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Acts 13:1--14:28

Context
The Church at Antioch Commissions Barnabas and Saul

13:1 Now there were these prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch: 1  Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, 2  Lucius the Cyrenian, 3  Manaen (a close friend of Herod 4  the tetrarch 5  from childhood 6 ) and Saul. 13:2 While they were serving 7  the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart 8  for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” 13:3 Then, after they had fasted 9  and 10  prayed and placed their hands 11  on them, they sent them off.

Paul and Barnabas Preach in Cyprus

13:4 So Barnabas and Saul, 12  sent out by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia, 13  and from there they sailed to Cyprus. 14  13:5 When 15  they arrived 16  in Salamis, 17  they began to proclaim 18  the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. 19  (Now they also had John 20  as their assistant.) 21  13:6 When they had crossed over 22  the whole island as far as Paphos, 23  they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet named Bar-Jesus, 24  13:7 who was with the proconsul 25  Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. The proconsul 26  summoned 27  Barnabas and Saul and wanted to hear 28  the word of God. 13:8 But the magician Elymas 29  (for that is the way his name is translated) 30  opposed them, trying to turn the proconsul 31  away from the faith. 13:9 But Saul (also known as Paul), 32  filled with the Holy Spirit, 33  stared straight 34  at him 13:10 and said, “You who are full of all deceit and all wrongdoing, 35  you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness – will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord? 36  13:11 Now 37  look, the hand of the Lord is against 38  you, and you will be blind, unable to see the sun for a time!” Immediately mistiness 39  and darkness came over 40  him, and he went around seeking people 41  to lead him by the hand. 13:12 Then when the proconsul 42  saw what had happened, he believed, 43  because he was greatly astounded 44  at the teaching about 45  the Lord.

Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Antioch

13:13 Then Paul and his companions put out to sea 46  from Paphos 47  and came to Perga 48  in Pamphylia, 49  but John 50  left them and returned to Jerusalem. 51  13:14 Moving on from 52  Perga, 53  they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, 54  and on the Sabbath day they went into 55  the synagogue 56  and sat down. 13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 57  the leaders of the synagogue 58  sent them a message, 59  saying, “Brothers, 60  if you have any message 61  of exhortation 62  for the people, speak it.” 63  13:16 So Paul stood up, 64  gestured 65  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 66  and you Gentiles who fear God, 67  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 68  chose our ancestors 69  and made the people great 70  during their stay as foreigners 71  in the country 72  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 73  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 74  a period of about forty years he put up with 75  them in the wilderness. 76  13:19 After 77  he had destroyed 78  seven nations 79  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 80  13:20 All this took 81  about four hundred fifty years. After this 82  he gave them judges until the time of 83  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 84  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 85  raised up 86  David their king. He testified about him: 87 I have found David 88  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 89  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 90  13:23 From the descendants 91  of this man 92  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 93  13:24 Before 94  Jesus 95  arrived, John 96  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 97  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 98  he said repeatedly, 99  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 100  13:26 Brothers, 101  descendants 102  of Abraham’s family, 103  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 104  the message 105  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 106  him, 107  and they fulfilled the sayings 108  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 109  him. 110  13:28 Though 111  they found 112  no basis 113  for a death sentence, 114  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 115  everything that was written 116  about him, they took him down 117  from the cross 118  and placed him 119  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 120  him from the dead, 13:31 and 121  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 122  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 123  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 124  13:33 that this promise 125  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 126  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 127  today I have fathered you.’ 128  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 129  from the dead, never 130  again to be 131  in a state of decay, God 132  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 133  the holy and trustworthy promises 134  made to David.’ 135  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 136 You will not permit your Holy One 137  to experience 138  decay.’ 139  13:36 For David, after he had served 140  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 141  was buried with his ancestors, 142  and experienced 143  decay, 13:37 but the one 144  whom God raised up did not experience 145  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 146  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 147  everyone who believes is justified 148  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 149  you. 150  13:40 Watch out, 151  then, that what is spoken about by 152  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 153 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 154 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 155  were going out, 156  the people 157  were urging 158  them to speak about these things 159  on the next Sabbath. 13:43 When the meeting of the synagogue 160  had broken up, 161  many of the Jews and God-fearing proselytes 162  followed Paul and Barnabas, who were speaking with them and were persuading 163  them 164  to continue 165  in the grace of God.

13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city assembled together to hear the word of the Lord. 166  13:45 But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy, 167  and they began to contradict 168  what Paul was saying 169  by reviling him. 170  13:46 Both Paul and Barnabas replied courageously, 171  “It was necessary to speak the word of God 172  to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy 173  of eternal life, we 174  are turning to the Gentiles. 175  13:47 For this 176  is what the Lord has commanded us: ‘I have appointed 177  you to be a light 178  for the Gentiles, to bring salvation 179  to the ends of the earth.’” 180  13:48 When the Gentiles heard this, they began to rejoice 181  and praise 182  the word of the Lord, and all who had been appointed for eternal life 183  believed. 13:49 So the word of the Lord was spreading 184  through the entire region. 13:50 But the Jews incited 185  the God-fearing women of high social standing and the prominent men of the city, stirred up persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out 186  of their region. 13:51 So after they shook 187  the dust off their feet 188  in protest against them, they went to Iconium. 189  13:52 And the disciples were filled with joy 190  and with the Holy Spirit.

Paul and Barnabas at Iconium

14:1 The same thing happened in Iconium 191  when Paul and Barnabas 192  went into the Jewish synagogue 193  and spoke in such a way that a large group 194  of both Jews and Greeks believed. 14:2 But the Jews who refused to believe 195  stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds 196  against the brothers. 14:3 So they stayed there 197  for a considerable time, speaking out courageously for the Lord, who testified 198  to the message 199  of his grace, granting miraculous signs 200  and wonders to be performed through their hands. 14:4 But the population 201  of the city was divided; some 202  sided with the Jews, and some with the apostles. 14:5 When both the Gentiles and the Jews (together with their rulers) made 203  an attempt to mistreat 204  them and stone them, 205  14:6 Paul and Barnabas 206  learned about it 207  and fled to the Lycaonian cities of Lystra 208  and Derbe 209  and the surrounding region. 14:7 There 210  they continued to proclaim 211  the good news.

Paul and Barnabas at Lystra

14:8 In 212  Lystra 213  sat a man who could not use his feet, 214  lame from birth, 215  who had never walked. 14:9 This man was listening to Paul as he was speaking. When Paul 216  stared 217  intently at him and saw he had faith to be healed, 14:10 he said with a loud voice, “Stand upright on your feet.” 218  And the man 219  leaped up and began walking. 220  14:11 So when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they shouted 221  in the Lycaonian language, 222  “The gods have come down to us in human form!” 223  14:12 They began to call 224  Barnabas Zeus 225  and Paul Hermes, 226  because he was the chief speaker. 14:13 The priest of the temple 227  of Zeus, 228  located just outside the city, brought bulls 229  and garlands 230  to the city gates; he and the crowds wanted to offer sacrifices to them. 231  14:14 But when the apostles 232  Barnabas and Paul heard about 233  it, they tore 234  their clothes and rushed out 235  into the crowd, shouting, 236  14:15 “Men, why are you doing these things? We too are men, with human natures 237  just like you! We are proclaiming the good news to you, so that you should turn 238  from these worthless 239  things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, 240  the sea, and everything that is in them. 14:16 In 241  past 242  generations he allowed all the nations 243  to go their own ways, 14:17 yet he did not leave himself without a witness by doing good, 244  by giving you rain from heaven 245  and fruitful seasons, satisfying you 246  with food and your hearts with joy.” 247  14:18 Even by saying 248  these things, they scarcely persuaded 249  the crowds not to offer sacrifice to them.

14:19 But Jews came from Antioch 250  and Iconium, 251  and after winning 252  the crowds over, they stoned 253  Paul and dragged him out of the city, presuming him to be dead. 14:20 But after the disciples had surrounded him, he got up and went back 254  into the city. On 255  the next day he left with Barnabas for Derbe. 256 

Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch in Syria

14:21 After they had proclaimed the good news in that city and made many disciples, they returned to Lystra, 257  to Iconium, 258  and to Antioch. 259  14:22 They strengthened 260  the souls of the disciples and encouraged them to continue 261  in the faith, saying, “We must enter the kingdom 262  of God through many persecutions.” 263  14:23 When they had appointed elders 264  for them in the various churches, 265  with prayer and fasting 266  they entrusted them to the protection 267  of the Lord in whom they had believed. 14:24 Then they passed through 268  Pisidia and came into Pamphylia, 269  14:25 and when they had spoken the word 270  in Perga, 271  they went down to Attalia. 272  14:26 From there they sailed back to Antioch, 273  where they had been commended 274  to the grace of God for the work they had now completed. 275  14:27 When they arrived and gathered the church together, they reported 276  all the things God 277  had done with them, and that he had opened a door 278  of faith for the Gentiles. 14:28 So they spent 279  considerable 280  time with the disciples.

1 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

2 sn Simeon may well have been from North Africa, since the Latin loanword Niger refers to someone as “dark-complexioned.”

3 sn The Cyrenian refers to a native of the city of Cyrene, on the coast of northern Africa west of Egypt.

4 sn Herod is generally taken as a reference to Herod Antipas, who governed Galilee from 4 b.c. to a.d. 39, who had John the Baptist beheaded, and who is mentioned a number of times in the gospels.

5 tn Or “the governor.”

sn A tetrarch was a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king, who ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. Several times in the NT, Herod tetrarch of Galilee is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage.

6 tn Or “(a foster brother of Herod the tetrarch).” The meaning “close friend from childhood” is given by L&N 34.15, but the word can also mean “foster brother” (L&N 10.51). BDAG 976 s.v. σύντροφας states, “pert. to being brought up with someone, either as a foster-brother or as a companion/friend,” which covers both alternatives. Context does not given enough information to be certain which is the case here, although many modern translations prefer the meaning “close friend from childhood.”

7 tn This term is frequently used in the LXX of the service performed by priests and Levites in the tabernacle (Exod 28:35, 43; 29:30; 30:20; 35:19; 39:26; Num 1:50; 3:6, 31) and the temple (2 Chr 31:2; 35:3; Joel 1:9, 13; 2:17, and many more examples). According to BDAG 591 s.v. λειτουργέω 1.b it is used “of other expression of religious devotion.” Since the previous verse described the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, it is probable that the term here describes two of them (Barnabas and Saul) as they were serving in that capacity. Since they were not in Jerusalem where the temple was located, general religious service is referred to here.

8 tn Or “Appoint.”

9 tn The three aorist participles νηστεύσαντες (nhsteusante"), προσευξάμενοι (proseuxamenoi), and ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") are translated as temporal participles. Although they could indicate contemporaneous time when used with an aorist main verb, logically here they are antecedent. On fasting and prayer, see Matt 6:5, 16; Luke 2:37; 5:33; Acts 14:23.

10 tn Normally English style, which uses a coordinating conjunction between only the last two elements of a series of three or more, would call for omission of “and” here. However, since the terms “fasting and prayer” are something of a unit, often linked together, the conjunction has been retained here.

11 sn The placing of hands on Barnabas and Saul (traditionally known as “the laying on of hands”) refers to an act picturing the commission of God and the church for the task at hand.

12 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Barnabas and Saul) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 sn Seleucia was the port city of Antioch in Syria.

14 sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

15 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

16 tn The participle γενόμενοι (genomenoi) is taken temporally.

17 sn Salamis was a city on the southeastern coast of the island of Cyprus. This was a commercial center and a center of Judaism.

18 tn The imperfect verb κατήγγελλον (kathngellon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

19 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

20 sn John refers here to John Mark (see Acts 12:25).

21 tn The word ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") usually has the meaning “servant,” but it is doubtful John Mark fulfilled that capacity for Barnabas and Saul. He was more likely an apprentice or assistant to them.

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

22 tn Or “had passed through,” “had traveled through.”

23 sn Paphos. A city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. It was the seat of the Roman proconsul.

24 sn Named Bar-Jesus. “Jesus” is the Latin form of the name “Joshua.” The Aramaic “bar” means “son of,” so this man was surnamed “son of Joshua.” The scene depicts the conflict between Judaism and the emerging new faith at a cosmic level, much like the Simon Magus incident in Acts 8:9-24. Paul’s ministry looks like Philip’s and Peter’s here.

25 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

26 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (the proconsul) is specified in the translation for clarity.

27 tn Grk “summoning Barnabas and Saul, wanted to hear.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

28 sn The proconsul…wanted to hear the word of God. This description of Sergius Paulus portrays him as a sensitive, secular Gentile leader.

29 tn On the debate over what the name “Elymas” means, see BDAG 320 s.v. ᾿Ελύμας. The magician’s behavior is more directly opposed to the faith than Simon Magus’ was.

30 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

31 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

32 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

33 sn This qualifying clause in the narrative indicates who represented God in the dispute.

34 tn Or “gazed intently.”

35 tn Or “unscrupulousness.”

36 sn “You who…paths of the Lord?” This rebuke is like ones from the OT prophets: Jer 5:27; Gen 32:11; Prov 10:7; Hos 14:9. Five separate remarks indicate the magician’s failings. The closing rhetorical question of v. 10 (“will you not stop…?”) shows how opposed he is to the way of God.

37 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

38 tn Grk “upon,” but in a negative sense.

39 sn The term translated mistiness here appears in the writings of the physician Galen as a medical technical description of a person who is blind. The picture of judgment to darkness is symbolic as well. Whatever power Elymas had, it represented darkness. Magic will again be an issue in Acts 19:18-19. This judgment is like that of Ananias and his wife in Acts 5:1-11.

40 tn Grk “fell on.”

41 tn The noun χειραγωγός (ceiragwgo") is plural, so “people” is used rather than singular “someone.”

42 sn See the note on proconsul in v. 8.

43 sn He believed. The faith of the proconsul in the face of Jewish opposition is a theme of the rest of Acts. Paul has indeed become “a light to the Gentiles” (Acts 13:47).

44 tn The translation “greatly astounded” for ἐκπλησσόμενος (ekplhssomeno") is given by L&N 25.219.

45 tn Grk “of,” but this could give the impression the Lord himself had done the teaching (a subjective genitive) when actually the Lord was the object of the teaching (an objective genitive).

46 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

47 sn Paphos was a city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. See Acts 13:6.

48 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor. The journey from Paphos to Perga is about 105 mi (175 km).

49 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor.

50 sn That is, John Mark.

51 sn Returned to Jerusalem. John Mark had originally accompanied them from Jerusalem (see Acts 12:25). John Mark’s decision to leave became an issue later for Barnabas and Paul (Acts 15:36-39).

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

52 tn Or “Passing by.”

53 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

54 tn Or “at Antioch in Pisidia.”

sn Pisidian Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 100 mi (160 km) north of Perga. It was both a Roman colony and the seat of military and civil authority in S. Galatia. One had to trek over the Taurus Mountains to get there, since the city was 3,600 ft (1,100 m) above sea level.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

55 tn Grk “going into the synagogue they sat down.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

56 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

57 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

58 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

59 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

60 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

61 tn Or “word.”

62 tn Or “encouragement.”

63 tn Or “give it.”

64 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

65 tn Or “motioned.”

66 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

67 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

68 tn Or “people of Israel.”

69 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

70 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

71 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

72 tn Or “land.”

73 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

74 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

75 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

76 tn Or “desert.”

77 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

78 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

79 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

80 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

81 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

82 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

83 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

84 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

85 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

86 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

87 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

88 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

89 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

90 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

91 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

92 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

93 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

94 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

95 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

96 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

97 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

98 tn Or “task.”

99 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

100 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

101 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

102 tn Grk “sons”

103 tn Or “race.”

104 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

105 tn Grk “word.”

106 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

107 tn Grk “this one.”

108 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

109 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

110 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

111 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

112 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

113 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

114 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

115 tn Or “carried out.”

116 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

117 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

118 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

119 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

120 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

121 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

122 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

123 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

124 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

125 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

126 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

127 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

128 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

129 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

130 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

131 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

132 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

133 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

134 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

135 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

136 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

137 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

138 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

139 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

140 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

141 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

142 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

143 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

144 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

145 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

146 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

147 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

148 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

149 tn Or “could not free.”

150 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

151 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

152 tn Or “in.”

153 tn Or “and die!”

154 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

155 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

156 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

157 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

158 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

159 tn Or “matters.”

160 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

161 tn BDAG 607 s.v. λύω 3 has “λυθείσης τ. συναγωγῆς when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up Ac 13:43.”

162 tn Normally the phrase σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (sebomenoi ton qeon) refers to Gentiles (“God-fearers”) who believed in God, attended the synagogue, and followed the Mosaic law to some extent, but stopped short of undergoing circumcision. BDAG 918 s.v. σέβω 1.b lists in this category references in Acts 16:14; 18:7; with σεβόμενοι alone, Acts 13:50; 17:4, 17; the phrase is also found in Josephus, Ant. 14.7.2 (14.110). Unique to this particular verse is the combination σεβόμενοι προσηλύτων (sebomenoi proshlutwn). Later rabbinic discussion suggests that to be regarded as a proper proselyte, a Gentile male had to submit to circumcision. If that is the case here, these Gentiles in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch should be regarded as full proselytes who had converted completely to Judaism and undergone circumcision. It is probably more likely, however, that προσηλύτων is used here in a somewhat looser sense (note the use of σεβομένας [sebomena"] alone to refer to women in Acts 13:50) and that these Gentiles were still in the category commonly called “God-fearers” without being full, technical proselytes to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Regardless, the point is that many Gentiles, as well as Jews, came to faith.

163 tn This is the meaning given for ἔπειθον (epeiqon) in this verse by BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b.

164 tn Grk “who, as they were speaking with them, were persuading them.”

165 tn The verb προμένειν (promenein) is similar in force to the use of μένω (menw, “to reside/remain”) in the Gospel and Epistles of John.

166 tc Most mss (B* C E Ψ Ï sy bo) read θεοῦ (qeou, “of God”) here instead of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”). Other mss, among them some important early witnesses (Ì74 א A B2 33 81 323 945 1175 1739 al sa), read κυρίου. The external evidence favors κυρίου, though not decisively. Internally, the mention of “God” in v. 43, and especially “the word of God” in v. 46, would provide some temptation for scribes to assimilate the wording in v. 44 to these texts.

sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in vv. 48 and 49; Acts 8:25; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

167 sn They were filled with jealousy. Their foolish response to the gospel is noted again (see Acts 5:17). The same verb is used in Acts 7:9; 17:5.

168 tn The imperfect verb ἀντέλεγον (antelegon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect in the logical sequence of events: After they were filled with jealousy, the Jewish opponents began to contradict what Paul said.

169 tn Grk “the things being said by Paul.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

170 tn The participle βλασφημοῦντες (blasfhmounte") has been regarded as indicating the means of the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as a finite verb (“and reviled him”) in keeping with contemporary English style. The direct object (“him”) is implied rather than expressed and could be impersonal (“it,” referring to what Paul was saying rather than Paul himself), but the verb occurs more often in contexts involving defamation or slander against personal beings (not always God). For a very similar context to this one, compare Acts 18:6. The translation “blaspheme” is not used because in contemporary English its meaning is more narrowly defined and normally refers to blasphemy against God (not what Paul’s opponents were doing here). The modern term “slandering” comes close to what was being done to Paul here.

171 tn Grk “Both Paul and Barnabas spoke out courageously and said.” The redundancy is removed in the translation and the verb “replied” is used in keeping with the logical sequence of events. The theme of boldness reappears: Acts 4:24-30; 9:27-28.

172 tn Grk “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

173 tn Or “and consider yourselves unworthy.”

174 tn Grk “behold, we.” In this context ἰδού (idou) is not easily translated into English.

175 sn This turning to the Gentiles would be a shocking rebuke to 1st century Jews who thought they alone were the recipients of the promise.

176 tn Here οὕτως (Joutws) is taken to refer to what follows, the content of the quotation, as given for this verse by BDAG 742 s.v. οὕτω/οὕτως 2.

177 tn BDAG 1004 s.v. τίθημι 3.a has “τιθέναι τινὰ εἴς τι place/appoint someone to or for (to function as) someth….Ac 13:47.” This is a double accusative construction of object (“you”) and complement (“a light”).

178 sn Paul alludes here to the language of the Servant in Isaiah, pointing to Isa 42:6; 49:6. He and Barnabas do the work of the Servant in Isaiah.

179 tn Grk “that you should be for salvation,” but more simply “to bring salvation.”

180 sn An allusion to Isa 42:6 and 49:6. The expression the ends of the earth recalls Luke 3:6 and Acts 1:8. Paul sees himself and Barnabas as carrying out the commission of Luke 24:27. (See 2 Cor 6:2, where servant imagery also appears concerning Paul’s message.)

181 tn The imperfect verb ἔχαιρον (ecairon) and the following ἐδόξαζον (edoxazon) are translated as ingressive imperfects.

182 tn Or “glorify.” Although “honor” is given by BDAG 258 s.v. δοξάζω as a translation, it would be misleading here, because the meaning is “to honor in the sense of attributing worth to something,” while in contemporary English usage one speaks of “honoring” a contract in the sense of keeping its stipulations. It is not a synonym for “obey” in this context (“obey the word of the Lord”), but that is how many English readers would understand it.

183 sn Note the contrast to v. 46 in regard to eternal life.

184 tn BDAG 239 s.v. διαφέρω 1 has “spread” for διαφέρετο (diafereto) in connection with a teaching. This is the first summary since Acts 9:31.

185 tn For the translation of παρώτρυναν (parwtrunan) as “incited” see BDAG 780 s.v. παροτρύνω.

186 tn BDAG 299 s.v. ἐκβάλλω 1 has “throw out.” Once again, many Jews reacted to the message (Acts 5:17, 33; 6:11; 13:45).

187 tn The participle ἐκτιναξάμενοι (ektinaxamenoi) is taken temporally. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance (“So they shook…and went”).

188 sn Shaking the dust off their feet was a symbolic gesture commanded by Jesus to his disciples, Matt 10:14; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5. It shows a group of people as culpable before God.

189 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 90 mi (145 km) east southeast of Pisidian Antioch. It was the easternmost city of Phrygia.

190 sn The citizens of Pisidian Antioch were not discouraged by the persecution, but instead were filled with joy.

191 sn Iconium. See the note in 13:51.

192 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

193 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

194 tn Or “that a large crowd.”

195 tn Or “who would not believe.”

196 tn Or “embittered their minds” (Grk “their souls”). BDAG 502 s.v. κακόω 2 has “make angry, embitter τὰς ψυχάς τινων κατά τινος poison the minds of some persons against another Ac 14:2.”

197 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

198 sn The Lord testified to the message by granting the signs described in the following clause.

199 tn Grk “word.”

200 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned.

201 tn BDAG 825 s.v. πλῆθος 2.b.γ has this translation for πλῆθος (plhqo").

202 tn These clauses are a good example of the contrastive μὲνδέ (mende) construction: Some “on the one hand” sided with the Jews, but some “on the other hand” sided with the apostles.

203 tn Grk “So there came about an attempt” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

204 tn On this verb see BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑβρίζω.

205 tn The direct object “them” is repeated after both verbs in the translation for stylistic reasons, although it occurs only after λιθοβολῆσαι (liqobolhsai) in the Greek text.

206 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

207 tn Grk “learning about it, fled.” The participle συνιδόντες (sunidonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It could also be taken temporally (“when they learned about it”) as long as opening clause of v. 5 is not translated as a temporal clause too, which results in a redundancy.

208 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium, a Roman colony that was not on the main roads of Lycaonia. Because of its relative isolation, its local character was able to be preserved.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

209 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

210 tn Grk “region, and there.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated and a new sentence begun in the translation.

211 tn The periphrastic construction εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ἦσαν (euangelizomenoi hsan) has been translated as a progressive imperfect.

212 tn Grk “And in.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

213 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

214 tn Grk “powerless in his feet,” meaning he was unable to use his feet to walk.

215 tn Grk “lame from his mother’s womb” (an idiom).

sn The description lame from birth makes clear how serious the condition was, and how real it was. This event is very similar to Acts 3:1-10, except here the lame man’s faith is clear from the start.

216 tn Grk “speaking, who.” The relative pronoun has been replaced by the noun “Paul,” and a new sentence begun in the translation because an English relative clause would be very awkward here.

217 tn Or “looked.”

218 tn BDAG 722 s.v. ὀρθός 1.a has “stand upright on your feet.”

219 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

220 tn This verb is imperfect tense in contrast to the previous verb, which is aorist. It has been translated ingressively, since the start of a sequence is in view here.

221 tn Grk “they lifted up their voice” (an idiom).

222 tn Grk “in Lycaonian, saying.” The word “language” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

223 tn So BDAG 707 s.v. ὁμοιόω 1. However, L&N 64.4 takes the participle ὁμοιωθέντες (Jomoiwqente") as an adjectival participle modifying θεοί (qeoi): “the gods resembling men have come down to us.”

sn The gods have come down to us in human form. Greek culture spoke of “divine men.” In this region there was a story of Zeus and Hermes visiting the area (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.611-725). The locals failed to acknowledge them, so judgment followed. The present crowd was determined not to make the mistake a second time.

224 tn The imperfect verb ἐκάλουν (ekaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

225 sn Zeus was the chief Greek deity, worshiped throughout the Greco-Roman world (known to the Romans as Jupiter).

226 sn Hermes was a Greek god who (according to Greek mythology) was the messenger of the gods and the god of oratory (equivalent to the Roman god Mercury).

227 tn The words “the temple of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. The translation “the priest of (the temple/shrine of) Zeus located before the city” is given for this phrase by BDAG 426 s.v. Ζεύς.

228 sn See the note on Zeus in the previous verse.

229 tn Or “oxen.”

230 tn Or “wreaths.”

sn Garlands were commonly wreaths of wool with leaves and flowers woven in, worn on a person’s head or woven around a staff. They were an important part of many rituals used to worship pagan gods. Although it was an erroneous reaction, the priest’s reaction shows how all acknowledged their power and access to God.

231 tn The words “to them” are not in the Greek text, but are clearly implied by the response of Paul and Barnabas in the following verse.

232 sn The apostles Barnabas and Paul. This is one of only two places where Luke calls Paul an apostle, and the description here is shared with Barnabas. This is a nontechnical use here, referring to a commissioned messenger.

233 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") is taken temporally.

234 tn Grk “tearing their clothes they rushed out.” The participle διαρρήξαντες (diarrhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This action is a Jewish response to blasphemy (m. Sanhedrin 7.5; Jdt 14:16-17).

235 tn So BDAG 307 s.v. ἐκπηδάω 1, “rush (lit. ‘leap’) outεἰς τὸν ὄχλον into the crowd Ac 14:14.”

236 tn Grk “shouting and saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, in v. 15) has not been translated because it is redundant.

sn What follows is one of two speeches in Acts to a purely pagan audience (Acts 17 in Athens is the other). So Paul focused on God as Creator, a common link.

237 tn Grk “with the same kinds of feelings,” L&N 25.32. BDAG 706 s.v. ὁμοιοπαθής translates the phrase “with the same nature τινί as someone.” In the immediate context, the contrast is between human and divine nature, and the point is that Paul and Barnabas are mere mortals, not gods.

238 tn Grk “in order that you should turn,” with ἐπιστρέφειν (epistrefein) as an infinitive of purpose, but this is somewhat awkward contemporary English. To translate the infinitive construction “proclaim the good news, that you should turn,” which is much smoother English, could give the impression that the infinitive clause is actually the content of the good news, which it is not. The somewhat less formal “to get you to turn” would work, but might convey to some readers manipulativeness on the part of the apostles. Thus “proclaim the good news, so that you should turn,” is used, to convey that the purpose of the proclamation of good news is the response by the hearers. The emphasis here is like 1 Thess 1:9-10.

239 tn Or “useless,” “futile.” The reference is to idols and idolatry, worshiping the creation over the Creator (Rom 1:18-32). See also 1 Kgs 16:2, 13, 26; 2 Kgs 17:15; Jer 2:5; 8:19; 3 Macc 6:11.

240 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

241 tn Grk “them, who in.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the pronoun “he” (“In past generations he”) and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who made the heaven” and “who in past generations”) following one another.

242 tn On this term see BDAG 780 s.v. παροίχομαι. The word is a NT hapax legomenon.

243 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same). The plural here alludes to the variety of false religions in the pagan world.

244 tn The participle ἀγαθουργῶν (agaqourgwn) is regarded as indicating means here, parallel to the following participles διδούς (didou") and ἐμπιπλῶν (empiplwn). This is the easiest way to understand the Greek structure. Semantically, the first participle is a general statement, followed by two participles giving specific examples of doing good.

245 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

246 tn Grk “satisfying [filling] your hearts with food and joy.” This is an idiomatic expression; it strikes the English reader as strange to speak of “filling one’s heart with food.” Thus the additional direct object “you” has been supplied, separating the two expressions somewhat: “satisfying you with food and your hearts with joy.”

247 sn God’s general sovereignty and gracious care in the creation are the way Paul introduces the theme of the goodness of God. He was trying to establish monotheism here. It is an OT theme (Gen 8:22; Ps 4:7; 145:15-16; 147:8-9; Isa 25:6; Jer 5:24) which also appears in the NT (Luke 12:22-34).

248 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is regarded as indicating means.

249 tn BDAG 524 s.v. καταπαύω 2.b gives both “restrain” and “dissuade someone fr. someth.,” but “they scarcely dissuaded the crowds from offering sacrifice,” while accurate, is less common in contemporary English than saying “they scarcely persuaded the crowds not to offer sacrifice.” Paganism is portrayed as a powerful reality that is hard to reverse.

250 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

251 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra. Note how Jews from other cities were chasing Paul (2 Cor 11:4-6; Gal 2:4-5; Acts 9:16).

252 tn The participle πείσαντες (peisante") is taken temporally (BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.c).

253 tn Grk “stoning Paul they dragged him.” The participle λιθάσαντες (liqasante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

254 tn Grk “and entered”; the word “back” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

255 tn Grk “And on.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

256 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. This was the easternmost point of the journey.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

257 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) northwest of Derbe.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2.

258 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra.

259 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

map For location see JP1 E2; JP2 E2; JP3 E2; JP4 E2.

260 tn Grk “to Antioch, strengthening.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here. This participle (ἐπιστηρίζοντες, episthrizonte") and the following one (παρακαλοῦντες, parakalounte") have been translated as finite verbs connected by the coordinating conjunction “and.”

261 sn And encouraged them to continue. The exhortations are like those noted in Acts 11:23; 13:43. An example of such a speech is found in Acts 20:18-35. Christianity is now characterized as “the faith.”

262 sn This reference to the kingdom of God clearly refers to its future arrival.

263 tn Or “sufferings.”

264 sn Appointed elders. See Acts 20:17.

265 tn The preposition κατά (kata) is used here in a distributive sense; see BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d.

266 tn Literally with a finite verb (προσευξάμενοι, proseuxamenoi) rather than a noun, “praying with fasting,” but the combination “prayer and fasting” is so familiar in English that it is preferable to use it here.

267 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “entrust someone to the care or protection of someone” for this phrase. The reference to persecution or suffering in the context (v. 22) suggests “protection” is a better translation here. This looks at God’s ultimate care for the church.

268 tn Grk “Then passing through Pisidia they came.” The participle διελθόντες (dielqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

269 sn Pamphylia was a province along the southern coast of Asia Minor.

270 tn Or “message.”

271 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

272 sn Attalia was a seaport in the province of Pamphylia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, about 12 mi (20 km) southwest of Perga.

273 sn Antioch was the city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia) from which Paul’s first missionary journey began (see Acts 13:1-4). That first missionary journey ends here, after covering some 1,400 mi (2,240 km).

map For location see JP1 F2; JP2 F2; JP3 F2; JP4 F2.

274 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “commended to the grace of God for the work 14:26” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternative meanings for this category.

275 tn BDAG 829 s.v. πληρόω 5 has “to bring to completion an activity in which one has been involved from its beginning, complete, finish” as meanings for this category. The ministry to which they were commissioned ends with a note of success.

276 tn Or “announced.”

277 sn Note that God is the subject of the activity. The outcome of this mission is seen as a confirmation of the mission to the Gentiles.

278 sn On the image of opening, or of the door, see 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Cor 2:12; Col 4:3.

279 tn BDAG 238 s.v. διατρίβω gives the meaning as “spend” when followed by an accusative τὸν χρόνον (ton cronon) which is the case here.

280 tn Grk “no little (time)” (an idiom).



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