2:1 Now 1 when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2:2 Suddenly 2 a sound 3 like a violent wind blowing 4 came from heaven 5 and filled the entire house where they were sitting. 2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire 6 appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them. 2:4 All 7 of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages 8 as the Spirit enabled them. 9
2:5 Now there were devout Jews 10 from every nation under heaven residing in Jerusalem. 11 2:6 When this sound 12 occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, 13 because each one heard them speaking in his own language. 2:7 Completely baffled, they said, 14 “Aren’t 15 all these who are speaking Galileans? 2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them 16 in our own native language? 17 2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia, 18 2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, 19 and visitors from Rome, 20 2:11 both Jews and proselytes, 21 Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!” 22 2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?” 2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, 23 saying, “They are drunk on new wine!” 24
2:14 But Peter stood up 25 with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea 26 and all you who live in Jerusalem, 27 know this 28 and listen carefully to what I say. 2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, 29 for it is only nine o’clock in the morning. 30 2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel: 31
‘that I will pour out my Spirit on all people, 33
and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,
and your young men will see visions,
and your old men will dream dreams.
I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. 35
and miraculous signs 37 on the earth below,
blood and fire and clouds of smoke.
2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the great and glorious 38 day of the Lord comes.
2:22 “Men of Israel, 41 listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, 42 wonders, and miraculous signs 43 that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know – 2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 44 by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles. 45 2:24 But God raised him up, 46 having released 47 him from the pains 48 of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power. 49 2:25 For David says about him,
‘I saw the Lord always in front of me, 50
for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.
2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;
my body 51 also will live in hope,
nor permit your Holy One to experience 53 decay.
2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;
you will make me full of joy with your presence.’ 54
2:29 “Brothers, 55 I can speak confidently 56 to you about our forefather 57 David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2:30 So then, because 58 he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants 59 on his throne, 60 2:31 David by foreseeing this 61 spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, 62 that he was neither abandoned to Hades, 63 nor did his body 64 experience 65 decay. 66 2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 67 2:33 So then, exalted 68 to the right hand 69 of God, and having received 70 the promise of the Holy Spirit 71 from the Father, he has poured out 72 what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,
‘The Lord said to my lord,
“Sit 73 at my right hand
2:37 Now when they heard this, 80 they were acutely distressed 81 and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “What should we do, brothers?” 2:38 Peter said to them, “Repent, and each one of you be baptized 82 in the name of Jesus Christ 83 for 84 the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 85 2:39 For the promise 86 is for you and your children, and for all who are far away, as many as the Lord our God will call to himself.” 2:40 With many other words he testified 87 and exhorted them saying, “Save yourselves from this perverse 88 generation!” 2:41 So those who accepted 89 his message 90 were baptized, and that day about three thousand people 91 were added. 92
2:42 They were devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, 93 to the breaking of bread and to prayer. 94 2:43 Reverential awe 95 came over everyone, 96 and many wonders and miraculous signs 97 came about by the apostles. 2:44 All who believed were together and held 98 everything in common, 2:45 and they began selling 99 their property 100 and possessions and distributing the proceeds 101 to everyone, as anyone had need. 2:46 Every day 102 they continued to gather together by common consent in the temple courts, 103 breaking bread from 104 house to house, sharing their food with glad 105 and humble hearts, 106 2:47 praising God and having the good will 107 of all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number every day 108 those who were being saved.
3:1 Now Peter and John were going up to the temple at the time 109 for prayer, 110 at three o’clock in the afternoon. 111 3:2 And a man lame 112 from birth 113 was being carried up, who was placed at the temple gate called “the Beautiful Gate” every day 114 so he could beg for money 115 from those going into the temple courts. 116 3:3 When he saw Peter and John about to go into the temple courts, 117 he asked them for money. 118 3:4 Peter looked directly 119 at him (as did John) and said, “Look at us!” 3:5 So the lame man 120 paid attention to them, expecting to receive something from them. 3:6 But Peter said, “I have no silver or gold, 121 but what I do have I give you. In the name 122 of Jesus Christ 123 the Nazarene, stand up and 124 walk!” 3:7 Then 125 Peter 126 took hold 127 of him by the right hand and raised him up, and at once the man’s 128 feet and ankles were made strong. 129 3:8 He 130 jumped up, 131 stood and began walking around, and he entered the temple courts 132 with them, walking and leaping and praising God. 3:9 All 133 the people saw him walking and praising God, 3:10 and they recognized him as the man who used to sit and ask for donations 134 at the Beautiful Gate of the temple, and they were filled with astonishment and amazement 135 at what had happened to him.
3:11 While the man 136 was hanging on to Peter and John, all the people, completely astounded, ran together to them in the covered walkway 137 called Solomon’s Portico. 138 3:12 When Peter saw this, he declared to the people, “Men of Israel, 139 why are you amazed at this? Why 140 do you stare at us as if we had made this man 141 walk by our own power or piety? 3:13 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 142 the God of our forefathers, 143 has glorified 144 his servant 145 Jesus, whom you handed over and rejected 146 in the presence of Pilate after he had decided 147 to release him. 3:14 But you rejected 148 the Holy and Righteous One and asked that a man who was a murderer be released to you. 3:15 You killed 149 the Originator 150 of life, whom God raised 151 from the dead. To this fact we are witnesses! 152 3:16 And on the basis of faith in Jesus’ 153 name, 154 his very name has made this man – whom you see and know – strong. The 155 faith that is through Jesus 156 has given him this complete health in the presence 157 of you all. 3:17 And now, brothers, I know you acted in ignorance, 158 as your rulers did too. 3:18 But the things God foretold 159 long ago through 160 all the prophets – that his Christ 161 would suffer – he has fulfilled in this way. 3:19 Therefore repent and turn back so that your sins may be wiped out, 3:20 so that times of refreshing 162 may come from the presence of the Lord, 163 and so that he may send the Messiah 164 appointed 165 for you – that is, Jesus. 3:21 This one 166 heaven must 167 receive until the time all things are restored, 168 which God declared 169 from times long ago 170 through his holy prophets. 3:22 Moses said, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your brothers. You must obey 171 him in everything he tells you. 172 3:23 Every person 173 who does not obey that prophet will be destroyed and thus removed 174 from the people.’ 175 3:24 And all the prophets, from Samuel and those who followed him, have spoken about and announced 176 these days. 3:25 You are the sons of the prophets and of the covenant that God made with your ancestors, 177 saying to Abraham, ‘And in your descendants 178 all the nations 179 of the earth will be blessed.’ 180 3:26 God raised up 181 his servant and sent him first to you, to bless you by turning 182 each one of you from your iniquities.” 183
4:1 While Peter and John 184 were speaking to the people, the priests and the commander 185 of the temple guard 186 and the Sadducees 187 came up 188 to them, 4:2 angry 189 because they were teaching the people and announcing 190 in Jesus the resurrection of the dead. 4:3 So 191 they seized 192 them and put them in jail 193 until the next day (for it was already evening). 4:4 But many of those who had listened to 194 the message 195 believed, and the number of the men 196 came to about five thousand.
4:5 On the next day, 197 their rulers, elders, and experts in the law 198 came together 199 in Jerusalem. 200 4:6 Annas the high priest was there, and Caiaphas, John, Alexander, and others who were members of the high priest’s family. 201 4:7 After 202 making Peter and John 203 stand in their midst, they began to inquire, “By what power or by what name 204 did you do this?” 4:8 Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, 205 replied, 206 “Rulers of the people and elders, 207 4:9 if 208 we are being examined 209 today for a good deed 210 done to a sick man – by what means this man was healed 211 – 4:10 let it be known to all of you and to all the people of Israel that by the name of Jesus Christ 212 the Nazarene whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, this man stands before you healthy. 4:11 This Jesus 213 is the stone that was rejected by you, 214 the builders, that has become the cornerstone. 215 4:12 And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among people 216 by which we must 217 be saved.”
4:13 When they saw the boldness 218 of Peter and John, and discovered 219 that they were uneducated 220 and ordinary 221 men, they were amazed and recognized these men had been with Jesus. 4:14 And because they saw the man who had been healed standing with them, they had nothing to say against this. 222 4:15 But when they had ordered them to go outside the council, 223 they began to confer with one another, 4:16 saying, “What should we do with these men? For it is plain 224 to all who live in Jerusalem that a notable miraculous sign 225 has come about through them, 226 and we cannot deny it. 4:17 But to keep this matter from spreading any further among the people, let us warn them to speak no more 227 to anyone in this name.” 4:18 And they called them in and ordered 228 them not to speak or teach at all in the name 229 of Jesus. 4:19 But Peter and John replied, 230 “Whether it is right before God to obey 231 you rather than God, you decide, 4:20 for it is impossible 232 for us not to speak about what we have seen and heard.” 4:21 After threatening them further, they released them, for they could not find how to punish them on account of the people, because they were all praising 233 God for what had happened. 4:22 For the man, on whom this miraculous sign 234 of healing had been performed, 235 was over forty years old.
4:23 When they were released, Peter and John 236 went to their fellow believers 237 and reported everything the high priests and the elders had said to them. 4:24 When they heard this, they raised their voices to God with one mind 238 and said, “Master of all, 239 you who made the heaven, the earth, 240 the sea, and everything that is in them, 4:25 who said by the Holy Spirit through 241 your servant David our forefather, 242
and the peoples plot foolish 245 things?
and the rulers assembled together,
4:27 “For indeed both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, assembled together in this city against 249 your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, 250 4:28 to do as much as your power 251 and your plan 252 had decided beforehand 253 would happen. 4:29 And now, Lord, pay attention to 254 their threats, and grant 255 to your servants 256 to speak your message 257 with great courage, 258 4:30 while you extend your hand to heal, and to bring about miraculous signs 259 and wonders through the name of your holy servant Jesus.” 4:31 When 260 they had prayed, the place where they were assembled together was shaken, 261 and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak 262 the word of God 263 courageously. 264
4:32 The group of those who believed were of one heart and mind, 265 and no one said that any of his possessions was his own, but everything was held in common. 266 4:33 With 267 great power the apostles were giving testimony 268 to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and great grace was on them all. 4:34 For there was no one needy 269 among them, because those who were owners of land or houses were selling 270 them 271 and bringing the proceeds from the sales 4:35 and placing them at the apostles’ feet. The proceeds 272 were distributed to each, as anyone had need. 4:36 So Joseph, a Levite who was a native of Cyprus, called by the apostles Barnabas (which is translated “son of encouragement”), 273 4:37 sold 274 a field 275 that belonged to him and brought the money 276 and placed it at the apostles’ feet.
5:1 Now a man named Ananias, together with Sapphira his wife, sold a piece of property. 5:2 He 277 kept back for himself part of the proceeds with his wife’s knowledge; he brought 278 only part of it and placed it at the apostles’ feet. 5:3 But Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled 279 your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and keep back for yourself part of the proceeds from the sale of 280 the land? 5:4 Before it was sold, 281 did it not 282 belong to you? And when it was sold, was the money 283 not at your disposal? How have you thought up this deed in your heart? 284 You have not lied to people 285 but to God!”
5:5 When Ananias heard these words he collapsed and died, and great fear gripped 286 all who heard about it. 5:6 So the young men came, 287 wrapped him up, 288 carried him out, and buried 289 him. 5:7 After an interval of about three hours, 290 his wife came in, but she did not know 291 what had happened. 5:8 Peter said to her, “Tell me, were the two of you 292 paid this amount 293 for the land?” Sapphira 294 said, “Yes, that much.” 5:9 Peter then told her, “Why have you agreed together to test the Spirit of the Lord? Look! The feet of those who have buried your husband are at the door, and they will carry you out!” 5:10 At once 295 she collapsed at his feet and died. So when the young men came in, they found her dead, and they carried her out and buried her beside her husband. 5:11 Great 296 fear gripped 297 the whole church 298 and all who heard about these things.
5:12 Now many miraculous signs 299 and wonders came about among the people through the hands of the apostles. By 300 common consent 301 they were all meeting together in Solomon’s Portico. 302 5:13 None of the rest dared to join them, 303 but the people held them in high honor. 304 5:14 More and more believers in the Lord were added to their number, 305 crowds of both men and women. 5:15 Thus 306 they even carried the sick out into the streets, and put them on cots and pallets, so that when Peter came by at least his shadow would fall on some of them. 5:16 A crowd of people from the towns around Jerusalem 307 also came together, bringing the sick and those troubled by unclean spirits. 308 They 309 were all 310 being healed.
5:17 Now the high priest rose up, and all those with him (that is, the religious party of the Sadducees 311 ), 312 and they were filled with jealousy. 313 5:18 They 314 laid hands on 315 the apostles and put them in a public jail. 5:19 But during the night an angel of the Lord 316 opened 317 the doors of the prison, 318 led them out, 319 and said, 5:20 “Go and stand in the temple courts 320 and proclaim 321 to the people all the words of this life.” 5:21 When they heard this, they entered the temple courts 322 at daybreak and began teaching. 323
Now when the high priest and those who were with him arrived, they summoned the Sanhedrin 324 – that is, the whole high council 325 of the Israelites 326 – and sent to the jail to have the apostles 327 brought before them. 328 5:22 But the officers 329 who came for them 330 did not find them in the prison, so they returned and reported, 331 5:23 “We found the jail locked securely and the guards standing at the doors, but when we opened them, 332 we found no one inside.” 5:24 Now when the commander 333 of the temple guard 334 and the chief priests heard this report, 335 they were greatly puzzled concerning it, 336 wondering what this could 337 be. 5:25 But someone came and reported to them, “Look! The men you put in prison are standing in the temple courts 338 and teaching 339 the people!” 5:26 Then the commander 340 of the temple guard 341 went with the officers 342 and brought the apostles 343 without the use of force 344 (for they were afraid of being stoned by the people). 345
5:27 When they had brought them, they stood them before the council, 346 and the high priest questioned 347 them, 5:28 saying, “We gave 348 you strict orders 349 not to teach in this name. 350 Look, 351 you have filled Jerusalem 352 with your teaching, and you intend to bring this man’s blood 353 on us!” 5:29 But Peter and the apostles replied, 354 “We must obey 355 God rather than people. 356 5:30 The God of our forefathers 357 raised up Jesus, whom you seized and killed by hanging him on a tree. 358 5:31 God exalted him 359 to his right hand as Leader 360 and Savior, to give repentance to Israel and forgiveness of sins. 361 5:32 And we are witnesses of these events, 362 and so is the Holy Spirit whom God has given to those who obey 363 him.”
5:33 Now when they heard this, they became furious 364 and wanted to execute them. 365 5:34 But a Pharisee 366 whose name was Gamaliel, 367 a teacher of the law who was respected by all the people, stood up 368 in the council 369 and ordered the men to be put outside for a short time. 5:35 Then he said to the council, 370 “Men of Israel, 371 pay close attention to 372 what you are about to do to these men. 5:36 For some time ago 373 Theudas rose up, claiming to be somebody, and about four hundred men joined him. He 374 was killed, and all who followed him were dispersed and nothing came of it. 375 5:37 After him Judas the Galilean arose in the days of the census, 376 and incited people to follow him in revolt. 377 He too was killed, and all who followed him were scattered. 5:38 So in this case I say to you, stay away from these men and leave them alone, because if this plan or this undertaking originates with people, 378 it will come to nothing, 379 5:39 but if 380 it is from God, you will not be able to stop them, or you may even be found 381 fighting against God.” He convinced them, 382 5:40 and they summoned the apostles and had them beaten. 383 Then 384 they ordered them not to speak in the name of Jesus and released them. 5:41 So they left the council rejoicing because they had been considered worthy 385 to suffer dishonor for the sake of the name. 386 5:42 And every day both in the temple courts 387 and from house to house, they did not stop teaching and proclaiming the good news 388 that Jesus was the Christ. 389
1 tn Grk “And” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not.
2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated for stylistic reasons. It occurs as part of the formula καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto) which is often left untranslated in Luke-Acts because it is redundant in contemporary English. Here it is possible (and indeed necessary) to translate ἐγένετο as “came” so that the initial clause of the English translation contains a verb; nevertheless the translation of the conjunction καί is not necessary.
3 tn Or “a noise.”
4 tn While φέρω (ferw) generally refers to movement from one place to another with the possible implication of causing the movement of other objects, in Acts 2:2 φέρομαι (feromai) should probably be understood in a more idiomatic sense of “blowing” since it is combined with the noun for wind (πνοή, pnoh).
5 tn Or “from the sky.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context.
6 tn Or “And divided tongues as of fire.” The precise meaning of διαμερίζομαι (diamerizomai) in Acts 2:3 is difficult to determine. The meaning could be “tongues as of fire dividing up one to each person,” but it is also possible that the individual tongues of fire were divided (“And divided tongues as of fire appeared”). The translation adopted in the text (“tongues spreading out like a fire”) attempts to be somewhat ambiguous.
7 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
8 tn The Greek term is γλώσσαις (glwssai"), the same word used for the tongues of fire.
sn Other languages. Acts 2:6-7 indicates that these were languages understandable to the hearers, a diverse group from “every nation under heaven.”
9 tn Grk “just as the spirit gave them to utter.” The verb ἀποφθέγγομαι (apofqengomai) was used of special utterances in Classical Greek (BDAG 125 s.v.).
10 tn Grk “Jews, devout men.” It is possible that only men are in view here in light of OT commands for Jewish men to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem at various times during the year (cf. Exod 23:17, 34:23; Deut 16:16). However, other evidence seems to indicate that both men and women might be in view. Luke 2:41-52 shows that whole families would make the temporary trip to Jerusalem. In addition, it is probable that the audience consisted of families who had taken up permanent residence in Jerusalem. The verb κατοικέω (katoikew) normally means “reside” or “dwell,” and archaeological evidence from tombs in Jerusalem does indicate that many families immigrated to Jerusalem permanently (see B. Witherington, Acts, 135); this would naturally include women. Also, the word ἀνήρ (ajnhr), which usually does mean “male” or “man” (as opposed to woman), sometimes is used generically to mean “a person” (BDAG 79 s.v. 2; cf. Matt 12:41). Given this evidence, then, it is conceivable that the audience in view here is not individual male pilgrims but a mixed group of men and women.
11 tn Grk “Now there were residing in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven.”
12 tn Or “this noise.”
13 tn Or “was bewildered.”
14 tn Grk “They were astounded and amazed, saying.” The two imperfect verbs, ἐξίσταντο (existanto) and ἐθαύμαζον (eqaumazon), show both the surprise and the confusion on the part of the hearers. The verb ἐξίσταντο (from ἐξίστημι, existhmi) often implies an illogical perception or response (BDAG 350 s.v. ἐξίστημι): “to be so astonished as to almost fail to comprehend what one has experienced” (L&N 25.218).
15 tn Grk “Behold, aren’t all these.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
16 tn Grk “we hear them, each one of us.”
17 tn Grk “in our own language in which we were born.”
18 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
19 tn According to BDAG 595 s.v. Λιβύη, the western part of Libya, Libya Cyrenaica, is referred to here (see also Josephus, Ant. 16.6.1 [16.160] for a similar phrase).
21 sn Proselytes refers to Gentile (i.e., non-Jewish) converts to Judaism.
22 tn Or “God’s mighty works.” Here the genitive τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a subjective genitive.
23 tn The words “the speakers” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
24 tn Grk “They are full of new wine!”
sn New wine refers to a new, sweet wine in the process of fermentation.
25 tn Grk “standing up.” The participle σταθείς (staqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
26 tn Or “You Jewish men.” “Judea” is preferred here because it is paired with “Jerusalem,” a location. This suggests locality rather than ethnic background is the primary emphasis in the context. As for “men,” the Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where “all” who live in Jerusalem are addressed, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.
28 tn Grk “let this be known to you.” The passive construction has been translated as an active for stylistic reasons.
29 tn Grk “These men are not drunk, as you suppose.”
30 tn Grk “only the third hour.”
32 sn The phrase in the last days is not quoted from Joel, but represents Peter’s interpretive explanation of the current events as falling “in the last days.”
33 tn Grk “on all flesh.”
34 tn Grk “slaves.” Although this translation frequently renders δοῦλος (doulos) as “slave,” the connotation is often of one who has sold himself into slavery; in a spiritual sense, the idea is that of becoming a slave of God or of Jesus Christ voluntarily. The voluntary notion is not conspicuous here; hence, the translation “servants.” In any case, the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.
35 sn The words and they will prophesy in Acts 2:18 are not quoted from Joel 2:29 at this point but are repeated from earlier in the quotation (Acts 2:17) for emphasis. Tongues speaking is described as prophecy, just like intelligible tongues are described in 1 Cor 14:26-33.
36 tn Or “in the heaven.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context. Here, in contrast to “the earth below,” a reference to the sky is more likely.
37 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned; this is made explicit in the translation.
38 tn Or “and wonderful.”
39 tn Grk “And it will be that.”
41 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.
42 tn Or “miraculous deeds.”
43 tn Again, the context indicates the miraculous nature of these signs, and this is specified in the translation.
44 tn Or “you killed.”
45 tn Grk “at the hands of lawless men.” At this point the term ἄνομος (anomo") refers to non-Jews who live outside the Jewish (Mosaic) law, rather than people who broke any or all laws including secular laws. Specifically it is a reference to the Roman soldiers who carried out Jesus’ crucifixion.
46 tn Grk “Whom God raised up.”
47 tn Or “having freed.”
49 tn Or “for him to be held by it” (in either case, “it” refers to death’s power).
50 tn Or “always before me.”
51 tn Grk “my flesh.”
52 tn Or “will not abandon my soul to Hades.” Often “Hades” is the equivalent of the Hebrew term Sheol, the place of the dead.
53 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”
56 sn Peter’s certainty is based on well-known facts.
57 tn Or “about our noted ancestor,” “about the patriarch.”
58 tn The participles ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) and εἰδώς (eidw") are translated as causal adverbial participles.
59 tn Grk “one from the fruit of his loins.” “Loins” is the traditional translation of ὀσφῦς (osfu"), referring to the male genital organs. A literal rendering like “one who came from his genital organs” would be regarded as too specific and perhaps even vulgar by many contemporary readers. Most modern translations thus render the phrase “one of his descendants.”
61 tn Grk “David foreseeing spoke.” The participle προϊδών (proidwn) is taken as indicating means. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance: “David foresaw [this] and spoke.” The word “this” is supplied in either case as an understood direct object (direct objects in Greek were often omitted, but must be supplied for the modern English reader).
62 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul’s letters to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
64 tn Grk “flesh.” See vv. 26b-27. The reference to “body” in this verse picks up the reference to “body” in v. 26. The Greek term σάρξ (sarx) in both verses literally means “flesh”; however, the translation “body” stresses the lack of decay of his physical body. The point of the verse is not merely the lack of decay of his flesh alone, but the resurrection of his entire person, as indicated by the previous parallel line “he was not abandoned to Hades.”
65 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”
68 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.
70 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.
71 tn Here the genitive τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the promise consists of the Holy Spirit.
74 sn The metaphor make your enemies a footstool portrays the complete subjugation of the enemies.
76 tn Or “know for certain.” This term is in an emphatic position in the clause.
77 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.
78 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.
79 tn Or “and Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
80 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
81 tn Grk “they were pierced to the heart” (an idiom for acute emotional distress).
82 tn The verb is a third person imperative, but the common translation “let each of you be baptized” obscures the imperative force in English, since it sounds more like a permissive (“each of you may be baptized”) to the average English reader.
83 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn In the name of Jesus Christ. Baptism in Messiah Jesus’ name shows how much authority he possesses.
84 tn There is debate over the meaning of εἰς in the prepositional phrase εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν (eis afesin twn Jamartiwn Jumwn, “for/because of/with reference to the forgiveness of your sins”). Although a causal sense has been argued, it is difficult to maintain here. ExSyn 369-71 discusses at least four other ways of dealing with the passage: (1) The baptism referred to here is physical only, and εἰς has the meaning of “for” or “unto.” Such a view suggests that salvation is based on works – an idea that runs counter to the theology of Acts, namely: (a) repentance often precedes baptism (cf. Acts 3:19; 26:20), and (b) salvation is entirely a gift of God, not procured via water baptism (Acts 10:43 [cf. v. 47]; 13:38-39, 48; 15:11; 16:30-31; 20:21; 26:18); (2) The baptism referred to here is spiritual only. Although such a view fits well with the theology of Acts, it does not fit well with the obvious meaning of “baptism” in Acts – especially in this text (cf. 2:41); (3) The text should be repunctuated in light of the shift from second person plural to third person singular back to second person plural again. The idea then would be, “Repent for/with reference to your sins, and let each one of you be baptized…” Such a view is an acceptable way of handling εἰς, but its subtlety and awkwardness count against it; (4) Finally, it is possible that to a first-century Jewish audience (as well as to Peter), the idea of baptism might incorporate both the spiritual reality and the physical symbol. That Peter connects both closely in his thinking is clear from other passages such as Acts 10:47 and 11:15-16. If this interpretation is correct, then Acts 2:38 is saying very little about the specific theological relationship between the symbol and the reality, only that historically they were viewed together. One must look in other places for a theological analysis. For further discussion see R. N. Longenecker, “Acts,” EBC 9:283-85; B. Witherington, Acts, 154-55; F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary, 129-30; BDAG 290 s.v. εἰς 4.f.
85 tn Here the genitive τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος (tou Jagiou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the gift consists of the Holy Spirit.
86 sn The promise refers to the promise of the Holy Spirit that Jesus received from the Father in 2:33 and which he now pours out on others. The promise consists of the Holy Spirit (see note in 2:33). Jesus is the active mediator of God’s blessing.
87 tn Or “warned.”
89 tn Or “who acknowledged the truth of.”
90 tn Grk “word.”
91 tn Grk “souls” (here an idiom for the whole person).
92 tn Or “were won over.”
93 sn Fellowship refers here to close association involving mutual involvement and relationships.
94 tn Grk “prayers.” This word was translated as a collective singular in keeping with English style.
95 tn Or “Fear.”
96 tn Grk “on every soul” (here “soul” is an idiom for the whole person).
97 tn In this context the miraculous nature of these signs is implied. Cf. BDAG 920 s.v. σημεῖον 2.a.
98 tn Grk “had.”
99 tn The imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive (“began…”). Since in context this is a description of the beginning of the community of believers, it is more likely that these statements refer to the start of various activities and practices that the early church continued for some time.
100 tn It is possible that the first term for property (κτήματα, kthmata) refers to real estate (as later usage seems to indicate) while the second term (ὑπάρξεις, Juparxeis) refers to possessions in general, but it may also be that the two terms are used together for emphasis, simply indicating that all kinds of possessions were being sold. However, if the first term is more specifically a reference to real estate, it foreshadows the incident with Ananias and Sapphira in Acts 5:1-11.
101 tn Grk “distributing them” (αὐτά, auta). The referent (the proceeds of the sales) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
102 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.
103 tn Grk “in the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
104 tn Here κατά (kata) is used as a distributive (BDAG 512 s.v. B.1.d).
106 tn Grk “with gladness and humbleness of hearts.” It is best to understand καρδίας (kardias) as an attributed genitive, with the two nouns it modifies actually listing attributes of the genitive noun which is related to them.
107 tn Or “the favor.”
108 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.
109 tn Grk “hour.”
110 sn Going up to the temple at the time for prayer. The earliest Christians, being of Jewish roots, were still participating in the institutions of Judaism at this point. Their faith in Christ did not make them non-Jewish in their practices.
112 tn Or “crippled.”
113 tn Grk “from his mother’s womb.”
114 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.
115 tn Grk “alms.” The term “alms” is not in common use today, so what the man expected, “money,” is used in the translation instead. The idea is that of money given as a gift to someone who was poor. Giving alms was viewed as honorable in Judaism (Tob 1:3, 16; 12:8-9; m. Pe’ah 1:1). See also Luke 11:41; 12:33; Acts 9:36; 10:2, 4, 31; 24:17.
116 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
sn Into the temple courts. The exact location of this incident is debated. The ‘Beautiful Gate’ referred either to the Nicanor Gate (which led from the Court of the Gentiles into the Court of Women) or the Shushan Gate at the eastern wall.
117 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
sn See the note on the phrase the temple courts in the previous verse.
118 tn Grk “alms.” See the note on the word “money” in the previous verse.
119 tn Grk “Peter, looking directly at him, as did John, said.” The participle ἀτενίσας (atenisas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
120 tn Grk “So he”; the referent (the lame man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
121 tn Or “I have no money.” L&N 6.69 classifies the expression ἀργύριον καὶ χρυσίον (argurion kai crusion) as an idiom that is a generic expression for currency, thus “money.”
122 sn In the name. Note the authority in the name of Jesus the Messiah. His presence and power are at work for the man. The reference to “the name” is not like a magical incantation, but is designed to indicate the agent who performs the healing. The theme is quite frequent in Acts (2:38 plus 21 other times).
123 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
124 tc The words “stand up and” (ἔγειρε καί, egeire kai) are not in a few
125 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to reflect the sequence of events.
126 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
127 tn Grk “Peter taking hold of him…raised him up.” The participle πιάσας (piasas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
128 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
129 sn At once the man’s feet and ankles were made strong. Note that despite the past lameness, the man is immediately able to walk. The restoration of his ability to walk pictures the presence of a renewed walk, a fresh start at life; this was far more than money would have given him.
130 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
131 tn Grk “Jumping up, he stood.” The participle ἐξαλλόμενος (exallomeno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It is possible that the paralyzed man actually jumped off the ground, but more probably this term simply refers to the speed with which he stood up. See L&N 15.240.
132 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
133 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
134 tn Grk “alms,” but this term is not in common use today, so the closest modern equivalent, “donations,” is used instead. The idea is that of a donation to charity.
135 sn Amazement is a frequent response to miracles of Jesus or the apostles. These took the ancients by as much surprise as they would people today. But in terms of response to what God is doing, amazement does not equal faith (Luke 4:36; 5:9, 26; 7:16).
136 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
137 tn Or “portico,” “colonnade”; Grk “stoa.” The translation “covered walkway” (a descriptive translation) was used here because the architectural term “portico” or “colonnade” is less familiar. However, the more technical term “portico” was retained in the actual name that follows.
138 sn Solomon’s Portico was a covered walkway formed by rows of columns supporting a roof and open on the inner side facing the center of the temple complex. It was located on the east side of the temple (Josephus, Ant. 15.11.3-5 [15.391-420], 20.9.7 [20.221]) and was a place of commerce and conversation.
139 tn Or perhaps “People of Israel,” since this was taking place in Solomon’s Portico and women may have been present. The Greek ἄνδρες ᾿Ισραηλῖται (andre" Israhlitai) used in the plural would normally mean “men, gentlemen” (BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).
140 tn Grk “or why.”
141 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
142 tc ‡ The repetition of ὁ θεός (Jo qeos, “God”) before the names of Isaac and Jacob is found in Ì74 א C (A D without article) 36 104 1175 pc lat. The omission of the second and third ὁ θεός is supported by B E Ψ 33 1739 Ï pc. The other time that Exod 3:6 is quoted in Acts (7:32) the best witnesses also lack the repeated ὁ θεός, but the three other times this OT passage is quoted in the NT the full form, with the thrice-mentioned θεός, is used (Matt 22:32; Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37). Scribes would be prone to conform the wording here to the LXX; the longer reading is thus most likely not authentic. NA27 has the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.
143 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”
sn The reference to the God of the patriarchs is a reminder that God is the God of the nation and of promises. The phrase God of our forefathers is from the Hebrew scriptures (Exod 3:6, 15-16; 4:5; see also the Jewish prayer known as “The Eighteen Benedictions”). Once again, event has led to explanation, or what is called the “sign and speech” pattern.
144 sn Has glorified. Jesus is alive, raised and active, as the healing illustrates so dramatically how God honors him.
146 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”
147 tn This genitive absolute construction could be understood as temporal (“when he had decided”) or concessive (“although he had decided”).
148 tn Or “denied,” “disowned.”
149 tn Or “You put to death.”
150 tn Or “Founder,” “founding Leader.”
151 sn Whom God raised. God is the main actor here, as he testifies to Jesus and vindicates him.
152 tn Grk “whom God raised from the dead, of which we are witnesses.” The two consecutive relative clauses make for awkward English style, so the second was begun as a new sentence with the words “to this fact” supplied in place of the Greek relative pronoun to make a complete sentence in English.
153 tn Grk “in his name”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
155 tn Grk “see and know, and the faith.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation and καί (kai, “and”) has not been translated.
156 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
sn The faith that is through Jesus. Note how this verse explains how the claim to “faith in Jesus’ name” works and what it means. To appeal to the name is to point to the person. It is not clear that the man expressed faith before the miracle. This could well be a “grace-faith miracle” where God grants power through the apostles to picture how much a gift life is (Luke 17:11-19). Christology and grace are emphasized here.
157 tn Or “in full view.”
158 sn The ignorance Peter mentions here does not excuse them from culpability. It was simply a way to say “you did not realize the great mistake you made.”
159 sn God foretold. Peter’s topic is the working out of God’s plan and promise through events the scriptures also note.
160 tn Grk “by the mouth of” (an idiom).
161 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
162 tn Or “relief.”
sn Times of refreshing. The phrase implies relief from difficult, distressful or burdensome circumstances. It is generally regarded as a reference to the messianic age being ushered in.
163 tn The words “so that…Lord” are traditionally placed in v. 19 by most English translations, but in the present translation the verse division follows the standard critical editions of the Greek text (NA27, UBS4).
164 tn Or “the Christ”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn He may send the Messiah appointed for you – that is, Jesus. The language points to the expectation of Jesus’ return to gather his people. It is a development of the question raised in Acts 1:6.
165 tn Or “designated in advance.”
167 sn The term must used here (δεῖ, dei, “it is necessary”) is a key Lukan term to point to the plan of God and what must occur.
168 tn Grk “until the times of the restoration of all things.” Because of the awkward English style of the extended genitive construction, and because the following relative clause has as its referent the “time of restoration” rather than “all things,” the phrase was translated “until the time all things are restored.”
sn The time all things are restored. What that restoration involves is already recorded in the scriptures of the nation of Israel.
169 tn Or “spoke.”
170 tn Or “from all ages past.”
sn From times long ago. Once again, God’s plan is emphasized.
171 tn Grk “hear,” but the idea of “hear and obey” or simply “obey” is frequently contained in the Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw; see L&N 36.14) and the following context (v. 23) makes it clear that failure to “obey” the words of this “prophet like Moses” will result in complete destruction.
172 sn A quotation from Deut 18:15. By quoting Deut 18:15 Peter declared that Jesus was the eschatological “prophet like [Moses]” mentioned in that passage, who reveals the plan of God and the way of God.
173 tn Grk “every soul” (here “soul” is an idiom for the whole person).
176 tn Or “proclaimed.”
sn All the prophets…have spoken about and announced. What Peter preaches is rooted in basic biblical and Jewish hope as expressed in the OT scriptures.
177 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
178 tn Or “in your offspring”; Grk “in your seed.”
sn In your descendants (Grk “in your seed”). Seed has an important ambiguity in this verse. The blessing comes from the servant (v. 26), who in turn blesses the responsive children of the covenant as the scripture promised. Jesus is the seed who blesses the seed.
179 tn Or “families.” The Greek word πατριά (patria) can indicate persons of succeeding generations who are related by birth (“lineage,” “family”) but it can also indicate a relatively large unit of people who make up a sociopolitical group and who share a presumed biological descent. In many contexts πατριά is very similar to ἔθνος (eqnos) and λαός (laos). In light of the context of the OT quotation, it is better to translate πατριά as “nations” here.
181 tn Grk “God raising up his servant, sent him.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Some translations (e.g., NIV, NRSV) render this participle as temporal (“when God raised up his servant”).
182 sn The picture of turning is again seen as the appropriate response to the message. See v. 19 above. In v. 19 it was “turning to,” here it is “turning away from.” The direction of the two metaphors is important.
183 tn For the translation of plural πονηρία (ponhria) as “iniquities,” see G. Harder, TDNT 6:565. The plural is important, since for Luke turning to Jesus means turning away from sins, not just the sin of rejecting Jesus.
184 tn Grk “While they”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
185 tn Or “captain.”
186 tn Grk “the official of the temple,” a title for the commander of the Jewish soldiers guarding the temple (thus the translation, “the commander of the temple guard”). See L&N 37.91.
sn The commander of the temple guard was the title of the officer commanding the Jewish soldiers responsible for guarding and keeping order in the temple courts in Jerusalem.
187 sn The Sadducees controlled the official political structures of Judaism at this time, being the majority members of the Sanhedrin. They were known as extremely strict on law and order issues (Josephus, J. W. 2.8.2 [2.119], 2.8.14 [2.164-166]; Ant. 13.5.9 [13.171-173], 13.10.6 [13.293-298], 18.1.2 [18.11], 18.1.4 [18.16-17], 20.9.1 [20.199]; Life 2 [10-11]). See also Matt 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38; Acts 5:17; 23:6-8.
188 tn Or “approached.” This verb often denotes a sudden appearing (BDAG 418 s.v. ἐφίστημι 1).
189 tn Or “greatly annoyed,” “provoked.”
190 tn Or “proclaiming.”
191 tn Grk “And” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the logical sequence of events.
192 tn Or “they arrested”; Grk “they laid hands on.”
193 tn Or “prison,” “custody.”
194 tn Or “had heard.”
195 tn Or “word.”
196 tn In the historical setting it is likely that only men are referred to here. The Greek term ἀνήρ (anhr) usually refers to males or husbands rather than people in general. Thus to translate “of the people” would give a false impression of the number, since any women and children were apparently not included in the count.
197 tn Grk “It happened that on the next day.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
198 tn Or “and scribes.” The traditional rendering of γραμματεύς (grammateu") as “scribe” does not communicate much to the modern English reader, for whom the term might mean “professional copyist,” if it means anything at all. The people referred to here were recognized experts in the law of Moses and in traditional laws and regulations. Thus “expert in the law” comes closer to the meaning for the modern reader.
sn Experts in the law would have been mostly like the Pharisees in approach. Thus various sects of Judaism were coming together against Jesus.
199 tn Or “law assembled,” “law met together.”
201 sn The high priest’s family. This family controlled the high priesthood as far back as
202 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new sentence is begun in the translation at the beginning of v. 7.
203 tn Grk “making them”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
206 tn Grk “Spirit, said to them.”
207 tc The Western and Byzantine texts, as well as one or two Alexandrian witnesses, read τοῦ ᾿Ισραήλ (tou Israhl, “of Israel”) after πρεσβύτεροι (presbuteroi, “elders”; so D E Ψ 33 1739 Ï it), while most of the better witnesses, chiefly Alexandrian (Ì74 א A B 0165 1175 vg sa bo), lack this modifier. The longer reading was most likely added by scribes to give literary balance to the addressees in that “Rulers” already had an adjunct while “elders” was left absolute.
208 tn This clause is a first class condition. It assumes for the sake of argument that this is what they were being questioned about.
209 tn Or “questioned.” The Greek term ἀνακρίνω (anakrinw) points to an examination similar to a legal one.
210 tn Or “for an act of kindness.”
212 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
213 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
214 tn The word “you” is inserted into the quotation because Peter is making a direct application of Ps 118:22 to his hearers. Because it is not in the OT, it has been left as normal type (rather than bold italic). The remarks are like Acts 2:22-24 and 3:12-15.
216 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).
217 sn Must be saved. The term used here (δεῖ, dei, “it is necessary”) reflects the necessity set up by God’s directive plan.
218 tn Or “courage.”
219 tn Or “and found out.”
220 sn Uneducated does not mean “illiterate,” that is, unable to read or write. Among Jews in NT times there was almost universal literacy, especially as the result of widespread synagogue schools. The term refers to the fact that Peter and John had no formal rabbinic training and thus, in the view of their accusers, were not qualified to expound the law or teach publicly. The objection is like Acts 2:7.
221 tn For the translation of ἰδιῶται (idiwtai) as “ordinary men” see L&N 27.26.
222 tn Or “nothing to say in opposition.”
223 tn Or “the Sanhedrin” (the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).
224 tn Or “evident.”
225 tn Here σημεῖον (shmeion) has been translated as “miraculous sign” rather than simply “sign” or “miracle” since both components appear to be present in the context. It is clear that the healing of the lame man was a miracle, but for the Sanhedrin it was the value of the miraculous healing as a sign that concerned them because it gave attestation to the message of Peter and John. The sign “speaks” as Peter claimed in 3:11-16.
226 tn Or “has been done by them.”
227 tn Or “speak no longer.”
228 tn Or “commanded.”
229 sn In the name of Jesus. Once again, the “name” reflects the person. The person of Jesus and his authority is the “troubling” topic that, as far as the Jewish leadership is concerned, needs controlling.
230 tn Grk “answered and said to them.”
231 tn Grk “hear,” but the idea of “hear and obey” or simply “obey” is frequently contained in the Greek verb ἀκούω (akouw; see L&N 36.14).
232 tn Grk “for we are not able not to speak about what we have seen and heard,” but the double negative, which cancels out in English, is emphatic in Greek. The force is captured somewhat by the English translation “it is impossible for us not to speak…” although this is slightly awkward.
233 tn Or “glorifying.”
234 tn Here σημεῖον (shmeion) has been translated as “miraculous sign” rather than simply “sign” or “miracle” since both components appear to be present in the context. See also the note on this word in v. 16.
235 tn Or “had been done.”
236 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Peter and John) have been specified in the translation for clarity, since a new topic begins in v. 23 and the last specific reference to Peter and John in the Greek text is in 4:19.
237 tn Grk “to their own [people].” In context this phrase is most likely a reference to other believers rather than simply their own families and/or homes, since the group appears to act with one accord in the prayer that follows in v. 24. At the literary level, this phrase suggests how Jews were now splitting into two camps, pro-Jesus and anti-Jesus.
239 tn Or “Lord of all.”
sn The use of the title Master of all (δεσπότης, despoths) emphasizes that there is a sovereign God who is directing what is taking place.
240 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
241 tn Grk “by the mouth of” (an idiom).
242 tn Or “ancestor”; Grk “father.”
243 tn Or “Gentiles.”
244 sn The Greek word translated rage includes not only anger but opposition, both verbal and nonverbal. See L&N 88.185.
245 tn Or “futile”; traditionally, “vain.”
246 tn Traditionally, “The kings of the earth took their stand.”
247 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
251 tn Grk “hand,” here a metaphor for God’s strength or power or authority.
252 tn Or “purpose,” “will.”
253 tn Or “had predestined.” Since the term “predestine” is something of a technical theological term, not in wide usage in contemporary English, the translation “decide beforehand” was used instead (see L&N 30.84). God’s direction remains as the major theme.
254 tn Or “Lord, take notice of.”
255 sn Grant to your servants to speak your message with great courage. The request is not for a stop to persecution or revenge on the opponents, but for boldness (great courage) to carry out the mission of proclaiming the message of what God is doing through Jesus.
257 tn Grk “word.”
258 tn Or “with all boldness.”
259 tn The miraculous nature of these signs is implied in the context.
260 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
262 tn The imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“began to speak”). Logical sequencing suggests that their speaking began after they were filled with the Spirit. The prayer was answered immediately.
263 tn Or “speak God’s message.”
264 tn Or “with boldness.”
265 tn Grk “soul.”
266 tn Grk “but all things were to them in common.”
sn Everything was held in common. The remark is not a reflection of political philosophy, but of the extent of their spontaneous commitment to one another. Such a response does not have the function of a command, but is reflective of an attitude that Luke commends as evidence of their identification with one another.
267 tn Grk “And with.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
268 tn Or “were witnessing.”
269 tn Or “poor.”
270 tn Grk “houses, selling them were bringing.” The participle πωλοῦντες (pwlounte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
271 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
272 tn Grk “It” (or “They,” plural). The referent of the understood pronoun subject, the proceeds from the sales, of the verb διεδίδετο (diedideto) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
274 tn Grk “selling a field that belonged to him, brought” The participle πωλήσας (pwlhsa") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
275 tn Or “a farm.”
276 tn Normally a reference to actual coins (“currency”). See L&N 6.68.
277 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
278 tn The participle ἐνέγκας (enenka") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
280 tn The words “from the sale of” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to clarify the meaning, since the phrase “proceeds from the land” could possibly be understood as crops rather than money from the sale.
281 tn Grk “Remaining to you.”
282 tn The negative interrogative particle οὐχί (ouci) expects a positive reply to this question and the following one (“And when it was sold, was it not at your disposal?”).
283 tn Grk “it”; the referent of the pronoun (the money generated from the sale of the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
284 tn Grk “How is it that you have [or Why have you] placed this deed in your heart?” Both of these literal translations differ from the normal way of expressing the thought in English.
285 tn Grk “to men.” If Peter’s remark refers only to the apostles, the translation “to men” would be appropriate. But if (as is likely) the action was taken to impress the entire congregation (who would presumably have witnessed the donation or been aware of it) then the more general “to people” is more appropriate, since the audience would have included both men and women.
286 tn Or “fear came on,” “fear seized”; Grk “fear happened to.”
287 tn Or “arose.”
288 tn The translation “wrapped up” for συνέστειλαν (sunesteilan) is suggested by L&N 79.119, but another interpretation is possible. The same verb could also be translated “removed” (see L&N 15.200), although that sense appears somewhat redundant and out of sequence with the following verb and participle (“carried him out and buried him”).
290 tn Grk “It happened that after an interval of about three hours.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
291 tn Grk “came in, not knowing.” The participle has been translated with concessive or adversative force: “although she did not know.” In English, the adversative conjunction (“but”) conveys this nuance more smoothly.
292 tn The words “the two of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to indicate that the verb (ἀπέδοσθε, apedosqe) is plural and thus refers to both Ananias and Sapphira.
293 tn Grk “so much,” “as much as this.”
294 tn Grk “She”; the referent (Sapphira) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
295 tn Grk “And at once.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
296 tn Grk “And great.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
297 tn Or “fear came on,” “fear seized”; Grk “fear happened to.”
298 sn This is the first occurrence of the term church (ἐκκλησία, ekklhsia) in Acts. It refers to an assembly of people.
299 tn The miraculous nature of these signs is implied in the context.
300 tn Grk “And by.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
301 tn Or “With one mind.”
302 tn Or “colonnade”; Grk “stoa.”
sn Solomon’s Portico was a covered walkway formed by rows of columns supporting a roof and open on the inner side facing the center of the temple complex. Located beside the Court of the Gentiles, it was a very public area.
303 tn Or “to associate with them.” The group was beginning to have a controversial separate identity. People were cautious about joining them. The next verse suggests that the phrase “none of the rest” in this verse is rhetorical hyperbole.
304 tn Or “the people thought very highly of them.”
305 tn Or “More and more believers were added to the Lord.”
306 tn This is a continuation of the preceding sentence in Greek, but because this would produce an awkward sentence in English, a new sentence was begun here in the translation.
308 sn Unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.
309 tn Literally a relative pronoun, “who.” In English, however, a relative clause (“bringing the sick and those troubled by unclean spirits, who were all being healed”) could be understood to refer only to the second group (meaning only those troubled by unclean spirits were being healed) or even that the unclean spirits were being healed. To avoid this ambiguity the pronoun “they” was used to begin a new English sentence.
310 sn They were all being healed. Note how the healings that the apostles provided were comprehensive in their consistency.
312 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
313 sn Filled with jealousy. In Acts, the term “jealousy” (ζήλος, zhlos) occurs only here and in Acts 13:45. It is a key term in Judaism for religiously motivated rage (1 Macc 2:24; 1QH 14:13-15; m. Sanhedrin 9:5). It was a zeal motivated by a desire to maintain the purity of the faith.
314 tn Grk “jealousy, and they.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence, but a new sentence has been started here in the translation for stylistic reasons.
315 tn Or “they arrested.”
316 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” Linguistically, “angel of the Lord” is the same in both testaments (and thus, he is either “an angel of the Lord” or “the angel of the Lord” in both testaments). For arguments and implications, see ExSyn 252; M. J. Davidson, “Angels,” DJG, 9; W. G. MacDonald argues for “an angel” in both testaments: “Christology and ‘The Angel of the Lord’,” Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation, 324-35.
317 tn Grk “opening the doors of the prison.” The participle ἀνοίξας (anoixa") has been translated as a finite verb due to the requirements of contemporary English style.
319 tn Or “brought them out.” Grk “and leading them out, said.” The participle ἐξαγαγών (exagagwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
sn Led them out. The action by God served to vindicate the apostles. It showed that whatever court the Jewish leaders represented, they did not represent God.
320 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
321 tn Or “speak.”
322 tn Grk “the temple.” See the note on the same phrase in the preceding verse.
323 tn The imperfect verb ἐδίδασκον (edidaskon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.
324 tn Or “the council” (the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).
325 tn A hendiadys (two different terms referring to a single thing) is likely here (a reference to a single legislative body rather than two separate ones) because the term γερουσίαν (gerousian) is used in both 1 Macc 12:6 and Josephus, Ant. 13.5.8 (13.166) to refer to the Sanhedrin.
326 tn Grk “sons of Israel.”
327 tn Grk “have them”; the referent (the apostles) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
328 tn The words “before them” are not in the Greek text but are implied.
329 tn The Greek term ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") generally means “servant,” but in the NT is used for many different types of servants, like attendants to a king, the officers of the Sanhedrin (as here), assistants to magistrates, and (especially in the Gospel of John) Jewish guards in the Jerusalem temple (see L&N 35.20).
330 tn The words “for them” are not in the Greek text but are implied.
331 tn Grk “reported, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
332 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
333 tn Or “captain.”
334 tn Grk “the official of the temple,” a title for the commander of the Jewish soldiers guarding the temple (thus the translation, “the commander of the temple guard”). See L&N 37.91.
335 tn Grk “heard these words.”
336 tn Grk “concerning them,” agreeing with the plural antecedent “these words.” Since the phrase “these words” was translated as the singular “this report,” the singular “concerning it” is used here.
337 tn The optative verb here expresses confused uncertainty.
338 tn Grk “the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
340 tn Or “captain.”
341 tn Grk “the official [of the temple],” a title for the commander of the Jewish soldiers guarding the temple (thus the translation, “the commander of the temple guard”). See L&N 37.91.
343 tn Grk “brought them”; the referent (the apostles) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
344 tn Or “without violence.” It is clear, as well, that the apostles did not resist arrest.
345 tn Grk “for they feared lest they be stoned by the people.” The translation uses a less awkward English equivalent. This is an explanatory note by the author.
346 tn Or “the Sanhedrin” (the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).
347 tn Or “interrogated,” “asked.”
348 tc ‡ The majority of
349 tn Grk “We commanded you with a commandment” (a Semitic idiom that is emphatic).
350 sn The name (i.e., person) of Jesus is the constant issue of debate.
351 tn Grk “And behold.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
353 sn To bring this man’s blood on us is an idiom meaning “you intend to make us guilty of this man’s death.”
354 tn Grk “apostles answered and said.”
356 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).
357 tn Or “ancestors”; Grk “fathers.”
358 tn Or “by crucifying him” (“hang on a tree” is by the time of the first century an idiom for crucifixion). The allusion is to the judgment against Jesus as a rebellious figure, appealing to the language of Deut 21:23. The Jewish leadership has badly “misjudged” Jesus.
359 tn Grk “This one God exalted” (emphatic).
360 tn Or “Founder” (of a movement).
361 tn Or “to give repentance and forgiveness of sins to Israel.”
362 tn Or “things.” They are preaching these things even to the hostile leadership.
363 sn Those who obey. The implication, of course, is that the leadership is disobeying God.
366 sn A Pharisee was a member of one of the most important and influential religious and political parties of Judaism in the time of Jesus. There were more Pharisees than Sadducees (according to Josephus, Ant. 17.2.4 [17.42] there were more than 6,000 Pharisees at about this time). Pharisees differed with Sadducees on certain doctrines and patterns of behavior. The Pharisees were strict and zealous adherents to the laws of the OT and to numerous additional traditions such as angels and bodily resurrection.
367 sn Gamaliel was a famous Jewish scholar and teacher mentioned here in v. 34 and in Acts 22:3. He had a grandson of the same name and is referred to as “Gamaliel the Elder” to avoid confusion. He is quoted a number of times in the Mishnah, was given the highest possible title for Jewish teachers, Rabba (cf. John 20:16), and was highly regarded in later rabbinic tradition.
368 tn Grk “standing up in the council, ordered.” The participle ἀναστάς (anasta") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
369 tn Or “the Sanhedrin” (the highest legal, legislative, and judicial body among the Jews).
370 tn Grk “said to them”; the referent (the council) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
371 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is highly unlikely that this is a generic usage, since Gamaliel was addressing the Sanhedrin, the Jewish high council, which would have been exclusively male.
372 tn Or “men, be careful.”
373 tn Grk “For before these days.”
374 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun was replaced by the pronoun “he,” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.
375 tn Grk “and they came to nothing.” Gamaliel’s argument is that these two insurrectionists were taken care of by natural events.
376 tn Or “registration.”
378 tn Here ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).
379 tn Or “it will be put to an end.”
381 tn According to L&N 39.32, the verb εὑρεθῆτε (Jeureqhte, an aorist passive subjunctive) may also be translated “find yourselves” – “lest you find yourselves fighting against God.” The Jewish leader Gamaliel is shown contemplating the other possible alternative about what is occurring.
382 tn Grk “They were convinced by him.” This passive construction was converted to an active one (“He convinced them”) in keeping with contemporary English style. The phrase “He convinced them” is traditionally placed in Acts 5:40 by most English translations; the standard Greek critical text (represented by NA27 and UBS4) places it at the end of v. 39.
383 sn Had them beaten. The punishment was the “forty lashes minus one,” see also Acts 22:19; 2 Cor 11:24; Mark 13:9. The apostles had disobeyed the religious authorities and took their punishment for their “disobedience” (Deut 25:2-3; m. Makkot 3:10-14). In Acts 4:18 they were warned. Now they are beaten. The hostility is rising as the narrative unfolds.
384 tn The word “Then” is supplied as the beginning of a new sentence in the translation. The construction in Greek has so many clauses (most of them made up of participles) that a continuous English sentence would be very awkward.
387 tn Grk “temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper and has been translated accordingly.
389 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.