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Acts 27:9--28:31

Context
Caught in a Violent Storm

27:9 Since considerable time had passed and the voyage was now dangerous 1  because the fast 2  was already over, 3  Paul advised them, 4  27:10 “Men, I can see the voyage is going to end 5  in disaster 6  and great loss not only of the cargo and the ship, but also of our lives.” 7  27:11 But the centurion 8  was more convinced 9  by the captain 10  and the ship’s owner than by what Paul said. 11  27:12 Because the harbor was not suitable to spend the winter in, the majority decided 12  to put out to sea 13  from there. They hoped that 14  somehow they could reach 15  Phoenix, 16  a harbor of Crete facing 17  southwest and northwest, and spend the winter there. 27:13 When a gentle south wind sprang up, they thought 18  they could carry out 19  their purpose, so they weighed anchor 20  and sailed close along the coast 21  of Crete. 27:14 Not long after this, a hurricane-force 22  wind called the northeaster 23  blew down from the island. 24  27:15 When the ship was caught in it 25  and could not head into 26  the wind, we gave way to it and were driven 27  along. 27:16 As we ran under the lee of 28  a small island called Cauda, 29  we were able with difficulty to get the ship’s boat 30  under control. 27:17 After the crew 31  had hoisted it aboard, 32  they used supports 33  to undergird the ship. Fearing they would run aground 34  on the Syrtis, 35  they lowered the sea anchor, 36  thus letting themselves be driven along. 27:18 The next day, because we were violently battered by the storm, 37  they began throwing the cargo overboard, 38  27:19 and on the third day they threw the ship’s gear 39  overboard with their own hands. 27:20 When neither sun nor stars appeared for many days and a violent 40  storm continued to batter us, 41  we finally abandoned all hope of being saved. 42 

27:21 Since many of them had no desire to eat, 43  Paul 44  stood up 45  among them and said, “Men, you should have listened to me 46  and not put out to sea 47  from Crete, thus avoiding 48  this damage and loss. 27:22 And now I advise 49  you to keep up your courage, for there will be no loss of life among you, but only the ship will be lost. 50  27:23 For last night an angel of the God to whom I belong 51  and whom I serve 52  came to me 53  27:24 and said, 54  ‘Do not be afraid, Paul! You must stand before 55  Caesar, 56  and God has graciously granted you the safety 57  of all who are sailing with you.’ 27:25 Therefore keep up your courage, men, for I have faith in God 58  that it will be just as I have been told. 27:26 But we must 59  run aground on some island.”

27:27 When the fourteenth night had come, while we were being driven 60  across the Adriatic Sea, 61  about midnight the sailors suspected they were approaching some land. 62  27:28 They took soundings 63  and found the water was twenty fathoms 64  deep; when they had sailed a little farther 65  they took soundings again and found it was fifteen fathoms 66  deep. 27:29 Because they were afraid 67  that we would run aground on the rocky coast, 68  they threw out 69  four anchors from the stern and wished 70  for day to appear. 71  27:30 Then when the sailors tried to escape from the ship and were lowering the ship’s boat into the sea, pretending 72  that they were going to put out anchors from the bow, 27:31 Paul said to the centurion 73  and the soldiers, “Unless these men stay with the ship, you 74  cannot be saved.” 27:32 Then the soldiers cut the ropes 75  of the ship’s boat and let it drift away. 76 

27:33 As day was about to dawn, 77  Paul urged them all to take some food, saying, “Today is the fourteenth day you have been in suspense 78  and have gone 79  without food; you have eaten nothing. 80  27:34 Therefore I urge you to take some food, for this is important 81  for your survival. 82  For not one of you will lose a hair from his head.” 27:35 After he said this, Paul 83  took bread 84  and gave thanks to God in front of them all, 85  broke 86  it, and began to eat. 27:36 So all of them were encouraged and took food themselves. 27:37 (We were in all two hundred seventy-six 87  persons on the ship.) 88  27:38 When they had eaten enough to be satisfied, 89  they lightened the ship by throwing the wheat 90  into the sea.

Paul is Shipwrecked

27:39 When day came, they did not recognize the land, but they noticed 91  a bay 92  with a beach, 93  where they decided to run the ship aground if they could. 27:40 So they slipped 94  the anchors 95  and left them in the sea, at the same time loosening the linkage 96  that bound the steering oars 97  together. Then they hoisted 98  the foresail 99  to the wind and steered toward 100  the beach. 27:41 But they encountered a patch of crosscurrents 101  and ran the ship aground; the bow stuck fast and could not be moved, but the stern was being broken up by the force 102  of the waves. 27:42 Now the soldiers’ plan was to kill the prisoners 103  so that none of them would escape by swimming away. 104  27:43 But the centurion, 105  wanting to save Paul’s life, 106  prevented them from carrying out their plan. He ordered those who could swim to jump overboard first and get to land, 107  27:44 and the rest were to follow, 108  some on planks 109  and some on pieces of the ship. 110  And in this way 111  all were brought safely to land.

Paul on Malta

28:1 After we had safely reached shore, 112  we learned that the island was called Malta. 113  28:2 The local inhabitants 114  showed us extraordinary 115  kindness, for they built a fire and welcomed us all because it had started to rain 116  and was cold. 28:3 When Paul had gathered a bundle of brushwood 117  and was putting it on the fire, a viper came out because of the heat and fastened itself on his hand. 28:4 When the local people 118  saw the creature hanging from Paul’s 119  hand, they said to one another, “No doubt this man is a murderer! Although he has escaped from the sea, Justice herself 120  has not allowed him to live!” 121  28:5 However, 122  Paul 123  shook 124  the creature off into the fire and suffered no harm. 28:6 But they were expecting that he was going to swell up 125  or suddenly drop dead. So after they had waited 126  a long time and had seen 127  nothing unusual happen 128  to him, they changed their minds 129  and said he was a god. 130 

28:7 Now in the region around that place 131  were fields belonging to the chief official 132  of the island, named Publius, who welcomed us and entertained us hospitably as guests for three days. 28:8 The father 133  of Publius lay sick in bed, suffering from fever and dysentery. Paul went in to see him 134  and after praying, placed 135  his hands on him and healed 136  him. 28:9 After this had happened, many of the people on the island who were sick 137  also came and were healed. 138  28:10 They also bestowed many honors, 139  and when we were preparing to sail, 140  they gave 141  us all the supplies we needed. 142 

Paul Finally Reaches Rome

28:11 After three months we put out to sea 143  in an Alexandrian ship that had wintered at the island and had the “Heavenly Twins” 144  as its figurehead. 145  28:12 We put in 146  at Syracuse 147  and stayed there three days. 28:13 From there we cast off 148  and arrived at Rhegium, 149  and after one day a south wind sprang up 150  and on the second day we came to Puteoli. 151  28:14 There 152  we found 153  some brothers 154  and were invited to stay with them seven days. And in this way we came to Rome. 155  28:15 The brothers from there, 156  when they heard about us, came as far as the Forum of Appius 157  and Three Taverns 158  to meet us. When he saw them, 159  Paul thanked God and took courage. 28:16 When we entered Rome, Paul was allowed to live 160  by himself, with the soldier who was guarding him.

Paul Addresses the Jewish Community in Rome

28:17 After three days 161  Paul 162  called the local Jewish leaders 163  together. When they had assembled, he said to them, “Brothers, 164  although I had done 165  nothing against our people or the customs of our ancestors, 166  from Jerusalem 167  I was handed over as a prisoner to the Romans. 168  28:18 When 169  they had heard my case, 170  they wanted to release me, 171  because there was no basis for a death sentence 172  against me. 28:19 But when the Jews objected, 173  I was forced to appeal to Caesar 174  – not that I had some charge to bring 175  against my own people. 176  28:20 So for this reason I have asked to see you and speak with you, for I am bound with this chain because of the hope of Israel.” 177  28:21 They replied, 178  “We have received no letters from Judea about you, nor have any of the brothers come from there 179  and reported or said anything bad about you. 28:22 But we would like to hear from you what you think, for regarding this sect we know 180  that people 181  everywhere speak against 182  it.”

28:23 They set 183  a day to meet with him, 184  and they came to him where he was staying 185  in even greater numbers. 186  From morning until evening he explained things 187  to them, 188  testifying 189  about the kingdom of God 190  and trying to convince 191  them about Jesus from both the law of Moses and the prophets. 28:24 Some were convinced 192  by what he said, 193  but others refused 194  to believe. 28:25 So they began to leave, 195  unable to agree among themselves, after Paul made one last statement: “The Holy Spirit spoke rightly to your ancestors 196  through the prophet Isaiah 28:26 when he said,

Go to this people and say,

You will keep on hearing, 197  but will never understand,

and you will keep on looking, 198  but will never perceive.

28:27 For the heart of this people has become dull, 199 

and their ears are hard of hearing, 200 

and they have closed their eyes,

so that they would not see with their eyes

and hear with their ears

and understand with their heart

and turn, 201  and I would heal them.”’ 202 

28:28 “Therefore be advised 203  that this salvation from God 204  has been sent to the Gentiles; 205  they 206  will listen!”

28:29 [[EMPTY]] 207 

28:30 Paul 208  lived 209  there two whole years in his own rented quarters 210  and welcomed 211  all who came to him, 28:31 proclaiming the kingdom of God and teaching about the Lord Jesus Christ 212  with complete boldness 213  and without restriction. 214 

1 tn Or “unsafe” (BDAG 383 s.v. ἐπισφαλής). The term is a NT hapax legomenon.

2 sn The fast refers to the Jewish Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur. It was now into October and the dangerous winter winds would soon occur (Suetonius, Life of Claudius 18; Josephus, J. W. 1.14.2-3 [1.279-281]).

3 tn The accusative articular infinitive παρεληλυθέναι (parelhluqenai) after the preposition διά (dia) is causal. BDAG 776 s.v. παρέρχομαι 2 has “διὰ τὸ τὴν νηστείαν ἤδη παρεληλυθέναι because the fast was already over Ac 27:9.”

4 tn Grk “Paul advised, saying to them.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated. On the term translated “advised,” see BDAG 764 s.v. παραινέω, which usually refers to recommendations.

sn Paul advised them. A literary theme surfaces here: Though Paul is under arrest, he will be the one to guide them all through the dangers of the storm and shipwreck, showing clearly God’s presence and protection of him. The story is told in great detail. This literary effect of slowing down the passage of time and narrating with many details serves to add a sense of drama to the events described.

5 tn Grk “is going to be with disaster.”

6 tn Or “hardship,” “damage.” BDAG 1022 s.v. ὕβρις 3 states, “fig. hardship, disaster, damage caused by the elements…w. ζημία Ac 27:10.”

7 tn Grk “souls” (here, one’s physical life).

8 sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1.

9 tn Or “persuaded.”

10 tn BDAG 456 s.v. κυβερνήτης 1 has “one who is responsible for the management of a ship, shipmaster…W. ναύκληρος, the ‘shipowner’…Ac 27:11” See further L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World, 316-18.

11 tn Grk “than by what was said by Paul.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one to simplify the translation.

sn More convinced by the captain and the ship’s owner than by what Paul said. The position taken by the centurion was logical, since he was following “professional” advice. But this was not a normal voyage.

12 tn BDAG 181-82 s.v. βουλή 2.a, “β. τίθεσθαι (Judg 19:30; Ps 12:3) decide 27:12 (w. inf. foll.).”

13 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

14 tn Grk “from there, if somehow” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun here in the translation and the introductory phrase “They hoped that” supplied (with the subject, “they,” repeated from the previous clause) to make a complete English sentence.

15 tn Grk “if somehow, reaching Phoenix, they could…” The participle καταντήσαντες (katanthsante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

16 sn Phoenix was a seaport on the southern coast of the island of Crete. This was about 30 mi (48 km) further west.

17 tn Or “a harbor of Crete open to the southwest and northwest.”

18 tn Grk “thinking.” The participle δόξαντες (doxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

19 tn Or “accomplish.” L&N 68.29, for κρατέω, has “to be able to complete or finish, presumably despite difficulties – ‘to accomplish, to do successfully, to carry out.’ …‘thinking that they could carry out their purpose’ Ac 27:13.”

20 tn Or “departed.”

21 tn L&N 54.8, “παραλέγομαι: (a technical, nautical term) to sail along beside some object – ‘to sail along the coast, to sail along the shore.’…‘they sailed along the coast of Crete’ Ac 27:13.” With the addition of the adverb ἆσσον (asson) this becomes “sailed close along the coast of Crete.”

22 tn Grk “a wind like a typhoon.” That is, a very violent wind like a typhoon or hurricane (BDAG 1021 s.v. τυφωνικός).

23 sn Or called Euraquilo (the actual name of the wind, a sailor’s term which was a combination of Greek and Latin). According to Strabo (Geography 1.2.21), this was a violent northern wind.

24 tn Grk “from it”; the referent (the island) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

25 tn Or “was forced off course.” Grk “The ship being caught in it.” The genitive absolute construction with the participle συναρπασθέντος (sunarpasqento") has been taken temporally; it could also be translated as causal (“Because the ship was caught in it”).

26 tn BDAG 91 s.v. ἀντοφθαλμέω states, “Metaph. of a ship τοῦ πλοίου μὴ δυναμένοι ἀ. τῷ ἀνέμῳ since the ship was not able to face the wind, i.e. with its bow headed against the forces of the waves Ac 27:15.”

27 sn Caught in the violent wind, the ship was driven along. They were now out of control, at the mercy of the wind and sea.

28 tn BDAG 1042 s.v. ὑποτρέχω states, “run or sail under the lee of, nautical t.t.…Ac 27:16.” The participle ὑποδραμόντες (Jupodramonte") has been taken temporally (“as we ran under the lee of”). While this could also be translated as a participle of means (“by running…”) this might suggest the ship was still under a greater degree of control by its crew than it probably was.

29 sn Cauda. This island was located south of Crete, about 23 mi (36 km) from where they began. There are various ways to spell the island’s name (e.g., Clauda, BDAG 546 s.v. Κλαῦδα).

30 sn The ships boat was a small rowboat, normally towed behind a ship in good weather rather than stowed on board. It was used for landings, to maneuver the ship for tacking, and to lay anchors (not a lifeboat in the modern sense, although it could have served as a means of escape for some of the sailors; see v. 30). See L. Casson, Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World, 248f.

31 tn Grk “After hoisting it up, they…”; the referent (the ship’s crew) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

32 tn The participle ἄραντες (arantes) has been taken temporally.

33 tn Possibly “ropes” or “cables”; Grk “helps” (a word of uncertain meaning; probably a nautical technical term, BDAG 180 s.v. βοήθεια 2).

34 tn BDAG 308 s.v. ἐκπίπτω 2 states, “drift off course, run aground, nautical term εἴς τι on someth….on the Syrtis 27:17.”

35 tn That is, on the sandbars and shallows of the Syrtis.

sn On the Syrtis. The Syrtis was the name of two gulfs on the North African coast (modern Libya), feared greatly by sailors because of their shifting sandbars and treacherous shallows. The Syrtis here is the so-called Great Syrtis, toward Cyrenaica. It had a horrible reputation as a sailors’ graveyard (Pliny, Natural History 5.26). Josephus (J. W. 2.16.4 [2.381]) says the name alone struck terror in those who heard it. It was near the famous Scylla and Charybdis mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey.

36 tn Or perhaps “mainsail.” The meaning of this word is uncertain. BDAG 927 s.v. σκεῦος 1 has “τὸ σκεῦος Ac 27:17 seems to be the kedge or driving anchor” while C. Maurer (TDNT 7:362) notes, “The meaning in Ac. 27:17: χαλάσαντες τὸ σκεῦος, is uncertain. Prob. the ref. is not so much to taking down the sails as to throwing the draganchor overboard to lessen the speed of the ship.” In spite of this L&N 6.1 states, “In Ac 27:17, for example, the reference of σκεῦος is generally understood to be the mainsail.” A reference to the sail is highly unlikely because in a storm of the force described in Ac 27:14, the sail would have been taken down and reefed immediately, to prevent its being ripped to shreds or torn away by the gale.

37 tn BDAG 980 s.v. σφόδρῶς states, “very much, greatly, violently…σφ. χειμάζεσθαι be violently beaten by a storm Ac 27:18.”

38 tn Or “jettisoning [the cargo]” (a nautical technical term). The words “the cargo” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

sn The desperation of the sailors in throwing the cargo overboard is reminiscent of Jonah 1:5. At this point they were only concerned with saving themselves.

39 tn Or “rigging,” “tackle”; Grk “the ship’s things.” Here the more abstract “gear” is preferred to “rigging” or “tackle” as a translation for σκεῦος (skeuos) because in v. 40 the sailors are still able to raise the (fore)sail, which they could not have done if the ship’s rigging or tackle had been jettisoned here.

40 tn Grk “no small storm” = a very great storm.

41 tn Grk “no small storm pressing on us.” The genitive absolute construction with the participle ἐπικειμένου (epikeimenou) has been translated as parallel to the previous genitive absolute construction (which was translated as temporal). BDAG 373 s.v. ἐπίκειμαι 2.b states, “of impersonal force confront χειμῶνος ἐπικειμένου since a storm lay upon us Ac 27:20.” L&N 14.2, “‘the stormy weather did not abate in the least’ or ‘the violent storm continued’ Ac 27:20.” To this last was added the idea of “battering” from the notion of “pressing upon” inherent in ἐπίκειμαι (epikeimai).

42 tn Grk “finally all hope that we would be saved was abandoned.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one to simplify the translation. This represents a clearly secular use of the term σῴζω (swzw) in that it refers to deliverance from the storm. At this point those on board the ship gave up hope of survival.

43 tn Or “Since they had no desire to eat for a long time.” The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὑπαρχούσης (Juparcoush") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. It could also be translated temporally (“When many of them had no desire to eat”). The translation of πολλῆς (pollhs) as a substantized adjective referring to the people on board the ship (“many of them”) rather than a period of time (“for a long time”; so most modern versions) follows BDAG 143 s.v. ἀσιτία, which has “πολλῆς ἀ. ὑπαρχούσης since almost nobody wanted to eat because of anxiety or seasickness…Ac 27:21.” This detail indicates how turbulent things were on board the ship.

44 tn Here τότε (tote) is redundant (pleonastic) according to BDAG 1012-13 s.v. τότε 2; thus it has not been translated.

45 tn Grk “standing up…said.” The participle σταθείς (staqeis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

46 tn L&N 36.12 has “πειθαρχήσαντάς μοι μὴ ἀνάγεσθαι ἀπὸ τῆς Κρήτης ‘you should have listened to me and not have sailed from Crete’ Ac 27:21.”

sn By saying “you should have listened to me and not put out to sea from Crete” Paul was not “rubbing it in,” but was reasserting his credibility before giving his next recommendation.

47 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

48 tn The infinitive κερδῆσαι (kerdhsai) has been translated as resultative.

49 tn The same verb is used for Paul’s original recommendation in Ac 27:9.

50 tn Grk “except the ship.” Here “but” is used to translate the improper preposition πλήν (plhn; see BDAG 826 s.v. πλήν 2) since an exception like this, where two different categories of objects are involved (people and a ship), is more naturally expressed in contemporary English with an adversative (“but”). The words “will be lost” are also supplied for clarity.

sn The “prophecy” about the ship serves to underscore Paul’s credibility as an agent of God. Paul addressed his audience carefully and drew attention to the sovereign knowledge of God.

51 tn Grk “of whom I am.” The relative clause with its possessive was translated following L&N 15.86 s.v. παρίσταμαι.

52 tn Or “worship.”

53 tn Or “stood by me.” BDAG 778 s.v. παρίστημι/παριστάνω 2.a.α states, “approach, come τινί (to) someoneAc 9:39; 27:23.”

54 tn Grk “came to me saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

55 tn BDAG 778 s.v. παρίστημι/παριστάνω 2.a.α states, “Also as a t.t. of legal usage appear before, come beforeΚαίσαρι σε δεῖ παραστῆναι you must stand before the Emperor (as judge) Ac 27:24.” See Acts 23:11. Luke uses the verb δεῖ (dei) to describe what must occur.

56 tn Or “before the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

57 tn Grk “God has graciously granted you all who are sailing with you.” The words “the safety of” have been supplied to clarify the meaning of the verb κεχάρισται (kecaristai) in this context.

sn The safety of all who are sailing with you. In a sense, Paul’s presence protects them all. For Luke, it serves as a picture of what the gospel does through Christ and through the one who brings the message.

58 tn BDAG 817 s.v. πιστεύω 1.c states, “w. pers. and thing added π. τινί τι believe someone with regard to someth….W. dat. of pers. and ὅτι foll…. πιστεύετέ μοι ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρί J 14:11a. Cp. 4:21; Ac 27:25.”

59 tn This is another use of δεῖ (dei) to indicate necessity (see also v. 24). Acts 28:1 shows the fulfillment of this.

60 tn Here “being driven” has been used to translate διαφέρω (diaferw) rather than “drifting,” because it is clear from the attempt to drop anchors in v. 29 that the ship is still being driven by the gale. “Drifting” implies lack of control, but not necessarily rapid movement.

61 sn The Adriatic Sea. They were now somewhere between Crete and Malta.

62 tn Grk “suspected that some land was approaching them.” BDAG 876 s.v. προσάγω 2.a states, “lit. ὑπενόουν προσάγειν τινά αὐτοῖς χώραν they suspected that land was near (lit. ‘approaching them’) Ac 27:27.” Current English idiom would speak of the ship approaching land rather than land approaching the ship.

63 tn Grk “Heaving the lead, they found.” The participle βολίσαντες (bolisante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. See also BDAG 180 s.v. βολίζω. Although the term is used twice in this verse (and thus is technically not a NT hapax legomenon), it occurs nowhere else in the NT.

64 sn A fathom is about 6 feet or just under 2 meters (originally the length of a man’s outstretched arms). This was a nautical technical term for measuring the depth of water. Here it was about 120 ft (36 m).

65 tn L&N 15.12, “βραχὺ δὲ διαστήσαντες ‘when they had gone a little farther’ Ac 27:28.”

66 sn Here the depth was about 90 ft (27 m).

67 tn Grk “fearing.” The participle φοβούμενοι (foboumenoi) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

68 tn Grk “against a rough [rocky] place.” L&N 79.84 has “φοβούμενοί τε μή που κατὰ τραχεῖς τόποις ἐκπέσωμεν ‘we were afraid that we would run aground on the rocky coast’ Ac 27:29.”

69 tn Grk “throwing out…they.” The participle ῥίψαντες (rJiyante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

70 tn BDAG 417 s.v. εὔχομαι 2 states, “wishτὶ for someth.…Foll. by acc. and inf….Ac 27:29.” The other possible meaning for this term, “pray,” is given in BDAG 417 s.v. 1 and employed by a number of translations (NAB, NRSV, NIV). If this meaning is adopted here, then “prayed for day to come” must be understood metaphorically to mean “prayed that they would live to see the day,” or “prayed that it would soon be day.”

71 tn Grk “and wished for day to come about.”

sn And wished for day to appear. The sailors were hoping to hold the ship in place until morning, when they could see what was happening and where they were.

72 tn BDAG 889 s.v. πρόφασις 2 states, “προφάσει ὡς under the pretext that, pretending thatAc 27:30.” In other words, some of the sailors gave up hope that such efforts would work and instead attempted to escape while pretending to help.

73 sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1.

74 sn The pronoun you is plural in Greek.

75 sn The soldiers cut the ropes. The centurion and the soldiers were now following Paul’s advice by cutting the ropes to prevent the sailors from escaping.

76 tn Or “let it fall away.” According to BDAG 308 s.v. ἐκπίπτω 1 and 2 the meaning of the verb in this verse could be either “fall away” or “drift away.” Either meaning is acceptable, and the choice between them depends almost entirely on how one reconstructs the scene. Since cutting the boat loose would in any case result in it drifting away (whether capsized or not), the meaning “drift away” as a nautical technical term has been used here.

77 tn BDAG 160 s.v. ἄχρι 1.b.α has “. οὗ ἡμέρα ἤμελλεν γίνεσθαι until the day began to dawn 27:33.”

78 tn Or “have waited anxiously.” Grk “waiting anxiously.” The participle προσδοκῶντες (prosdokwnte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

79 tn Or “continued.”

80 tn Grk “having eaten nothing.” The participle προσλαβόμενοι (proslabomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb (with subject “you” supplied) due to requirements of contemporary English style.

81 tn Or “necessary.” BDAG 873-74 s.v. πρός 1 has “πρ. τῆς σωτηρίας in the interest of safety Ac 27:34”; L&N 27.18 has “‘therefore, I urge you to take some food, for this is important for your deliverance’ or ‘…for your survival’ Ac 27:34.”

82 tn Or “deliverance” (‘salvation’ in a nontheological sense).

83 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

84 tn Grk “taking bread, gave thanks.” The participle λαβών (labwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

85 tn Or “before them all,” but here this could be misunderstood to indicate a temporal sequence.

86 tn Grk “and breaking it, he began.” The participle κλάσας (klasas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

87 tc One early ms (B) and an early version (sa) read “about seventy-six.” For discussion of how this variant probably arose, see F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles, 465.

88 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

89 tn Or “When they had eaten their fill.”

90 tn Or “grain.”

91 tn Or “observed,” “saw.”

92 tn Or “gulf” (BDAG 557 s.v. κόλπος 3).

93 sn A beach would refer to a smooth sandy beach suitable for landing.

94 tn That is, released. Grk “slipping…leaving.” The participles περιελόντες (perielonte") and εἴων (eiwn) have been translated as finite verbs due to requirements of contemporary English style.

95 tn The term is used of a ship’s anchor. (BDAG 12 s.v. ἄγκυρα a).

96 tn Grk “bands”; possibly “ropes.”

97 tn Or “rudders.”

98 tn Grk “hoisting…they.” The participle ἐπάραντες (eparante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

99 tn Grk “sail”; probably a reference to the foresail.

100 tn BDAG 533 s.v. κατέχω 7 states, “hold course, nautical t.t., intr….κατεῖχον εἰς τὸν αἰγιαλόν they headed for the beach Ac 27:40.”

101 tn Grk “fell upon a place of two seas.” The most common explanation for this term is that it refers to a reef or sandbar with the sea on both sides, as noted in BDAG 245 s.v. διθάλασσος: the “τόπος δ. Ac 27:41 is a semantic unit signifying a point (of land jutting out with water on both sides).” However, Greek had terms for a “sandbank” (θῖς [qis], ταινία [tainia]), a “reef” (ἑρμα [Jerma]), “strait” (στενόν [stenon]), “promontory” (ἀρωτήρον [arwthron]), and other nautical hazards, none of which are used by the author here. NEB here translates τόπον διθάλασσον (topon diqalasson) as “cross-currents,” a proposal close to that advanced by J. M. Gilchrist, “The Historicity of Paul’s Shipwreck,” JSNT 61 (1996): 29-51, who suggests the meaning is “a patch of cross-seas,” where the waves are set at an angle to the wind, a particular hazard for sailors. Thus the term most likely refers to some sort of adverse sea conditions rather than a topographical feature like a reef or sandbar.

102 tn Or “violence” (BDAG 175 s.v. βία a).

103 sn The soldiers’ plan was to kill the prisoners. The issue here was not cruelty, but that the soldiers would be legally responsible if any prisoners escaped and would suffer punishment themselves. So they were planning to do this as an act of self-preservation. See Acts 16:27 for a similar incident.

104 tn The participle ἐκκολυμβήσας (ekkolumbhsa") has been taken instrumentally.

105 sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1.

106 tn Or “wanting to rescue Paul.”

sn Thanks to the centurion who wanted to save Paul’s life, Paul was once more rescued from a potential human threat.

107 tn BDAG 347 s.v. I. ἔξειμι has “ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν get to land Ac 27:43.”

108 tn The words “were to follow” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They must be supplied to clarify the sense in contemporary English.

109 tn Or “boards” according to BDAG 913 s.v. σανίς.

110 tn Grk “on pieces from the ship”; that is, pieces of wreckage from the ship.

sn Both the planks and pieces of the ship were for the weak or nonswimmers. The whole scene is a historical metaphor representing how listening to Paul and his message could save people.

111 tn Grk “And in this way it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

112 tn Grk “We having been brought safely through” [to land] (same verb as 27:44). The word “shore” is implied, and the slight variations in translation from 27:44 have been made to avoid redundancy in English. The participle διασωθέντες (diaswqente") has been taken temporally.

113 sn Malta is an island (known by the same name today) in the Mediterranean Sea south of Sicily. The ship had traveled 625 mi (1,000 km) in the storm.

map For location see JP4 A3.

114 tn Although this is literally βάρβαροι (barbaroi; “foreigners, barbarians”) used for non-Greek or non-Romans, as BDAG 166 s.v. βάρβαρος 2.b notes, “Of the inhabitants of Malta, who apparently spoke in their native language Ac 28:2, 4 (here β. certainly without derogatory tone…).”

115 tn BDAG 1019 s.v. τυγχάνω 2.d states, “δυνάμεις οὐ τὰς τυχούσας extraordinary miracles Ac 19:11. Cp. 28:2.”

116 tn Or “because it was about to rain.” BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 4 states, “διὰ τ. ὑετὸν τὸν ἐφεστῶτα because it had begun to rain Ac 28:2…But the mng. here could also be because it threatened to rain (s. 6).”

117 tn Or “sticks.”

118 tn Although this is literally βάρβαροι (barbaroi; “foreigners, barbarians”) used for non-Greek or non-Romans, as BDAG 166 s.v. βάρβαρος 2.b notes, “Of the inhabitants of Malta, who apparently spoke in their native language Ac 28:2, 4 (here β. certainly without derogatory tone…).”

119 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

120 tn That is, the goddess Justice has not allowed him to live. BDAG 250 s.v. δίκη 2 states, “Justice personified as a deity Ac 28:4”; L&N 12.27, “a goddess who personifies justice in seeking out and punishing the guilty – ‘the goddess Justice.’ ἡ δίκη ζῆν οὐκ εἴασεν ‘the goddess Justice would not let him live’ Ac 28:4.” Although a number of modern English translations have rendered δίκη (dikh) “justice,” preferring to use an abstraction, in the original setting it is almost certainly a reference to a pagan deity. In the translation, the noun “justice” was capitalized and the reflexive pronoun “herself” was supplied to make the personification clear. This was considered preferable to supplying a word like ‘goddess’ in connection with δίκη.

121 sn The entire scene is played out initially as a kind of oracle from the gods resulting in the judgment of a guilty person (Justice herself has not allowed him to live). Paul’s survival of this incident without ill effects thus spoke volumes about his innocence.

122 tn BDAG 737 s.v. οὖν 4 indicates the particle has an adversative sense here: “but, however.”

123 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

124 tn Grk “shaking the creature off…he suffered no harm.” The participle ἀποτινάξας (apotinaxa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

125 tn Or “going to burn with fever.” According to BDAG 814 s.v. πίμπρημι, either meaning (“swell up” or “burn with fever”) is possible for Acts 28:6.

126 tn The participle προσδοκώντων (prosdokwntwn) has been taken temporally.

127 tn The participle θεωρούντων (qewrountwn) has been taken temporally.

128 tn Grk “happening.” The participle γινόμενον (ginomenon) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

129 tn Grk “changing their minds.” The participle μεταβαλόμενοι (metabalomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

130 sn And said he was a god. The reaction is like Acts 14:11-19 where the crowd wanted to make Paul and Barnabas into gods. The providence of God had protected Paul again.

131 tn BDAG 798 s.v. περί 2.a.γ states, “of nearby places…τὰ περὶ τὸν τὸπον the region around the place Ac 28:7.” The presence of ἐκεῖνον (ekeinon) results in the translation “that place.”

132 tn That is, the chief Roman official. Several inscriptions have confirmed the use of πρῶτος (prwtos) as an administrative title used on the island of Malta for the highest Roman official. See further BDAG 852 s.v. Πόπλιος.

133 tn Grk “It happened that the father.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

134 tn Grk “to whom Paul going in.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by a personal pronoun (“him”) and a new sentence begun here in the translation. The participle εἰσελθών (eiselqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

135 tn The participle ἐπιθείς (epiqeis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

136 sn And healed him. Here are healings like Luke 9:40; 10:30; 13:13; Acts 16:23.

137 tn BDAG 142 s.v. ἀσθένεια 1 states, “ἔχειν ἀ. be ill Ac 28:9.”

138 sn Many…also came and were healed. Again, here is irony. Paul, though imprisoned, “frees” others of their diseases.

139 tn Or “they also honored us greatly”; Grk “they also honored us with many honors” (an idiom).

140 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.” In this case the simpler English “sail” is more appropriate. The English participle “preparing” has also been supplied, since the provisioning of the ship would take place some time before the actual departure.

141 tn BDAG 384 s.v. ἐπιτίθημι 1.b has “give τινί τι someth. to someoneἀναγομένοις τὰ πρὸς τὰς χρείας when we sailed they gave us what we needed Ac 28:10.”

142 sn They gave us all the supplies we needed. What they had lost in the storm and shipwreck was now replaced. Luke describes these pagans very positively.

143 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

144 tn Or “the ‘Twin Gods’”; Grk “the Dioscuri” (a joint name for the pagan deities Castor and Pollux).

sn That had theHeavenly Twinsas its figurehead. The twin brothers Castor and Pollux, known collectively as the Dioscuri or ‘Heavenly Twins,’ were the twin sons of Zeus and Leda according to Greek mythology. The Alexandrian ship on which Paul and his companions sailed from Malta had a carved emblem or figurehead of these figures, and they would have been the patron deities of the vessel. Castor and Pollux were the “gods of navigation.” To see their stars was considered a good omen (Epictetus, Discourses 2.18.29; Lucian of Samosata, The Ship 9).

145 tn Or “as its emblem.”

146 tn Grk “And putting in.” The participle καταχθέντες (katacqente") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. On the meaning of the participle, BDAG 516 s.v. κατάγω states, “Hence the pass., in act. sense, of ships and seafarers put in εἴς τι at a harborεἰς Συρακούσας Ac 28:12.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

147 sn Syracuse was a city on the eastern coast of the island of Sicily. It was 75 mi (120 km) from Malta.

148 tc A few early mss (א* B Ψ [gig] {sa [bo]}) read περιελόντες (perielonte", “[From there we] cast off [and arrived at Rhegium]”; cf. Acts 27:40). The other major variant, περιελθόντες (perielqonte", “[we] sailed from place to place”), is found in Ì74 א2 A 066 1739 Ï lat sy. Although περιελόντες is minimally attested, it is found in the better witnesses. As well, it is a more difficult reading, for its meaning as a nautical term is uncertain, requiring something like “τὰς ἀγκύρας be supplied = ‘we weighed anchor’” (BDAG 799 s.v. περιαιρέω 1). It thus best explains the rise of the other readings.

149 sn Rhegium was a city on the southern tip of Italy. It was 80 mi (130 km) from Syracuse.

150 tn Grk “after one day, a south wind springing up, on the second day.” The genitive absolute construction with the participle ἐπιγενομένου (epigenomenou) has been translated as a clause with a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

151 sn Puteoli was a city on the western coast of Italy south of Rome. It was in the Bay of Naples some 220 mi (350 km) to the north of Rhegium. Here the voyage ended; the rest of the journey was by land.

152 tn Grk “where.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“where”) has been replaced with the demonstrative pronoun (“there”) and a new sentence begun here in the translation.

153 tn Grk “finding.” The participle εὑρόντες (Jeurontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

154 sn That is, some fellow Christians.

155 map For location see JP4 A1.

156 sn Mention of Christian brothers from there (Rome) shows that God’s message had already spread as far as Italy and the capital of the empire.

157 sn The Forum of Appius was a small traveler’s stop on the Appian Way about 43 mi (71 km) south of Rome (BDAG 125 s.v. ᾿Αππίου φόρον). It was described by Horace as “crammed with boatmen and stingy tavernkeepers” (Satires 1.5.3).

158 sn Three Taverns was a stop on the Appian Way 33 mi (55 km) south of Rome.

159 tn Grk “whom, when he saw [them], Paul.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the personal pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun here in the translation.

160 tn Or “to stay.”

sn Allowed to live by himself. Paul continued to have a generous prison arrangement (cf. Acts 27:3).

161 tn Grk “It happened that after three days.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

162 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

163 tn L&N 33.309 has “‘after three days, he called the local Jewish leaders together’ Ac 28:17.”

164 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

165 tn The participle ποιήσας (poihsas) has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

166 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn I had done nothing against our people or the customs of our ancestors. Once again Paul claimed to be faithful to the Jewish people and to the God of Israel.

167 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

168 tn Grk “into the hands of the Romans,” but this is redundant when παρεδόθην (paredoqhn) has been translated “handed over.”

169 tn Grk “who when.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) has been replaced by the personal pronoun (“they”) and a new sentence begun at this point in the translation.

170 tn Or “had questioned me”; or “had examined me.” BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω 2 states, “to conduct a judicial hearing, hear a case, question.”

171 sn They wanted to release me. See Acts 25:23-27.

172 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

173 tn That is, objected to my release.

174 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

175 tn BDAG 533 s.v. κατηγορέω 1 states, “nearly always as legal t.t.: bring charges in court.” L&N 33.427 states for κατηγορέω, “to bring serious charges or accusations against someone, with the possible connotation of a legal or court context – ‘to accuse, to bring charges.’”

176 tn Or “my own nation.”

177 sn The hope of Israel. A reference to Israel’s messianic hope. Paul’s preaching was in continuity with this Jewish hope (Acts 1:3; 8:12; 14:22; 19:8; 20:25).

178 tn Grk “they said to him.”

179 tn Or “arrived”; Grk “come” (“from there” is implied). Grk “coming.” The participle παραγενόμενος (paragenomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

180 tn Grk “regarding this sect it is known to us.” The passive construction “it is known to us” has been converted to an active one to simplify the translation.

181 tn Grk “that everywhere it is spoken against.” To simplify the translation the passive construction “it is spoken against” has been converted to an active one with the subject “people” supplied.

182 tn On the term translated “speak against,” see BDAG 89 s.v. ἀντιλέγω 1.

183 tn Grk “Having set.” The participle ταξάμενοι (taxamenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

184 tn Grk “Having set a day with him”; the words “to meet” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

185 tn Or “came to him in his rented quarters.”

186 tn BDAG 848 s.v. πολύς 1.b.β.ב states, “(even) more πλείονες in even greater numbers Ac 28:23.”

187 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

188 tn Grk “to whom he explained.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced by the pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun at this point in the translation.

189 tn BDAG 233 s.v. διαμαρτύρομαι 1 has “to make a solemn declaration about the truth of someth. testify of, bear witness to (orig. under oath)…Gods kingdom 28:23.”

190 sn Testifying about the kingdom of God. The topic is important. Paul’s preaching was about the rule of God and his promise in Jesus. Paul’s text was the Jewish scriptures.

191 tn Or “persuade.”

192 tn Or “persuaded.”

193 tn Grk “by the things spoken.”

194 sn Some were convinced…but others refused to believe. Once again the gospel caused division among Jews, as in earlier chapters of Acts (13:46; 18:6).

195 tn The imperfect verb ἀπελύοντο (apeluonto) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

196 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

197 tn Grk “you will hear with hearing” (an idiom).

198 tn Or “seeing”; Grk “you will look by looking” (an idiom).

199 tn Or “insensitive.”

sn The heart of this people has become dull. The charge from Isaiah is like Stephen’s against the Jews of Jerusalem (Acts 7:51-53). They were a hard-hearted and disobedient people.

200 tn Grk “they hear heavily with their ears” (an idiom for slow comprehension).

201 sn Note how the failure to respond to the message of the gospel is seen as a failure to turn.

202 sn A quotation from Isa 6:9-10.

203 tn Grk “Therefore let it be known to you.”

204 tn Or “of God.”

205 sn The term Gentiles is in emphatic position in the Greek text of this clause. Once again there is the pattern: Jewish rejection of the gospel leads to an emphasis on Gentile inclusion (Acts 13:44-47).

206 tn Grk “they also.”

207 tc Some later mss include 28:29: “When he had said these things, the Jews departed, having a great dispute among themselves.” Verse 29 is lacking in Ì74vid א A B E Ψ 048 33 81 1175 1739 2464 pc and a number of versions. They are included (with a few minor variations) in Ï it and some versions. This verse is almost certainly not a part of the original text of Acts, as it lacks the best credentials. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

208 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

209 tn Or “stayed.”

210 tn Or perhaps, “two whole years at his own expense.” BDAG 654 s.v. μίσθωμα states, “the customary act. mng. ‘contract price, rent’…is not found in our lit. (Ac) and the pass. what is rented, a rented house is a mng. not found outside it (even Ammonius Gramm. [100 ad] p. 93 Valck. knows nothing of it. Hence the transl. at his own expense [NRSV] merits attention) ἐν ἰδίῳ μισθώματι in his own rented lodgings Ac 28:30 (for the idea cp. Jos., Ant. 18, 235).”

211 tn Or “and received.”

212 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

213 tn Or “openness.”

214 sn Proclaiming…with complete boldness and without restriction. Once again Paul’s imprisonment is on benevolent terms. The word of God is proclaimed triumphantly and boldly in Rome. Acts ends with this note: Despite all the attempts to stop it, the message goes forth.



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