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Acts 24:1--26:32

Context
The Accusations Against Paul

24:1 After five days the high priest Ananias 1  came down with some elders and an attorney 2  named 3  Tertullus, and they 4  brought formal charges 5  against Paul to the governor. 24:2 When Paul 6  had been summoned, Tertullus began to accuse him, 7  saying, “We have experienced a lengthy time 8  of peace through your rule, 9  and reforms 10  are being made in this nation 11  through your foresight. 12  24:3 Most excellent Felix, 13  we acknowledge this everywhere and in every way 14  with all gratitude. 15  24:4 But so that I may not delay 16  you any further, I beg 17  you to hear us briefly 18  with your customary graciousness. 19  24:5 For we have found 20  this man to be a troublemaker, 21  one who stirs up riots 22  among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader 23  of the sect of the Nazarenes. 24  24:6 He 25  even tried to desecrate 26  the temple, so we arrested 27  him. 24:7 [[EMPTY]] 28  24:8 When you examine 29  him yourself, you will be able to learn from him 30  about all these things we are accusing him of doing.” 31  24:9 The Jews also joined in the verbal attack, 32  claiming 33  that these things were true.

Paul’s Defense Before Felix

24:10 When the governor gestured for him to speak, Paul replied, “Because I know 34  that you have been a judge over this nation for many years, I confidently make my defense. 35  24:11 As you can verify 36  for yourself, not more than twelve days ago 37  I went up to Jerusalem 38  to worship. 24:12 They did not find me arguing 39  with anyone or stirring up a crowd 40  in the temple courts 41  or in the synagogues 42  or throughout the city, 43  24:13 nor can they prove 44  to you the things 45  they are accusing me of doing. 46  24:14 But I confess this to you, that I worship 47  the God of our ancestors 48  according to the Way (which they call a sect), believing everything that is according to the law 49  and that is written in the prophets. 24:15 I have 50  a hope in God (a hope 51  that 52  these men 53  themselves accept too) that there is going to be a resurrection of both the righteous and the unrighteous. 54  24:16 This is the reason 55  I do my best to always 56  have a clear 57  conscience toward God and toward people. 58  24:17 After several years 59  I came to bring to my people gifts for the poor 60  and to present offerings, 61  24:18 which I was doing when they found me in the temple, ritually purified, 62  without a crowd or a disturbance. 63  24:19 But there are some Jews from the province of Asia 64  who should be here before you and bring charges, 65  if they have anything against me. 24:20 Or these men here 66  should tell what crime 67  they found me guilty of 68  when I stood before the council, 69  24:21 other than 70  this one thing 71  I shouted out while I stood before 72  them: ‘I am on trial before you today concerning the resurrection of the dead.’” 73 

24:22 Then Felix, 74  who understood the facts 75  concerning the Way 76  more accurately, 77  adjourned their hearing, 78  saying, “When Lysias the commanding officer comes down, I will decide your case.” 79  24:23 He ordered the centurion 80  to guard Paul, 81  but to let him have some freedom, 82  and not to prevent any of his friends 83  from meeting his needs. 84 

Paul Speaks Repeatedly to Felix

24:24 Some days later, when Felix 85  arrived with his wife Drusilla, 86  who was Jewish, he sent for Paul and heard him speak 87  about faith in Christ Jesus. 88  24:25 While Paul 89  was discussing 90  righteousness, self-control, 91  and the coming judgment, Felix 92  became 93  frightened and said, “Go away for now, and when I have an opportunity, 94  I will send for you.” 24:26 At the same time he was also hoping that Paul would give him money, 95  and for this reason he sent for Paul 96  as often as possible 97  and talked 98  with him. 24:27 After two years 99  had passed, Porcius Festus 100  succeeded Felix, 101  and because he wanted to do the Jews a favor, Felix left Paul in prison. 102 

Paul Appeals to Caesar

25:1 Now 103  three days after Festus 104  arrived in the province, he went up to Jerusalem 105  from Caesarea. 106  25:2 So the chief priests and the most prominent men 107  of the Jews brought formal charges 108  against Paul to him. 25:3 Requesting him to do them a favor against Paul, 109  they urged Festus 110  to summon him to Jerusalem, planning an ambush 111  to kill him along the way. 25:4 Then Festus 112  replied that Paul was being kept at Caesarea, 113  and he himself intended to go there 114  shortly. 25:5 “So,” he said, “let your leaders 115  go down there 116  with me, and if this man has done anything wrong, 117  they may bring charges 118  against him.”

25:6 After Festus 119  had stayed 120  not more than eight or ten days among them, he went down to Caesarea, 121  and the next day he sat 122  on the judgment seat 123  and ordered Paul to be brought. 25:7 When he arrived, the Jews who had come down from Jerusalem stood around him, 124  bringing many serious 125  charges that they were not able to prove. 126  25:8 Paul said in his defense, 127  “I have committed no offense 128  against the Jewish law 129  or against the temple or against Caesar.” 130  25:9 But Festus, 131  wanting to do the Jews a favor, asked Paul, “Are you willing to go up to Jerusalem and be tried 132  before me there on these charges?” 133  25:10 Paul replied, 134  “I am standing before Caesar’s 135  judgment seat, 136  where I should be tried. 137  I have done nothing wrong 138  to the Jews, as you also know very well. 139  25:11 If then I am in the wrong 140  and have done anything that deserves death, I am not trying to escape dying, 141  but if not one of their charges against me is true, 142  no one can hand me over to them. 143  I appeal to Caesar!” 144  25:12 Then, after conferring with his council, 145  Festus 146  replied, “You have appealed to Caesar; 147  to Caesar 148  you will go!” 149 

Festus Asks King Agrippa for Advice

25:13 After several days had passed, King Agrippa 150  and Bernice arrived at Caesarea 151  to pay their respects 152  to Festus. 153  25:14 While 154  they were staying there many days, Festus 155  explained Paul’s case to the king to get his opinion, 156  saying, “There is a man left here as a prisoner by Felix. 25:15 When I was in Jerusalem, 157  the chief priests and the elders of the Jews informed 158  me about him, 159  asking for a sentence of condemnation 160  against him. 25:16 I answered them 161  that it was not the custom of the Romans to hand over anyone 162  before the accused had met his accusers face to face 163  and had been given 164  an opportunity to make a defense against the accusation. 165  25:17 So after they came back here with me, 166  I did not postpone the case, 167  but the next day I sat 168  on the judgment seat 169  and ordered the man to be brought. 25:18 When his accusers stood up, they did not charge 170  him with any of the evil deeds I had suspected. 171  25:19 Rather they had several points of disagreement 172  with him about their own religion 173  and about a man named Jesus 174  who was dead, whom Paul claimed 175  to be alive. 25:20 Because I was at a loss 176  how I could investigate these matters, 177  I asked if he were willing to go to Jerusalem and be tried 178  there on these charges. 179  25:21 But when Paul appealed to be kept in custody for the decision of His Majesty the Emperor, 180  I ordered him to be kept under guard until I could send him to Caesar.” 181  25:22 Agrippa 182  said to Festus, 183  “I would also like to hear the man myself.” “Tomorrow,” he replied, 184  “you will hear him.”

Paul Before King Agrippa and Bernice

25:23 So the next day Agrippa 185  and Bernice came with great pomp 186  and entered the audience hall, 187  along with the senior military officers 188  and the prominent men of the city. When Festus 189  gave the order, 190  Paul was brought in. 25:24 Then Festus 191  said, “King Agrippa, 192  and all you who are present here with us, you see this man about whom the entire Jewish populace 193  petitioned 194  me both in Jerusalem 195  and here, 196  shouting loudly 197  that he ought not to live any longer. 25:25 But I found that he had done nothing that deserved death, 198  and when he appealed 199  to His Majesty the Emperor, 200  I decided to send him. 201  25:26 But I have nothing definite 202  to write to my lord 203  about him. 204  Therefore I have brought him before you all, and especially before you, King Agrippa, 205  so that after this preliminary hearing 206  I may have something to write. 25:27 For it seems unreasonable to me to send a prisoner without clearly indicating 207  the charges against him.”

Paul Offers His Defense

26:1 So Agrippa 208  said to Paul, “You have permission 209  to speak for yourself.” Then Paul held out his hand 210  and began his defense: 211 

26:2 “Regarding all the things I have been accused of by the Jews, King Agrippa, 212  I consider myself fortunate that I am about to make my defense before you today, 26:3 because you are especially 213  familiar with all the customs and controversial issues 214  of the Jews. Therefore I ask 215  you to listen to me patiently. 26:4 Now all the Jews know the way I lived 216  from my youth, spending my life from the beginning among my own people 217  and in Jerusalem. 218  26:5 They know, 219  because they have known 220  me from time past, 221  if they are willing to testify, that according to the strictest party 222  of our religion, I lived as a Pharisee. 223  26:6 And now I stand here on trial 224  because of my hope in the promise made by God to our ancestors, 225  26:7 a promise 226  that our twelve tribes hope to attain as they earnestly serve God 227  night and day. Concerning this hope the Jews are accusing me, 228  Your Majesty! 229  26:8 Why do you people 230  think 231  it is unbelievable 232  that 233  God raises the dead? 26:9 Of course, 234  I myself was convinced 235  that it was necessary to do many things hostile to the name of Jesus the Nazarene. 26:10 And that is what I did in Jerusalem: Not only did I lock up many of the saints in prisons by the authority I received 236  from the chief priests, but I also cast my vote 237  against them when they were sentenced to death. 238  26:11 I punished 239  them often in all the synagogues 240  and tried to force 241  them to blaspheme. Because I was so furiously enraged 242  at them, I went to persecute 243  them even in foreign cities.

26:12 “While doing this very thing, 244  as I was going 245  to Damascus with authority and complete power 246  from the chief priests, 26:13 about noon along the road, Your Majesty, 247  I saw a light from heaven, 248  brighter than the sun, shining everywhere around 249  me and those traveling with me. 26:14 When we had all fallen to the ground, I heard a voice saying to me in Aramaic, 250  ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me? You are hurting yourself 251  by kicking against the goads.’ 252  26:15 So I said, ‘Who are you, Lord?’ And the Lord replied, 253  ‘I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. 26:16 But get up and stand on your feet, for I have appeared to you for this reason, to designate you in advance 254  as a servant and witness 255  to the things 256  you have seen 257  and to the things in which I will appear to you. 26:17 I will rescue 258  you from your own people 259  and from the Gentiles, to whom 260  I am sending you 26:18 to open their eyes so that they turn 261  from darkness to light and from the power 262  of Satan to God, so that they may receive forgiveness of sins and a share 263  among those who are sanctified by faith in me.’

26:19 “Therefore, King Agrippa, 264  I was not disobedient 265  to the heavenly 266  vision, 26:20 but I declared to those in Damascus first, and then to those in Jerusalem and in all Judea, 267  and to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, 268  performing deeds consistent with 269  repentance. 26:21 For this reason the Jews seized me in the temple courts 270  and were trying to kill me. 26:22 I have experienced 271  help from God to this day, and so I stand testifying to both small and great, saying nothing except 272  what the prophets and Moses said 273  was going to happen: 26:23 that 274  the Christ 275  was to suffer and be the first to rise from the dead, to proclaim light both to our people 276  and to the Gentiles.” 277 

26:24 As Paul 278  was saying these things in his defense, Festus 279  exclaimed loudly, “You have lost your mind, 280  Paul! Your great learning is driving you insane!” 26:25 But Paul replied, 281  “I have not lost my mind, most excellent Festus, 282  but am speaking 283  true and rational 284  words. 26:26 For the king knows about these things, and I am speaking freely 285  to him, 286  because I cannot believe 287  that any of these things has escaped his notice, 288  for this was not done in a corner. 289  26:27 Do you believe the prophets, 290  King Agrippa? 291  I know that you believe.” 26:28 Agrippa 292  said to Paul, “In such a short time are you persuading me to become a Christian?” 293  26:29 Paul replied, “I pray to God that whether in a short or a long time 294  not only you but also all those who are listening to me today could become such as I am, except for these chains.” 295 

26:30 So the king got up, and with him the governor and Bernice and those sitting with them, 26:31 and as they were leaving they said to one another, 296  “This man is not doing anything deserving 297  death or imprisonment.” 26:32 Agrippa 298  said to Festus, 299  “This man could have been released 300  if he had not appealed to Caesar.” 301 

1 sn Ananias was in office from a.d. 47-59.

2 tn The term refers to a professional advocate (BDAG 905 s.v. ῥήτωρ).

3 tn Grk “an attorney, a certain Tertullus.”

4 tn Grk “who” (plural). Because in English the relative pronoun “who” could be understood to refer only to the attorney Tertullus and not to the entire group, it has been replaced with the third person plural pronoun “they.” “And” has been supplied to provide the connection to the preceding clause.

5 tn BDAG 326 s.v. ἐμφανίζω 3 has “. τινὶ κατά τινος bring formal charges against someoneAc 24:1; 25:2.”

6 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

7 tn Or “began to bring charges, saying.”

8 tn Grk “experienced much peace.”

9 tn Grk “through you” (“rule” is implied).

10 tn This term is used only once in the NT (a hapax legomenon). It refers to improvements in internal administration (BDAG 251 s.v. διόρθωμα).

11 tn Or “being made for this people.”

12 sn References to peaceful rule, reforms, and the governor’s foresight in the opening address by Tertullus represent an attempt to praise the governor and thus make him favorable to the case. Actual descriptions of his rule portray him as inept (Tacitus, Annals 12.54; Josephus, J. W. 2.13.2-7 [2.253-270]).

13 sn Most excellent Felix. See the note on Felix in 23:24.

14 tn Grk “in every way and everywhere.”

15 tn Or “with complete thankfulness.” BDAG 416 s.v. εὐχαριστία 1 has “μετὰ πάσης εὐ.…with all gratitude Ac 24:3.” L&N 31.26 has “‘we acknowledge this anywhere and everywhere with complete thankfulness’ Ac 24:3.”

16 tn Or “may not weary.” BDAG 274 s.v. ἐγκόπτω states, “ἵνα μὴ ἐπὶ πλεῖόν σε ἐγκόπτω Ac 24:4 is understood by Syr. and Armen. versions to mean in order not to weary you any further; cp. ἔγκοπος weary Diog. L. 4, 50; LXX; and ἔγκοπον ποιεῖν to weary Job 19:2; Is 43:23. But impose on is also prob.; detain NRSV.”

17 tn Or “request.”

18 tn This term is another NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 976 s.v. συντόμως 2). Tertullus was asking for a brief hearing, and implying to the governor that he would speak briefly and to the point.

19 tn BDAG 371 s.v. ἐπιείκεια has “τῇ σῇ ἐ. with your (customary) indulgence Ac 24:4.”

20 tn Grk “For having found.” The participle εὑρόντες (Jeurontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

21 tn L&N 22.6 has “(a figurative extension of meaning of λοιμός ‘plague,’ 23.158) one who causes all sorts of trouble – ‘troublemaker, pest.’ … ‘for we have found this man to be a troublemaker” Ac 24:5.”

22 tn Or “dissensions.” While BDAG 940 s.v. στάσις 3 translates this phrase “κινεῖν στάσεις (v.l. στάσιν) τισί create dissension among certain people Ac 24:5,” it is better on the basis of the actual results of Paul’s ministry to categorize this usage under section 2, “uprising, riot, revolt, rebellion” (cf. the use in Acts 19:40).

23 tn This term is yet another NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 894 s.v. πρωτοστάτης).

sn A ringleader. Tertullus’ basic argument was that Paul was a major disturber of the public peace. To ignore this the governor would be shunning his duty to preserve the peace and going against the pattern of his rule. In effect, Tertullus claimed that Paul was seditious (a claim the governor could not afford to ignore).

24 sn The sect of the Nazarenes is a designation for followers of Jesus the Nazarene, that is, Christians.

25 tn Grk “who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the third person singular pronoun (“he”) and a new sentence begun here in the translation.

26 tn Or “profane” (BDAG 173 s.v. βεβηλόω). The term was also used of profaning the Sabbath.

27 tn Or “seized.” Grk “whom also we arrested.” Because of the awkwardness of a relative clause in English at this point, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” as object of the verb.

28 tc Some later mss include some material at the end of v. 6, all of 24:7, and some material at the beginning of v. 8: “and we wanted to judge him according to our law. 24:7 But Lysias the commanding officer came and took him out of our hands with a great deal of violence, 24:8 ordering those who accused him to come before you.” Acts 24:6b, 7, and 8a are lacking in Ì74 א A B H L P 049 81 1175 1241 pm and a few versional witnesses. They are included (with a few minor variations) in E Ψ 33 323 614 945 1505 1739 pm and a few versional witnesses. This verse (and parts of verses) is most likely not a part of the original text of Acts, for not only is it lacking from the better witnesses, there is no easy explanation as to how such could be missing from them. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

29 tn Or “question.”

30 tn Grk “From whom when you examine him yourself, you will be able to learn…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the third person singular pronoun (“him”) and a new sentence begun at the beginning of v. 8 in the translation.

31 tn Grk “about all these things of which we are accusing him.” This has been simplified to eliminate the relative pronoun (“of which”) in the translation.

32 tn Grk “joined in the attack,” but the adjective “verbal” has been supplied to clarify that this was not another physical assault on Paul. The verb is another NT hapax legomenon (BDAG 969 s.v. συνεπιτίθημι).

33 tn Or “asserting” (BDAG 1050 s.v. φάσκω).

34 tn Grk “knowing.” The participle ἐπιστάμενος (epistamenos) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

35 sn “Because…defense.” Paul also paid an indirect compliment to the governor, implying that he would be fair in his judgment.

36 tn BDAG 369 s.v. ἐπιγινώσκω 2.c has “notice, perceive, learn of, ascertain…Also as legal t.t. ascertain (2 Macc 14:9) τὶ Ac 23:28; cp. 24:8. W. ὅτι foll. Ac 24:11.” “Verify” is an English synonym for “ascertain.”

37 tn Grk “it is not more than twelve days from when.” This has been simplified to “not more than twelve days ago.”

sn Part of Paul’s defense is that he would not have had time to organize a revolt, since he had arrived in Jerusalem not more than twelve days ago.

38 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

39 tn Or “disputing,” “conducting a heated discussion.”

40 tn BDAG 381 s.v. ἐπίστασις 2 has “. ποιεῖν ὄχλου to cause a crowd to gather Ac 24:12.” Roman authorities would not allow a mob to gather and threaten the peace, and anyone suspected of instigating a mob would certainly be arrested.

41 tn Grk “in the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

42 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

43 sn A second part of Paul’s defense is that he did nothing while he was in Jerusalem to cause unrest, neither arguing nor stirring up a crowd in the temple courts or in the synagogues or throughout the city.

44 tn BDAG 778 s.v. παρίστημι/παριστάνω 1.f has “οὐδὲ παραστῆσαι δύνανταί σοι περὶ ὧν νυνὶ κατηγοροῦσίν μου nor can they prove to you the accusations they are now making against me Ac 24:13.”

sn Nor can they prove. This is a formal legal claim that Paul’s opponents lacked proof of any wrongdoing. They had no witness who could justify the arrest at the temple.

45 tn The words “the things” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

46 tn Grk “nor can they prove to you [the things] about which they are now accusing me.” This has been simplified to eliminate the relative pronoun (“which”) in the translation.

47 tn Or “serve.”

48 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

49 sn That is, the law of Moses. Paul was claiming that he legitimately worshiped the God of Israel. He was arguing that this amounted to a religious dispute rather than a political one, so that the Roman authorities need not concern themselves with it.

50 tn Grk “having.” The participle ἔχων (ecwn) has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun at this point in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence.

51 sn This mention of Paul’s hope sets up his appeal to the resurrection of the dead. At this point Paul was ignoring the internal Jewish dispute between the Pharisees (to which he had belonged) and the Sadducees (who denied there would be a resurrection of the dead).

52 tn Grk “a hope in God (which these [men] themselves accept too).” Because the antecedent of the relative pronoun “which” is somewhat unclear in English, the words “a hope” have been repeated at the beginning of the parenthesis for clarity.

53 tn Grk “that they”; the referent (these men, Paul’s accusers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

54 tn Or “the unjust.”

sn This is the only mention of the resurrection of the unrighteous in Acts. The idea parallels the idea of Jesus as the judge of both the living and the dead (Acts 10:42; 17:31).

55 tn BDAG 329 s.v. ἐν 9.a, “ἐν τούτῳ πιστεύομεν this is the reason why we believe Jn 16:30; cp. Ac 24:16.”

56 tn BDAG 224 s.v. διά 2.a, “διὰ παντόςalways, continually, constantlyAc 2:25 (Ps 15:8); 10:2; 24:16.” However, the positioning of the adverb “always” in the English translation is difficult; the position used is one of the least awkward.

57 tn BDAG 125 s.v. ἀπρόσκοπος 1 has “. συνείδησις a clear conscience Ac 24:16.”

58 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use (Paul does not have only males in view).

59 tn BDAG 401 s.v. ἔτος has “δι᾿ ἐ. πλειόνων after several years 24:17.”

60 tn Grk “to bring alms,” but the term “alms” is not in common use today, so the closest modern equivalent, “gifts for the poor,” is used instead.

61 tn Or “sacrifices.” BDAG 887 s.v. προσφορά 1 has “προσφοράς ποιεῖν have sacrifices made Ac 24:17,” but this may be overly specific. It is not clear from the immediate context whether the offering of sacrificial animals (so BDAG assumes) or offerings of some other sort (such as financial gifts) are in view. The combination with ἐλεημοσύνας (elehmosuna") in the preceding clause may suggest monetary offerings. Some have suggested this is an allusion to the payments made by Paul on behalf of the four other men mentioned in Acts 21:23-26, but the text here seems to suggest something Paul had planned to do before he came, while the decision to pay for the expenses of the men in 21:23ff. was made at the suggestion of the Jerusalem leadership after he arrived. In either case, Paul was portraying himself as a pious worshiper of his God.

62 sn Ritually purified. Paul’s claim here is that he was honoring the holiness of God by being sensitive to issues of ritual purity. Not only was he not guilty of the charges against him, but he was thoroughly devout.

63 tn BDAG 458 s.v. θόρυβος 3.b has “μετὰ θορύβουwith a disturbance Ac 24:18.”

64 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

65 tn BDAG 533 s.v. κατηγορέω 1 states, “nearly always as legal t.t.: bring charges in court.” L&N 33.427 states for κατηγορέω (kathgorew), “to bring serious charges or accusations against someone, with the possible connotation of a legal or court context – ‘to accuse, to bring charges.’”

sn Who should be here…and bring charges. Paul was asking, where were those who brought about his arrest and claimed he broke the law? His accusers were not really present. This subtle point raised the issue of injustice.

66 tn Grk “these [men] themselves.”

67 tn Or “unrighteous act.”

68 tn The words “me guilty of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. L&N 88.23 has “αὐτοὶ οὗτοι εἰπάτωσαν τί εὗρον ἀδίκημα στάντος μου ‘let these men themselves tell what unrighteous act they found me guilty of’ Ac 24:20.”

69 tn Grk “the Sanhedrin” (the Sanhedrin was the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).

70 tn BDAG 433 s.v. 2.c has “οὐδὲν ἕτερον ἤ nothing else thanAc 17:21. τί what otherthan24:21.”

71 tn Grk “one utterance.”

72 tn Cf. BDAG 327 s.v. ἐν 1.e, which has “before, in the presence of, etc.”

73 sn The resurrection of the dead. Paul’s point was, what crime was there in holding this religious belief?

74 sn See the note on Antonius Felix in 23:24.

75 tn Grk “the things.”

76 tn That is, concerning Christianity.

77 tn BDAG 39 s.v. ἀκριβῶς has “Comp. ἀκριβέστερον more exactly. ἐκτίθεσθαι explain more exactly Ac 18:26, cp. 23:15, 20; also more accurately24:22.” Felix knew more about the Christian movement than what the Jewish leaders had told him.

78 tn L&N 56.18 s.v. ἀναβάλλω has “to adjourn a court proceeding until a later time – ‘to adjourn a hearing, to stop a hearing and put it off until later.’…‘then Felix, who was well informed about the Way, adjourned their hearing’ Ac 24:22.”

79 tn BDAG 227 s.v. διαγινώσκω 2 states, “to make a judicial decision, decide/hear (a case)τὰ καθ᾿ ὑμᾶς decide your case Ac 24:22.”

80 sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1.

81 tn Grk “that he was to be guarded.” The passive construction (τηρεῖσθαι, threisqai) has been converted to an active one in parallel with the following clauses, and the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

82 tn BDAG 77 s.v. ἄνεσις 1 states, “lit. relaxation of custodial control, some liberty, . ἔχειν have some freedom Ac 24:23.”

83 tn Grk “any of his own” (this could also refer to relatives).

84 tn Grk “from serving him.”

85 sn See the note on Antonius Felix in 23:24.

86 sn It is possible that Drusilla, being Jewish, was the source of Felix’s knowledge about the new movement called Christianity. The youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I and sister of Agrippa II, she would have been close to 20 years old at the time. She had married the king of a small region in Syria but divorced him at the age of 16 to marry Felix. This was her second marriage and Felix’s third (Josephus, Ant. 19.9.1 [19.354], 20.7.2 [20.141-144]). As a member of Herod’s family, she probably knew about the Way.

87 tn The word “speak” is implied; BDAG 32 s.v. ἀκούω 1.c has “ἤκουσεν αὐτοῦ περὶ τῆςπίστεως he heard him speak about faith Ac 24:24.”

88 tn Or “Messiah Jesus”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

89 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

90 tn Or “speaking about.”

91 tn Grk “and self-control.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

sn The topic of self-control was appropriate in view of the personal history of both Felix and Drusilla (see the note on “Drusilla” in the previous verse), and might well account for Felix’s anxiety.

92 sn See the note on Felix in 23:26.

93 tn Grk “becoming.” The participle γενόμενος (genomenos) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

94 tn Or “when I find time.” BDAG 639 s.v. μεταλαμβάνω 2 has “καιρὸν μ. have an opportunity = find timeAc 24:25.”

95 tn Grk “he was hoping that money would be given to him by Paul.” To simplify the translation, the passive construction has been converted to an active one.

sn Would give him money. That is, would offer him a bribe in exchange for his release. Such practices were fairly common among Roman officials of the period (Josephus, Ant. 2.12.3 [2.272-274]).

96 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

97 tn “As often as possible” reflects the comparative form of the adjective πυκνός (puknos); see BDAG 897 s.v. πυκνός, which has “Neut. of the comp. πυκνότερον as adv. more often, more frequently and in an elative sense very often, quite frequently…also as often as possibleAc 24:26.”

98 tn On this term, which could mean “conferred with him,” see BDAG 705 s.v. ὁμιλέω.

99 tn Grk “After a two-year period.”

100 sn Porcius Festus was the procurator of Palestine who succeeded Felix; neither the beginning nor the end of his rule (at his death) can be determined with certainty, although he appears to have died in office after about two years. Nero recalled Felix in a.d. 57 or 58, and Festus was appointed to his vacant office in a.d. 57, 58, or 59. According to Josephus (Ant. 20.8.9-10 [20.182-188]; J. W. 2.14.1 [2.271-272]), his administration was better than that of his predecessor Felix or his successor Albinus, but Luke in Acts portrays him in a less favorable light: He was willing to sacrifice Paul to court Jewish favor by taking him to Jerusalem for trial (v. 9), regardless of Paul’s guilt or innocence. The one characteristic for which Festus was noted is that he dealt harshly with those who disturbed the peace.

101 tn Grk “Felix received as successor Porcius Festus.”

sn See the note on Felix in 23:26.

102 tn Grk “left Paul imprisoned.”

sn Felix left Paul in prison. Luke makes the point that politics got in the way of justice here; keeping Paul in prison was a political favor to the Jews.

103 tn BDAG 736-37 s.v. οὖν 2.b states, “οὖν serves to indicate a transition to someth. new…now, then, wellAc 25:1.”

104 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

105 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

106 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1. This was a journey of 65 mi (just over 100 km).

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

107 tn BDAG 893-94 s.v. πρῶτος 2.a.β has “οἱ πρῶτοι the most prominent men, the leading men w. gen. of the place…or of a group…οἱ πρ. τοῦ λαοῦLk 19:47; cp. Ac 25:2; 28:17.”

108 tn BDAG 326 s.v. ἐμφανίζω 3 has “. τινὶ κατά τινος bring formal charges against someoneAc 24:1; 25:2.”

sn Note how quickly the Jewish leadership went after Paul: They brought formal charges against him within three days of Festus’ arrival in the province.

109 tn Grk “Requesting a favor against him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation, the understood direct object of “requesting” has been supplied, and the phrase “to do them” supplied for clarity.

110 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Festus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The words “they urged him” are in v. 2 in the Greek text.

111 sn Planning an ambush. The Jewish leadership had not forgotten the original plan of several years ago (see 23:16). They did not trust the Roman legal process, but preferred to take matters into their own hands.

112 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

113 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

114 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

115 tn Grk “let those who are influential among you” (i.e., the powerful).

116 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

117 tn Grk “and if there is anything wrong with this man,” but this could be misunderstood in English to mean a moral or physical defect, while the issue in context is the commission of some crime, something legally improper (BDAG 149 s.v. ἄτοπος 2).

118 tn BDAG 533 s.v. κατηγορέω 1 states, “nearly always as legal t.t.: bring charges in court.” L&N 33.427 states for κατηγορέω, “to bring serious charges or accusations against someone, with the possible connotation of a legal or court context – ‘to accuse, to bring charges.”

119 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Festus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

120 tn Grk “Having stayed.” The participle διατρίψας (diatriya") has been taken temporally.

121 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

122 tn Grk “sitting down…he ordered.” The participle καθίσας (kaqisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

123 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “tribunal” for this verse, and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“court,” NIV; “tribunal,” NRSV), since the bhma was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time, there is no need for an alternative translation here.

sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city.

124 tn BDAG 801 s.v. περιίστημι 1.a has “περιέστησαν αὐτὸν οἱ ᾿Ιουδαῖοι the Judeans stood around him 25:7.”

125 tn Grk “many and serious.” The term βαρύς (barus) refers to weighty or serious charges (BDAG 167 s.v. 1).

126 tn The term ἀποδείκνυμι (apodeiknumi) in a legal context refers to legal proof (4 Macc 1:8; BDAG 108 s.v. 3).

127 tn Grk “Paul saying in his defense”; the participle ἀπολογουμένου (apologoumenou) could be taken temporally (“when Paul said…”), but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the participle was translated as a finite verb and a new sentence begun here in the translation. BDAG 116-17 s.v. ἀπολογέομαι has “W. ὅτι foll. τοῦ Παύλου ἀπολογουμένου, ὅτι when Paul said in his defense (direct quot. foll.) Ac 25:8.”

128 tn Grk “I have sinned…in nothing.”

129 tn Grk “against the law of the Jews.” Here τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων has been translated as an attributive genitive.

sn The Jewish law refers to the law of Moses.

130 tn Or “against the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

sn Paul’s threefold claim to be innocent with respect to the law…the temple and Caesar argues that he has not disturbed the peace at any level. This was the standard charge made against early Christians (Luke 23:2; Acts 17:6-7). The charges here are emphatically denied, with the Greek conjunction oute repeated before each charge.

131 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

132 tn Or “stand trial.”

133 tn Grk “concerning these things.”

134 tn Grk “said.”

135 tn Or “before the emperor’s” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

136 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “tribunal” for this verse, and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“court,” NIV; “tribunal,” NRSV), since the bema was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time, there is no need for an alternative translation here. Here of course Paul’s reference to “Caesar’s judgment seat” is a form of metonymy; since Festus is Caesar’s representative, Festus’ judgment seat represents Caesar’s own.

sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city.

137 tn That is, tried by an imperial representative and subject to Roman law.

138 sn “I have done nothing wrong.” Here is yet another declaration of total innocence on Paul’s part.

139 tn BDAG 506 s.v. καλῶς 7 states, “comp. κάλλιον (for the superl., as Galen, Protr. 8 p. 24, 19J.=p. 10, 31 Kaibel; s. B-D-F §244, 2) ὡς καί σὺ κ. ἐπιγινώσκεις as also you know very well Ac 25:10.”

140 tn BDAG 20 s.v. ἀδικέω 1.b has “intr. be in the wrong (Ex 2:13) εἰ ἀδικῶ Ac 25:11.”

141 tn BDAG 764 s.v. παραιτέομαι 2.b.β, “οὐ παραιτοῦμαι τὸ ἀποθανεῖν I am not trying to escape death Ac 25:11 (cp. Jos., Vi. 141).” To avoid redundancy in the translation, the English gerund “dying” is used to translate the Greek infinitive ἀποθανεῖν (apoqanein).

142 tn Or “but if there is nothing to their charges against me.” Both “if” clauses in this verse are first class conditions. Paul stated the options without prejudice, assuming in turn the reality of each for the sake of the argument.

143 sn That is, no one can hand me over to them lawfully. Paul was aware of the dangers of a return to Jerusalem.

144 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

sn The appeal to Caesar was known as the provocatio ad Caesarem. It was a Roman citizen’s right to ask for a direct judgment by the emperor (Pliny the Younger, Letters 10.96). It was one of the oldest rights of Roman citizens.

145 tn That is, with his advisers.

146 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

147 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

148 tn Or “to the emperor.”

149 sn “To Caesar you will go!” In all probability Festus was pleased to send Paul on to Rome and get this political problem out of his court.

150 sn King Agrippa was Herod Agrippa II (a.d. 27-92/93), son of Herod Agrippa I (see Acts 12:1). He ruled over parts of Palestine from a.d. 53 until his death. His sister Bernice was widowed when her second husband, Herod King of Chalcis, died in a.d. 48. From then she lived with her brother. In an attempt to quiet rumors of an incestuous relationship between them, she resolved to marry Polemo of Cilicia, but she soon left him and returned to Herod Agrippa II. Their incestuous relationship became the gossip of Rome according to Josephus (Ant. 20.7.3 [20.145-147]). The visit of Agrippa and Bernice gave Festus the opportunity to get some internal Jewish advice. Herod Agrippa II was a trusted adviser because he was known to be very loyal to Rome (Josephus, J. W. 2.16.4 [2.345-401]).

151 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2 C1; Map4 B3; Map5 F2; Map7 A1; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

152 tn BDAG 144 s.v. ἀσπάζομαι 1.b states, “Of official visits pay ones respects toAc 25:13.”

153 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

154 tn BDAG 1105-6 s.v. ὡς 8.b states, “w. pres. or impf. while, when, as long asAc 1:10; 7:23; 9:23; 10:17; 13:25; 19:9; 21:27; 25:14.”

155 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

156 tn Grk “Festus laid Paul’s case before the king for consideration.” BDAG 74 s.v. ἀνατίθημι 2 states, “otherw. only mid. to lay someth. before someone for consideration, declare, communicate, refer w. the added idea that the pers. to whom a thing is ref. is asked for his opinion lay someth. before someone for considerationAc 25:14.”

157 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

158 tn BDAG 326 s.v. ἐμφανίζω 3 has “to convey a formal report about a judicial matter, present evidence, bring charges. περί τινος concerning someone 25:15.”

159 tn Grk “about whom.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a personal pronoun (“him”) and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 15 (where the phrase περὶ οὗ [peri Jou] occurs in the Greek text).

160 tn BDAG 516 s.v. καταδίκη states, “condemnation, sentence of condemnation, conviction, guilty verdictαἰτεῖσθαι κατά τινος κ. ask for a conviction of someone Ac 25:15.”

161 tn Grk “to whom I answered.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been replaced with a personal pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 16.

sn “I answered them.” In the answer that follows, Festus is portrayed in a more positive light, being sensitive to justice and Roman law.

162 tn Grk “any man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpos).

163 tn Or “has met his accusers in person.”

164 tn Grk “and receives.”

165 tn Or “indictment” (a legal technical term). BDAG 273-74 s.v. ἔγκλημα 1 states, “legal t.t.…ἀπολογία περὶ τοῦ ἐ. defense against the accusation Ac 25:16.” L&N 56.6 defines ἔγκλημα (enklhma) as “(a technical, legal term) a formal indictment or accusation brought against someone – ‘indictment, accusation, case.’ …‘and might receive an opportunity for a defense against the indictment’ Ac 25:16.”

166 tn BDAG 969-70 s.v. συνέρχομαι 2 states, “συνελθόντων ἐνθάδε prob. means (because of συνκαταβάντες 25:5) they came back here with (me) 25:17.”

167 tn BDAG 59 s.v. ἀναβολή states, “‘delay’…legal t.t. postponement. μηδεμίαν ποιησάμενος I did not postpone the matter Ac 25:17.” “Case” has been supplied instead of “matter” since it is more specific to the context. The participle ποιησάμενος (poihsameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

168 tn Grk “sitting…I ordered.” The participle καθίσας (kaqisa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

169 tn Although BDAG 175 s.v. βῆμα 3 gives the meaning “tribunal” for this verse, and a number of modern translations use similar terms (“court,” NIV; “tribunal,” NRSV), since the bema was a standard feature in Greco-Roman cities of the time, there is no need for an alternative translation here.

sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bhma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and sometimes furnished with a seat, used by officials in addressing an assembly or making pronouncements, often on judicial matters. The judgment seat was a familiar item in Greco-Roman culture, often located in the agora, the public square or marketplace in the center of a city.

170 tn Grk “they brought no charge of any of the evil deeds.” BDAG 31 s.v. αἰτία 3.b has “αἰτίαν φέρεινbring an accusation Ac 25:18.” Since κατήγοροι (kathgoroi, “accusers”) in the previous clause is somewhat redundant with this, “charge” was used instead.

171 tn Or “I was expecting.”

172 tn Grk “several controversial issues.” BDAG 428 s.v. ζήτημα states, “in our lit. only in Ac, w. the mng. it still has in Mod. Gk. (controversial) question, issue, argumentAc 15:2; 26:3. ζ. περί τινος questions about someth.…18:15; 25:19.”

173 tn On this term see BDAG 216 s.v. δεισιδαιμονία 2. It is a broad term for religion.

sn About their own religion. Festus made it clear that in his view as a neutral figure (and as one Luke had noted was disposed to help the Jews), he saw no guilt in Paul. The issue was a simple religious dispute.

174 tn Grk “a certain Jesus.”

175 tn Or “asserted.”

176 tn Or “Because I was undecided.” Grk “Being at a loss.” The participle ἀπορούμενος (aporoumeno") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

177 tn L&N 27.34 states, “ἀπορούμενος δὲ ἐγὼ τὴν περὶ τούτων ζήτησιν ‘I was undecided about how I could get information on these matters’ Ac 25:20. The clause ‘about how I could get information on these matters’ may also be rendered as ‘about how I should try to find out about these matters’ or ‘about how I could learn about these matters.’”

178 tn Or “stand trial.”

179 tn Grk “on these things.”

180 tn A designation of the Roman emperor (in this case, Nero). BDAG 917 s.v. σεβαστός states, “ὁ Σεβαστός His Majesty the Emperor Ac 25:21, 25 (of Nero).” It was a translation into Greek of the Latin “Augustus.”

181 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

182 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

183 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

184 tn Grk “said.”

185 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

186 tn Or “great pageantry” (BDAG 1049 s.v. φαντασία; the term is a NT hapax legomenon).

sn Agrippa and Bernice came with great pomp. The “royals” were getting their look at Paul. Everyone who was anyone would have been there.

187 tn Or “auditorium.” “Auditorium” may suggest to the modern English reader a theater where performances are held. Here it is the large hall where a king or governor would hold audiences. Paul once spoke of himself as a “spectacle” to the world (1 Cor 4:8-13).

188 tn Grk “the chiliarchs” (officers in command of a thousand soldiers). In Greek the term χιλίαρχος (ciliarco") literally described the “commander of a thousand,” but it was used as the standard translation for the Latin tribunus militum or tribunus militare, the military tribune who commanded a cohort of 600 men.

189 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

190 tn Grk “and Festus ordering, Paul was brought in.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has not been translated. The participle κελεύσαντος (keleusanto") has been taken temporally.

191 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

192 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

193 tn Probably best understood as rhetorical hyperbole. BDAG 825 s.v. πλῆθος 2.b.γ states, “people, populace, populationτὸ πλῆθος the populaceἅπαν τὸ πλ. τῶν ᾿Ιουδαίων Ac 25:24.” However, the actions of the leadership are seen by Luke as representing the actions of the entire nation, so the remark is not inaccurate.

194 tn Or “appealed to” (BDAG 341 s.v. ἐντυγχάνω 1.a).

195 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

196 sn Here means “here in Caesarea.”

197 tn Or “screaming.”

198 sn He had done nothing that deserved death. Festus’ opinion of Paul’s guilt is like Pilate’s of Jesus (Luke 23:4, 14, 22).

199 tn The participle ἐπικαλεσαμένου (epikalesamenou) has been taken temporally. It could also be translated as causal: “and because he appealed…”

200 tn A designation of the Roman emperor (in this case, Nero). BDAG 917 s.v. σεβαστός states, “ὁ Σεβαστός His Majesty the Emperor Ac 25:21, 25 (of Nero).”

201 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

202 sn There is irony here. How can Festus write anything definite about Paul, if he is guilty of nothing.

203 sn To my lord means “to His Majesty the Emperor.”

204 tn Grk “about whom I have nothing definite…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced with a personal pronoun (“him”) and a new sentence begun in the translation at the beginning of v. 26.

205 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

206 tn Or “investigation.” BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνάκρισις has “a judicial hearing, investigation, hearing, esp. preliminary hearingτῆς ἀ. γενομένης Ac 25:26.” This is technical legal language.

207 tn L&N 33.153 s.v. σημαίνω, “to cause something to be both specific and clear – ‘to indicate clearly, to make clear’… ‘for it seems unreasonable to me to send a prisoner without clearly indicating the charges against him’ Ac 25:27.”

sn Without clearly indicating the charges against him. Again the point is made by Festus himself that there is difficulty even in articulating a charge against Paul.

208 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

209 tn Grk “It is permitted for you.”

210 tn Or “extended his hand” (a speaker’s gesture).

211 tn Or “and began to speak in his own defense.”

212 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

213 tn BDAG 613 s.v. μάλιστα 1 states, “μ. γνώστην ὄντα σε since you are outstandingly familiar Ac 26:3.”

214 tn Grk “several controversial issues.” BDAG 428 s.v. ζήτημα states, “in our lit. only in Ac, w. the mng. it still has in Mod. Gk. (controversial) question, issue, argumentAc 15:2; 26:3. ζ. περί τινος questions about someth.…18:15; 25:19.”

215 tn BDAG 218 s.v. δέομαι states, “In our lit. only w. the mng. to ask for something pleadingly, ask, request,” and then in section a.α states, “w. inf. foll.…Ac 26:3.”

216 tn Grk “my manner of life.”

217 tn Or “nation.”

218 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

219 tn These words are repeated from v. 4 (“all the Jews know”). Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, it was necessary to begin a new sentence at the beginning of v. 5 in the translation, but for this to make sense, the main verb ἵσασι ({isasi) has to be repeated to connect with the ὅτι (Joti) clause (indirect discourse) in v. 5.

220 tn Grk “having known me from time past.” The participle προγινώσκοντες (proginwskonte") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

221 tn BDAG 866 s.v. προγινώσκω 2 has “Know from time pastπρογινώσκοντές με ἄνωθεν Ac 26:5.” L&N 28.6 states, “‘they have already known me beforehand, if they are willing to testify’ Ac 26:5.”

222 tn That is, strictest religious party. “Party” alone is used in the translation because “the strictest religious party of our religion” would be redundant.

223 sn See the note on Pharisee in 5:34.

224 tn BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.a.α has “κρίνεσθαι ἐπί τινι be on trial because of a thing Ac 26:6.”

225 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

226 tn Grk “to which [promise] our twelve tribes…” The antecedent of the relative pronoun (the promise in v. 6) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

227 tn Or “earnestly worship.” The object of this service, God, is omitted but implied: BDAG 587 s.v. λατρεύω states, “Without the dat. of the one to whom service is given: ἐν ἐκτενείᾳ νύκτα κ. ἡμέραν λ. serve (God) earnestly night and day Ac 26:7.” Although clear from the context in Greek, “God” must be supplied as the recipient of the service for the modern English reader.

228 tn Grk “I am being accused by the Jews.” The passive construction was simplified by converting it to an active one in the translation.

229 tn Grk “O King!”

230 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate that the second person pronoun (“you”) is plural (others in addition to King Agrippa are being addressed).

231 tn BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 3 states, “τί ἄπιστον κρίνεται παρ᾿ ὑμῖν; why do you think it is incredible? Ac 26:8.” The passive construction (“why is it thought unbelievable…”) has been converted to an active one to simplify the translation.

232 tn Or “incredible.” BDAG 103 s.v. ἄπιστος 1 states, “unbelievable, incredibleτί ἄπιστον κρίνεται παρ᾿ ὑμῖν…; why does it seem incredible to you? Ac 26:8.”

233 tn Grk “if.” The first-class conditional construction, which assumes reality for the sake of argument, has been translated as indirect discourse.

234 tn BDAG 737 s.v. οὖν 3 states, “It has been proposed that some traces of older Gk. usage in which οὖν is emphatic, = certainly, really, to be sure etc. (s. L-S-J-M s.v. 1) remain in the pap…and in the NT…indeed, of course Ac 26:9.”

235 tn Grk “I thought to myself.” BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.a has “ἔδοξα ἐμαυτῷ δεῖν πρᾶξαι = Lat. mihi videbar I was convinced that it was necessary to do Ac 26:9.”

236 tn Grk “by receiving authority.” The participle λαβών (labwn) has been taken instrumentally.

237 tn Grk “cast down a pebble against them.” L&N 30.103 states, “(an idiom, Grk ‘to bring a pebble against someone,’ a reference to a white or black pebble used in voting for or against someone) to make known one’s choice against someone – ‘to vote against.’ …‘when they were sentenced to death, I also voted against them’ Ac 26:10.”

238 tn Grk “when they were being executed”; but the context supports the sentencing rather than the execution itself (cf. L&N 30.103).

239 tn Grk “and punishing…I tried.” The participle τιμωρῶν (timwrwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

240 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

241 tn The imperfect verb ἠνάγκαζον (hnankazon) has been translated as a conative imperfect (so BDAG 60 s.v. ἀναγκάζω 1, which has “ἠνάγκαζον βλασφημεῖν I tried to force them to blaspheme Ac 26:11”).

242 tn Or “was so insanely angry with them.” BDAG 322 s.v. ἐμμαίνομαι states, “to be filled with such anger that one appears to be mad, be enragedπερισσῶς ἐμμαινόμενος αὐτοῖς being furiously enraged at them Ac 26:11”; L&N 88.182 s.v. ἐμμαίνομαι, “to be so furiously angry with someone as to be almost out of one’s mind – ‘to be enraged, to be infuriated, to be insanely angry’ …‘I was so infuriated with them that I even went to foreign cities to persecute them’ Ac 26:11.”

243 tn Or “I pursued them even as far as foreign cities.”

244 tn Grk “in which [activity].” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started at the beginning of v. 12 in the translation. The referent of the relative pronoun (“which”) was specified as “this very thing” for clarity.

245 tn Grk “going.” The participle πορευόμενος (poreuomenos) has been taken temporally.

246 tn L&N 37.40 s.v. ἐπιτροπή states, “the full authority to carry out an assignment or commission – ‘authority, complete power.’ πορευόμενος εἰς τὴν Δαμασκὸν μετ᾿ ἐξουσίας καὶ ἐπιτροπῆς τῶν ἀρχιερέων ‘going to Damascus with authority and complete power from the high priests’ Ac 26:12. In Ac 26:12 the combination of ἐξουσία and ἐπιτροπή serves to reinforce the sense of complete authority.”

247 tn Grk “O King.”

248 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

249 tn The word “everywhere” has been supplied in the translation to clarify the meaning of περιλάμψαν (perilamyan). Otherwise the modern reader might think that each of the individuals were encircled by lights or halos. See also Acts 9:7; 22:6, 9.

250 tn Grk “in the Hebrew language.” See Acts 22:7 and 9:4.

251 tn Grk “It is hard for you.”

252 tn “Goads” are pointed sticks used to direct a draft animal (an idiom for stubborn resistance). See BDAG 539-40 s.v. κέντρον 2.

sn Sayings which contain the imagery used here (kicking against the goads) were also found in Greek writings; see Pindar, Pythians 2.94-96; Euripides, Bacchae 795.

253 tn Grk “said.”

254 tn L&N 30.89 has “‘to choose in advance, to select beforehand, to designate in advance.’”

255 sn As a servant and witness. The commission is similar to Acts 1:8 and Luke 1:2. Paul was now an “eyewitness” of the Lord.

256 tn BDAG 719 s.v. ὁράω A.1.b states, “W. attraction of the relative ὧν = τούτων ἅ Lk 9:36; Ac 22:15. The attraction may be due to colloq. breviloquence in μάρτυρα ὧν τε εἶδες με ὧν τε ὀφθήσομαί σοι a witness to the things in which you saw me and to those in which I shall appear to you Ac 26:16b.”

257 tc ‡ Some mss read “of the things in which you have seen me.” The accusative object με (me, “me”) is found after εἶδές (eide") in B C*vid 614 945 1175 1505 1739 1891 2464 pc sy sa; it is lacking in Ì74 א A C2 E Ψ 096 Ï latt bo. The external evidence is relatively evenly divided, though there is a slight preference for the omission. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating some doubt as to its authenticity.

258 tn Grk “rescuing.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the participle ἐξαιρούμενος (exairoumeno") has been translated as a finite verb and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 17.

259 tn That is, from the Jewish people. Grk “the people”; the words “your own” have been supplied to clarify the meaning.

260 tn The antecedent of the relative pronoun is probably both the Jews (“your own people”) and the Gentiles, indicating the comprehensive commission Paul received.

261 sn To open their eyes so that they turn… Here is Luke’s most comprehensive report of Paul’s divine calling. His role was to call humanity to change their position before God and experience God’s forgiveness as a part of God’s family. The image of turning is a key one in the NT: Luke 1:79; Rom 2:19; 13:12; 2 Cor 4:6; 6:14; Eph 5:8; Col 1:12; 1 Thess 5:5. See also Luke 1:77-79; 3:3; 24:47.

262 tn BDAG 352-53 s.v. ἐξουσία 2 states, “Also of Satan’s power Ac 26:18.” It is also possible to translate this “the domain of Satan” (cf. BDAG 353 s.v. 6)

263 tn Or “and an inheritance.”

264 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

265 sn I was not disobedient. Paul’s defense is that he merely obeyed the risen Jesus. He was arrested for obeying heavenly direction and preaching the opportunity to turn to God.

266 tn According to L&N 1.5, “In Ac 26:19 the adjective οὐράνιος could be interpreted as being related simply to the meaning of οὐρανόςa ‘sky,’ but it seems preferable to regard οὐράνιος in this context as meaning simply ‘from heaven’ or ‘heavenly.’”

267 tn BDAG 1093-94 s.v. χώρα 2.b states, “of the provincial name (1 Macc 8:3) ἡ χώρα τῆς ᾿Ιουδαίας Ac 26:20.”

268 sn That they should repent and turn to God. This is the shortest summary of Paul’s message that he preached.

269 tn BDAG 93 s.v. ἄξιος 1.b, “καρποὶ ἄ. τῆς μετανοίας fruits in keeping with your repentanceLk 3:8; Mt 3:8. For this . τῆς μετανοίας ἔργα Ac 26:20.” Note how Paul preached the gospel offer and the issue of response together, side by side.

270 tn Grk “in the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.

271 tn Grk “So experiencing…I stand.” The participle τυχών (tucwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

272 tn BDAG 311 s.v. ἐκτός 3.b, “functions as prep. w. gen. οὐδὲν ἐ. ὧν nothing except what (cf. 1 Ch 29:3; 2 Ch 17:19; TestNapht. 6:2) Ac 26:22.”

273 sn What the prophets and Moses said. Paul argued that his message reflected the hope of the Jewish scriptures.

274 tn BDAG 277-78 s.v. εἰ 2 has “marker of an indirect question as content, that…Sim. also (Procop. Soph., Ep. 123 χάριν ἔχειν εἰ = that) μαρτυρόμενοςεἰ παθητὸς ὁ Χριστός testifyingthat the Christ was to sufferAc 26:23.”

275 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

276 tn That is, to the Jewish people. Grk “the people”; the word “our” has been supplied to clarify the meaning.

277 sn Note how the context of Paul’s gospel message about Jesus, resurrection, and light both to Jews and to the Gentiles is rooted in the prophetic message of the OT scriptures. Paul was guilty of following God’s call and preaching the scriptural hope.

278 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

279 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

280 tn On the term translated “lost your mind” see BDAG 610 s.v. μαίνομαι, which has “you’re out of your mind, you’re raving, said to one whose enthusiasm seems to have outrun better judgment 26:24.”

sn The expression “You have lost your mind” would be said to someone who speaks incredible things, in the opinion of the hearer. Paul’s mention of the resurrection (v. 23) was probably what prompted Festus to say this.

281 tn Grk “said.”

282 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

283 tn Or “declaring.” BDAG 125 s.v. ἀποφθέγγομαι states, “speak out, declare boldly or loudly…τὶ: σωφροσύνης ῥήματα Ac 26:25.”

284 tn BDAG 987 s.v. σωφροσύνη 1 has “gener. soundness of mind, reasonableness, rationalityἀληθείας καὶ σωφροσύνης ῥήματα true and rational words (opp. μαίνομαι) Ac 26:25.”

285 tn BDAG 782 s.v. παρρησιάζομαι 1 states, “speak freely, openly, fearlessly…likew. in the ptc. w. a verb of saying foll.…παρρησιασάμενοι εἶπαν 13:46. – 26:26.” This could refer to boldness in speaking here.

286 tn Grk “to whom I am speaking freely.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the personal pronoun (“him”) to simplify the translation.

287 tn Grk “I cannot convince myself.” BDAG 792 s.v. πείθω 3.a states, “οὐ πείθομαι w. acc. and inf. I cannot believe Ac 26:26” (see also BDAG 586 s.v. λανθάνω).

288 tn BDAG 586 s.v. λανθάνω states, “λανθάνειν αὐτὸν τούτων οὐ πείθομαι οὐθέν I cannot bring myself to believe that any of these things has escaped his notice Ac 26:26.”

289 tn This term refers to a hidden corner (BDAG 209 s.v. γωνία). Paul’s point is that these events to which he refers were not done in a secret, hidden place, tucked away outside of view. They were done in public for all the world to see.

290 sn “Do you believe the prophets?” Note how Paul made the issue believing the OT prophets and God’s promise which God fulfilled in Christ. He was pushing King Agrippa toward a decision not for or against Paul’s guilt of any crime, but concerning Paul’s message.

291 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

292 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

293 tn Or “In a short time you will make me a Christian.” On the difficulty of the precise nuances of Agrippa’s reply in this passage, see BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b. The idiom is like 1 Kgs 21:7 LXX. The point is that Paul was trying to persuade Agrippa to accept his message. If Agrippa had let Paul persuade him, he would have converted to Christianity.

sn The question “In such a short time are you persuading me to become a Christian?” was probably a ploy on Agrippa’s part to deflect Paul from his call for a decision. Note also how the tables have turned: Agrippa was brought in to hear Paul’s defense, and now ends up defending himself. The questioner is now being questioned.

294 tn BDAG 703 s.v. ὀλίγος 2.b.β has “καὶ ἐν ὀλ. καὶ ἐν μεγάλῳ whether in a short or a long time vs. 29 (cf. B-D-F §195; GWhitaker, The Words of Agrippa to St. Paul: JTS 15, 1914, 82f; AFridrichsen, SymbOsl 14, ’35, 50; Field, Notes 141-43; s. Rob. 653).”

295 sn Except for these chains. The chains represented Paul’s unjust suffering for the sake of the message. His point was, in effect, “I do not care how long it takes. I only hope you and everyone else hearing this would become believers in Christ, but without my unjust suffering.”

296 tn Grk “they spoke to one another saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

297 tn BDAG 93 s.v. ἄξιος 1.b has “θανάτου ἢ δεσμῶν ἄ. nothing deserving death or imprisonment 23:29; 26:31.”

sn Not doing anything deserving death… Here is yet another declaration of Paul’s innocence, but still no release. The portrayal shows how unjust Paul’s confinement was.

298 sn See the note on King Agrippa in 25:13.

299 sn See the note on Porcius Festus in 24:27.

300 tn Or “set free.”

301 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

sn If he had not appealed to Caesar. Ultimately Agrippa and Festus blamed what Paul himself had done in appealing to Caesar for his own continued custody. In terms of Luke’s narrative, this still appears unjust and a denial of responsibility.



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