18:1 Jehoshaphat was very wealthy and greatly respected. He made an alliance by marriage with Ahab, 18:2 and after several years 1 went down to visit 2 Ahab in Samaria. 3 Ahab slaughtered many sheep and cattle to honor Jehoshaphat and those who came with him. 4 He persuaded him to join in an attack 5 against Ramoth Gilead. 18:3 King Ahab of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to attack Ramoth Gilead?” Jehoshaphat replied to the king of Israel, “I will support you; my army is at your disposal and will support you in battle.” 6 18:4 Then Jehoshaphat added, 7 “First seek an oracle from the Lord.” 8 18:5 So the king of Israel assembled 400 prophets and asked them, “Should we attack Ramoth Gilead or not?” 9 They said, “Attack! God 10 will hand it over to the king.” 18:6 But Jehoshaphat asked, “Is there not a prophet of the Lord still here, that we may ask him?” 18:7 The king of Israel answered Jehoshaphat, “There is still one man through whom we can seek the Lord’s will. 11 But I despise 12 him because he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but always 13 disaster. His name is Micaiah son of Imlah. 14 Jehoshaphat said, “The king should not say such things!” 18:8 The king of Israel summoned an officer and said, “Quickly bring Micaiah son of Imlah.”
18:9 Now the king of Israel and King Jehoshaphat of Judah were sitting on their respective thrones, dressed in their royal robes, at the threshing floor at 15 the entrance of the gate of Samaria. All the prophets were prophesying before them. 18:10 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah made iron horns and said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘With these you will gore Syria until they are destroyed!’” 18:11 All the prophets were prophesying the same, saying, “Attack Ramoth Gilead! You will succeed; the Lord will hand it over to the king!” 18:12 Now the messenger who went to summon Micaiah said to him, “Look, the prophets are in complete agreement that the king will succeed. 16 Your words must agree with theirs; you must predict success!” 17 18:13 But Micaiah said, “As certainly as the Lord lives, I will say what my God tells me to say!”
18:14 Micaiah 18 came before the king and the king asked him, “Micaiah, should we attack Ramoth Gilead or not?” He answered him, “Attack! You will succeed; they will be handed over to you.” 19 18:15 The king said to him, “How many times must I make you solemnly promise in 20 the name of the Lord to tell me only the truth?” 18:16 Micaiah 21 replied, “I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains like sheep that have no shepherd. Then the Lord said, ‘They have no master. They should go home in peace.’” 18:17 The king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Didn’t I tell you he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but disaster?” 18:18 Micaiah 22 said, “That being the case, hear the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, with all the heavenly assembly standing on his right and on his left. 18:19 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive King Ahab of Israel, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die there?’ One said this and another that. 18:20 Then a spirit 23 stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’ 18:21 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord 24 said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. 25 Go out and do as you have proposed.’ 18:22 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.” 18:23 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?” 18:24 Micaiah replied, “Look, you will see in the day when you go into an inner room to hide.” 18:25 Then the king of Israel said, “Take Micaiah and return him to Amon the city official and Joash the king’s son. 18:26 Say, ‘This is what the king says: “Put this man in prison. Give him only a little bread and water 26 until I return safely.”’” 18:27 Micaiah said, “If you really do return safely, then the Lord has not spoken through me!” Then he added, “Take note, 27 all you people.”
1 tn Heb “at the end of years.”
2 tn The word “visit” is supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
4 tn Heb “and Ahab slaughtered for him sheep and cattle in abundance, and for the people who were with him.”
5 tn Heb “to go up.”
6 tn Heb “Like me, like you; and like your people, my people; and with you in battle.”
7 tn Heb “and Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel.”
8 tn Heb “the word of the
9 tn Heb “Should we go against Ramoth Gilead for war or should I refrain?”
10 tn Though Jehoshaphat had requested an oracle from “the
11 tn Heb “to seek the
12 tn Or “hate.”
13 tn Heb “all his days.”
14 tn The words “his name is” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
15 tn Heb “at,” which in this case probably means “near.”
16 tn Heb “the words of the prophets are [with] one mouth good for the king.”
17 tn Heb “let your words be like one of them and speak good.”
18 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Micaiah) has been specified in the translation both for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
19 sn One does not expect Micaiah, having just vowed to speak only what the
20 tn Or “swear an oath by.”
21 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Micaiah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
22 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Micaiah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
23 tn Heb “the spirit.” The significance of the article prefixed to רוּחַ (ruakh) is uncertain, but it could contain a clue as to this spirit’s identity, especially when interpreted in light of verse 23. It is certainly possible, and probably even likely, that the article is used in a generic or dramatic sense and should be translated, “a spirit.” In the latter case it would show that this spirit was vivid and definite in the mind of Micaiah the storyteller. However, if one insists that the article indicates a well-known or universally known spirit, the following context provides a likely referent. Verse 23 tells how Zedekiah slapped Micaiah in the face and then asked sarcastically, “Which way did the spirit from the
24 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the
25 tn The Hebrew text has two imperfects connected by וְגַם (vÿgam). These verbs could be translated as specific futures, “you will deceive and also you will prevail,” in which case the
26 tn Heb “the bread of affliction and the water of affliction.”
27 tn Heb “Listen.”