3:10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief; when it comes, 1 the heavens will disappear 2 with a horrific noise, 3 and the celestial bodies 4 will melt away 5 in a blaze, 6 and the earth and every deed done on it 7 will be laid bare. 8 3:11 Since all these things are to melt away 9 in this manner, 10 what sort of people must we 11 be, conducting our lives in holiness and godliness, 12 3:12 while waiting for and hastening 13 the coming of the day of God? 14 Because of this day, 15 the heavens will be burned up and 16 dissolve, and the celestial bodies 17 will melt away in a blaze! 18 3:13 But, according to his promise, we are waiting for 19 new heavens and a new earth, in which 20 righteousness truly resides. 21
1 tn Grk “in which.”
2 tn Or “pass away.”
3 tn Or “hissing sound,” “whirring sound,” “rushing sound,” or “loud noise.” The word occurs only here in the NT. It was often used of the crackle of a fire, as would appear appropriate in this context.
4 tn Grk “elements.” Most commentators are agreed that “celestial bodies” is meant, in light of this well-worn usage of στοιχεῖα (stoiceia) in the 2nd century and the probable allusion to Isa 34:4 (text of Vaticanus). See R. Bauckham, Jude, 2 Peter [WBC], 315-16 for discussion.
5 tn Grk “be dissolved.”
6 tn Grk “being burned up.”
7 tn Grk “the works in it.”
8 tc One of the most difficult textual problems in the NT is found in v. 10. The reading εὑρεθήσεται (Jeureqhsetai), which enjoys by far the best support (א B K P 0156vid 323 1241 1739txt pc) is nevertheless so difficult a reading that many scholars regard it as nonsensical. (NA27 lists five conjectures by scholars, from Hort to Mayor, in this text.) As R. Bauckham has pointed out, solutions to the problem are of three sorts: (1) conjectural emendation (which normally speaks more of the ingenuity of the scholar who makes the proposal than of the truth of the conjecture, e.g., changing one letter in the previous word, ἔργα [erga] becomes ἄργα [arga] with the meaning, “the earth and the things in it will be found useless”); (2) adoption of one of several variant readings (all of which, however, are easier than this one and simply cannot explain how this reading arose, e.g., the reading of Ì72 which adds λυόμενα [luomena] to the verb – a reading suggested no doubt by the threefold occurrence of this verb in the surrounding verses: “the earth and its works will be found dissolved”; or the simplest variant, the reading of the Sahidic
9 tn Grk “all these things thus being dissolved.”
10 tn Or “thus.”
11 tc ‡ Most
tn Or “you.”
12 tn Grk “in holy conduct and godliness.”
13 tn Or possibly, “striving for,” but the meaning “hasten” for σπουδάζω (spoudazw) is normative in Jewish apocalyptic literature (in which the coming of the Messiah/the end is anticipated). Such a hastening is not an arm-twisting of the divine volition, but a response by believers that has been decreed by God.
14 sn The coming of the day of God. Peter elsewhere describes the coming or parousia as the coming of Christ (cf. 2 Pet 1:16; 3:4). The almost casual exchange between “God” and “Christ” in this little book, and elsewhere in the NT, argues strongly for the deity of Christ (see esp. 1:1).
15 tn Grk “on account of which” (a subordinate relative clause in Greek).
16 tn Grk “being burned up, will dissolve.”
19 tn Or possibly, “let us wait for.” The form in Greek (προσδόκωμεν, prosdokwmen) could be either indicative or subjunctive. The present participle in v. 14, however, is best taken causally (“since you are waiting for”), suggesting that the indicative is to be read here.
20 tn The relative pronoun is plural, indicating that the sphere in which righteousness dwells is both the new heavens and the new earth.
21 tn Grk “dwells.” The verb κατοικέω (katoikew) is an intensive cognate of οἰκέω (oikew), often with the connotation of “taking up residence,” “settling down,” being at home,” etc. Cf., e.g., Matt 2:23; Acts 17:26; 22:12; Eph 3:17; Col 1:19; 2:9. Hence, the addition of the adverb “truly” is implicit in the connotation of the verb in a context such as this.