22:25 When they had stretched him out for the lash, 1 Paul said to the centurion 2 standing nearby, “Is it legal for you to lash a man who is a Roman citizen 3 without a proper trial?” 4 22:26 When the centurion 5 heard this, 6 he went to the commanding officer 7 and reported it, 8 saying, “What are you about to do? 9 For this man is a Roman citizen.” 10 22:27 So the commanding officer 11 came and asked 12 Paul, 13 “Tell me, are you a Roman citizen?” 14 He replied, 15 “Yes.” 22:28 The commanding officer 16 answered, “I acquired this citizenship with a large sum of money.” 17 “But I was even 18 born a citizen,” 19 Paul replied. 20 22:29 Then those who were about to interrogate him stayed away 21 from him, and the commanding officer 22 was frightened when he realized that Paul 23 was 24 a Roman citizen 25 and that he had had him tied up. 26
1 tn Grk “for the thongs” (of which the lash was made). Although often translated as a dative of means (“with thongs”), referring to thongs used to tie the victim to the whipping post, BDAG 474-75 s.v. ἱμάς states that it “is better taken as a dat. of purpose for the thongs, in which case οἱ ἱμάντες = whips (Posidonius: 87 fgm. 5 Jac.; POxy. 1186, 2 τὴν διὰ τῶν ἱμάντων αἰκείαν. – Antiphanes 74, 8, Demosth. 19, 197 and Artem. 1, 70 use the sing. in this way).”
3 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
4 tn Or “a Roman citizen and uncondemned.” BDAG 35 s.v. ἀκατάκριτος has “uncondemned, without due process” for this usage.
sn The fact that Paul was a Roman citizen protected him from being tortured to extract information; such protections were guaranteed by the Porcian and Julian law codes. In addition, the fact Paul had not been tried exempted him from punishment.
6 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
8 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
9 tn Or perhaps, “What do you intend to do?” Although BDAG 627 s.v. μέλλω 1.c.α lists this phrase under the category “be about to, be on the point of,” it is possible it belongs under 1.c.γ, “denoting an intended action: intend, propose, have in mind…τί μέλλεις ποιεῖν; what do you intend to do?”
10 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
12 tn Grk “and said to.”
13 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
14 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
15 tn Grk “He said.”
17 sn Sometimes Roman citizenship was purchased through a bribe (Dio Cassius, Roman History 60.17.4-9). That may well have been the case here.
19 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
sn Paul’s reference to being born a citizen suggests he inherited his Roman citizenship from his family.
20 tn Grk “Paul said.” This phrase has been placed at the end of the sentence in the translation for stylistic reasons.
21 tn BDAG 158 s.v. ἀφίστημι 2.b has “keep away…ἀπό τινος… Lk 4:13; Ac 5:38; 2 Cor 12:8…cp. Ac 22:29.” In context, the point would seem to be not that the interrogators departed or withdrew, but that they held back from continuing the flogging.
23 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
24 tn This is a present tense (ἐστιν, estin) retained in indirect discourse. It must be translated as a past tense in contemporary English.
25 tn The word “citizen” is supplied here for emphasis and clarity.
26 sn Had him tied up. Perhaps a reference to the chains in Acts 21:33, or the preparations for the lashing in Acts 22:25. A trial would now be needed to resolve the matter. The Roman authorities’ hesitation to render a judgment in the case occurs repeatedly: Acts 22:30; 23:28-29; 24:22; 25:20, 26-27. The legal process begun here would take the rest of Acts and will be unresolved at the end. The process itself took four years of Paul’s life.