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2 Kings 23:12

Context
23:12 The king tore down the altars the kings of Judah had set up on the roof of Ahaz’s upper room, as well as the altars Manasseh had set up in the two courtyards of the Lord’s temple. He crushed them up 1  and threw the dust in the Kidron Valley.

2 Kings 16:4

Context
16:4 He offered sacrifices and burned incense on the high places, on the hills, and under every green tree.

2 Kings 23:8

Context

23:8 He brought all the priests from the cities of Judah and ruined 2  the high places where the priests had offered sacrifices, from Geba to Beer Sheba. 3  He tore down the high place of the goat idols 4  situated at the entrance of the gate of Joshua, the city official, on the left side of the city gate.

1 tc The MT reads, “he ran from there,” which makes little if any sense in this context. Some prefer to emend the verbal form (Qal of רוּץ [ruts], “run”) to a Hiphil of רוּץ with third plural suffix and translate, “he quickly removed them” (see BDB 930 s.v. רוּץ, and M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings [AB], 289). The suffix could have been lost in MT by haplography (note the mem [מ] that immediately follows the verb on the form מִשֳׁם, misham, “from there”). Another option, the one reflected in the translation, is to emend the verb to a Piel of רָצַץ (ratsats), “crush,” with third plural suffix.

2 tn Heb “defiled; desecrated,” that is, “made ritually unclean and unusable.”

3 sn These towns marked Judah’s northern and southern borders, respectively, at the time of Josiah.

4 tc The Hebrew text reads “the high places of the gates,” which is problematic in that the rest of the verse speaks of a specific gate. The translation assumes an emendation to בָּמוֹת הַשְּׁעָרִים (bamot hashÿarim), “the high place of the goats” (that is, goat idols). Worship of such images is referred to in Lev 17:7 and 2 Chr 11:15. For a discussion of the textual issue, see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 286-87.



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