your enemies a footstool portrays the complete subjugation of the enemies.

18 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1, one of the most often-cited OT passages in the NT, pointing to the exaltation of Jesus.

19 tn Or “know for certain.” This term is in an emphatic position in the clause.

20 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.

21 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.

22 tn Or “and Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

23 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

24 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

25 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

26 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

27 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

28 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

29 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

30 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

32 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

33 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

34 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

35 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

36 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

37 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

38 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

39 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

40 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

41 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

42 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

43 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

44 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

45 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

46 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

47 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

48 tn Or “could not free.”

49 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.



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