22:3 “I am a Jew, 1 born in Tarsus in Cilicia, but brought up 2 in this city, educated with strictness 3 under 4 Gamaliel 5 according to the law of our ancestors, 6 and was 7 zealous 8 for God just as all of you are today.
22:18 and saw the Lord 9 saying to me, ‘Hurry and get out of Jerusalem quickly, because they will not accept your testimony about me.’ 22:19 I replied, 10 ‘Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat those in the various synagogues 11 who believed in you. 22:20 And when the blood of your witness 12 Stephen was shed, 13 I myself was standing nearby, approving, 14 and guarding the cloaks 15 of those who were killing him.’ 16 22:21 Then 17 he said to me, ‘Go, because I will send you far away to the Gentiles.’”
1 tn Grk “a Jewish man.”
3 tn Or “with precision.” Although often translated “strictly” this can be misunderstood for “solely” in English. BDAG 39 s.v. ἀκρίβεια gives the meaning as “exactness, precision.” To avoid the potential misunderstanding the translation “with strictness” is used, although it is slightly more awkward than “strictly.”
4 tn Grk “strictly at the feet of” (an idiom).
5 tn Or “brought up in this city under Gamaliel, educated with strictness…” The phrase παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιὴλ (para tou" poda" Gamalihl) could be understood with what precedes or with what follows. The punctuation of NA27 and UBS4, which place a comma after ταύτῃ (tauth), has been followed in the translation.
sn Gamaliel was a famous Jewish scholar and teacher mentioned here and in Acts 5:34. He had a grandson of the same name and is referred to as “Gamaliel the Elder” to avoid confusion. He is quoted a number of times in the Mishnah, was given the highest possible title for Jewish teachers, Rabba (cf. John 20:16), and was highly regarded in later rabbinic tradition.
6 tn Or “our forefathers.”
7 tn Grk “ancestors, being.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
10 tn Grk “And I said.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai, in καγώ [kagw]) has not been translated here.
11 tn For the distributive sense of the expression κατὰ τὰς συναγωγάς (kata ta" sunagwga") BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d has “of places viewed serially, distributive use w. acc.…κατ᾿ οἶκαν from house to house…Ac 2:46b; 5:42…Likew. the pl.…κ. τὰς συναγωγάς 22:19.” See also L&N 37.114.
sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.
12 sn Now Paul referred to Stephen as your witness, and he himself had also become a witness. The reversal was now complete; the opponent had now become a proponent.
13 sn When the blood of your witness Stephen was shed means “when your witness Stephen was murdered.”
14 tn Grk “and approving.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
15 tn Or “outer garments.”
sn The cloaks. The outer garment, or cloak, was taken off and laid aside to leave the arms free (in this case for throwing stones).
16 tn Or “who were putting him to death.” For the translation of ἀναιρούντων (anairountwn) as “putting to death” see BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω 2.
18 tn Grk “They were listening”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
19 tn Grk “until this word.”
sn Until he said this. Note it is the mention of Paul’s mission to the Gentiles with its implication of ethnic openness that is so disturbing to the audience.
20 tn Grk “And.” To indicate the logical sequence, καί (kai) has been translated as “then” here.
21 tn Grk “and said.”
22 tn Grk “this one.”
23 tn BDAG 491 s.v. καθήκω has “to be appropriate, come/reach to, be proper/fitting…Usu. impers. καθήκει it comes (to someone)…foll. by acc. and inf….οὐ καθῆκεν αὐτὸν ζῆν he should not be allowed to live Ac 22:22.”