10:14 But Peter said, “Certainly not, Lord, for I have never eaten anything defiled and ritually unclean!” 1 10:15 The voice 2 spoke to him again, a second time, “What God has made clean, you must not consider 3 ritually unclean!” 4 10:16 This happened three times, and immediately the object was taken up into heaven. 5
10:28 He said to them, “You know that 6 it is unlawful 7 for a Jew 8 to associate with or visit a Gentile, 9 yet God has shown me that I should call no person 10 defiled or ritually unclean. 11
1 tn Possibly there is a subtle distinction in meaning between κοινός (koinos) and ἀκάθαρτος (akaqarto") here, but according to L&N 53.39 it is difficult to determine precise differences in meaning based on existing contexts.
sn Peter insisted he would not violate the law by eating anything defiled and ritually unclean. These food laws were one of the practices that distinguished Jews from their Gentile neighbors. The practice made table fellowship with Gentiles awkward. For an example of Jewish attitudes to this, see Dan 1:8-16; 1 Macc 1:41-64; Letter of Aristeas 142; Tacitus, History 5.5.
2 tn Grk “And the voice.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
3 tn Or “declare.”
5 tn Or “into the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).
6 tn Here ὡς (Jws) is used like ὅτι (Joti) to introduce indirect discourse (cf. BDAG 1105 s.v. ὡς 5).
7 tn This term is used of wanton or callously lawless acts (BDAG 24 s.v. ἀθέμιτος).
8 tn Grk “a Jewish man” (ἀνδρὶ ᾿Ιουδαίῳ, andri Ioudaiw).
9 tn Grk “a foreigner,” but in this context, “a non-Jew,” that is, a Gentile. This term speaks of intimate association (BDAG 556 s.v. κολλάω 2.b.α). On this Jewish view, see John 18:28, where a visit to a Gentile residence makes a Jewish person unclean.
10 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").
11 tn Possibly there is a subtle distinction in meaning between κοινός (koinos) and ἀκάθαρτος (akaqartos) here, but according to L&N 53.39 it is difficult to determine precise differences in meaning based on existing contexts.
sn God has shown me…unclean. Peter sees the significance of his vision as not about food, but about open fellowship between Jewish Christians and Gentiles.