17:1 His son Jehoshaphat replaced him as king and solidified his rule over Israel. 1 17:2 He placed troops in all of Judah’s fortified cities and posted garrisons 2 throughout the land of Judah and in the cities of Ephraim that his father Asa had seized.
17:3 The Lord was with Jehoshaphat because he followed in his ancestor 3 David’s footsteps at the beginning of his reign. 4 He did not seek the Baals, 17:4 but instead sought the God of his ancestors 5 and obeyed 6 his commands, unlike the Israelites. 7 17:5 The Lord made his kingdom secure; 8 all Judah brought tribute to Jehoshaphat, and he became very wealthy and greatly respected. 9 17:6 He was committed to following the Lord; 10 he even removed the high places and Asherah poles from Judah.
17:7 In the third year of his reign he sent his officials Ben-Hail, Obadiah, Zechariah, Nethanel, and Micaiah to teach in the cities of Judah. 17:8 They were accompanied by the Levites Shemaiah, Nethaniah, Zebadiah, Asahel, Shemiramoth, Jehonathan, Adonijah, Tobijah, and Tob-Adonijah, and by the priests Elishama and Jehoram. 17:9 They taught throughout Judah, taking with them the scroll of the law of the Lord. They traveled to all the cities of Judah and taught the people.
17:10 The Lord put fear into all the kingdoms surrounding Judah; 11 they did not make war with Jehoshaphat. 17:11 Some of the Philistines brought Jehoshaphat tribute, including a load of silver. The Arabs brought him 7,700 rams and 7,700 goats from their flocks.
17:12 Jehoshaphat’s power kept increasing. He built fortresses and storage cities throughout Judah. 17:13 He had many supplies stored in the cities of Judah and an army of skilled warriors stationed in Jerusalem. 12 17:14 These were their divisions by families:
There were a thousand officers from Judah. 13 Adnah the commander led 300,000 skilled warriors, 17:15 Jehochanan the commander led 280,000, 17:16 and Amasiah son of Zikri, who volunteered to serve the Lord, led 200,000 skilled warriors.
17:19 These were the ones who served the king, besides those whom the king placed in the fortified cities throughout Judah.
18:1 Jehoshaphat was very wealthy and greatly respected. He made an alliance by marriage with Ahab, 18:2 and after several years 14 went down to visit 15 Ahab in Samaria. 16 Ahab slaughtered many sheep and cattle to honor Jehoshaphat and those who came with him. 17 He persuaded him to join in an attack 18 against Ramoth Gilead. 18:3 King Ahab of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go with me to attack Ramoth Gilead?” Jehoshaphat replied to the king of Israel, “I will support you; my army is at your disposal and will support you in battle.” 19 18:4 Then Jehoshaphat added, 20 “First seek an oracle from the Lord.” 21 18:5 So the king of Israel assembled 400 prophets and asked them, “Should we attack Ramoth Gilead or not?” 22 They said, “Attack! God 23 will hand it over to the king.” 18:6 But Jehoshaphat asked, “Is there not a prophet of the Lord still here, that we may ask him?” 18:7 The king of Israel answered Jehoshaphat, “There is still one man through whom we can seek the Lord’s will. 24 But I despise 25 him because he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but always 26 disaster. His name is Micaiah son of Imlah. 27 Jehoshaphat said, “The king should not say such things!” 18:8 The king of Israel summoned an officer and said, “Quickly bring Micaiah son of Imlah.”
18:9 Now the king of Israel and King Jehoshaphat of Judah were sitting on their respective thrones, dressed in their royal robes, at the threshing floor at 28 the entrance of the gate of Samaria. All the prophets were prophesying before them. 18:10 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah made iron horns and said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘With these you will gore Syria until they are destroyed!’” 18:11 All the prophets were prophesying the same, saying, “Attack Ramoth Gilead! You will succeed; the Lord will hand it over to the king!” 18:12 Now the messenger who went to summon Micaiah said to him, “Look, the prophets are in complete agreement that the king will succeed. 29 Your words must agree with theirs; you must predict success!” 30 18:13 But Micaiah said, “As certainly as the Lord lives, I will say what my God tells me to say!”
18:14 Micaiah 31 came before the king and the king asked him, “Micaiah, should we attack Ramoth Gilead or not?” He answered him, “Attack! You will succeed; they will be handed over to you.” 32 18:15 The king said to him, “How many times must I make you solemnly promise in 33 the name of the Lord to tell me only the truth?” 18:16 Micaiah 34 replied, “I saw all Israel scattered on the mountains like sheep that have no shepherd. Then the Lord said, ‘They have no master. They should go home in peace.’” 18:17 The king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “Didn’t I tell you he does not prophesy prosperity for me, but disaster?” 18:18 Micaiah 35 said, “That being the case, hear the word of the Lord: I saw the Lord sitting on his throne, with all the heavenly assembly standing on his right and on his left. 18:19 The Lord said, ‘Who will deceive King Ahab of Israel, so he will attack Ramoth Gilead and die there?’ One said this and another that. 18:20 Then a spirit 36 stepped forward and stood before the Lord. He said, ‘I will deceive him.’ The Lord asked him, ‘How?’ 18:21 He replied, ‘I will go out and be a lying spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ The Lord 37 said, ‘Deceive and overpower him. 38 Go out and do as you have proposed.’ 18:22 So now, look, the Lord has placed a lying spirit in the mouths of all these prophets of yours; but the Lord has decreed disaster for you.” 18:23 Zedekiah son of Kenaanah approached, hit Micaiah on the jaw, and said, “Which way did the Lord’s spirit go when he went from me to speak to you?” 18:24 Micaiah replied, “Look, you will see in the day when you go into an inner room to hide.” 18:25 Then the king of Israel said, “Take Micaiah and return him to Amon the city official and Joash the king’s son. 18:26 Say, ‘This is what the king says: “Put this man in prison. Give him only a little bread and water 39 until I return safely.”’” 18:27 Micaiah said, “If you really do return safely, then the Lord has not spoken through me!” Then he added, “Take note, 40 all you people.”
18:28 The king of Israel and King Jehoshaphat of Judah attacked Ramoth Gilead. 18:29 The king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “I will disguise myself and then enter 41 the battle; but you wear your royal attire.” So the king of Israel disguised himself and they entered the battle. 18:30 Now the king of Syria had ordered his chariot commanders, “Do not fight common soldiers or high ranking officers; 42 fight only the king of Israel!” 18:31 When the chariot commanders saw Jehoshaphat, they said, “He must be the king of Israel!” So they turned and attacked him, but Jehoshaphat cried out. The Lord helped him; God lured them away from him. 18:32 When the chariot commanders realized he was not the king of Israel, they turned away from him. 18:33 Now an archer shot an arrow at random 43 and it struck the king of Israel between the plates of his armor. The king 44 ordered his charioteer, “Turn around and take me from the battle line, 45 for I am wounded.” 18:34 While the battle raged throughout the day, the king stood propped up in his chariot opposite the Syrians. He died in the evening as the sun was setting.
19:1 When King Jehoshaphat of Judah returned home safely to Jerusalem, 46 19:2 the prophet 47 Jehu son of Hanani confronted him; 48 he said to King Jehoshaphat, “Is it right to help the wicked and be an ally of those who oppose the Lord? 49 Because you have done this the Lord is angry with you! 50 19:3 Nevertheless you have done some good things; 51 you removed 52 the Asherah poles from the land and you were determined to follow the Lord.” 53
19:4 Jehoshaphat lived in Jerusalem. 54 He went out among the people from Beer Sheba to the hill country of Ephraim and encouraged them to follow 55 the Lord God of their ancestors. 56 19:5 He appointed judges throughout the land and in each of the fortified cities of Judah. 57 19:6 He told the judges, “Be careful what you do, 58 for you are not judging for men, but for the Lord, who will be with you when you make judicial decisions. 19:7 Respect the Lord and make careful decisions, for the Lord our God disapproves of injustice, partiality, and bribery.” 59
19:8 In Jerusalem Jehoshaphat appointed some Levites, priests, and Israelite family leaders to judge on behalf of the Lord 60 and to settle disputes among the residents of Jerusalem. 61 19:9 He commanded them: “Carry out your duties with respect for the Lord, with honesty, and with pure motives. 62 19:10 Whenever your countrymen who live in the cities bring a case before you 63 (whether it involves a violent crime 64 or other matters related to the law, commandments, rules, and regulations), warn them that they must not sin against the Lord. If you fail to do so, God will be angry with you and your colleagues; but if you obey, you will be free of guilt. 65 19:11 You will report to Amariah the chief priest in all matters pertaining to the Lord’s law, and to Zebadiah son of Ishmael, the leader of the family of Judah, in all matters pertaining to the king. 66 The Levites will serve as officials before you. Confidently carry out your duties! 67 May the Lord be with those who do well!”
20:1 Later the Moabites and Ammonites, along with some of the Meunites, 68 attacked Jehoshaphat. 20:2 Messengers 69 arrived and reported to Jehoshaphat, “A huge army is attacking you from the other side of the Dead Sea, 70 from the direction of Edom. 71 Look, they are in Hazezon Tamar (that is, En Gedi).” 20:3 Jehoshaphat was afraid, so he decided to seek the Lord’s advice. 72 He decreed that all Judah should observe a fast. 20:4 The people of Judah 73 assembled to ask for the Lord’s help; 74 they came from all the cities of Judah to ask for the Lord’s help. 75
20:5 Jehoshaphat stood before the assembly of Judah and Jerusalem 76 at the Lord’s temple, in front of the new courtyard. 20:6 He prayed: “O Lord God of our ancestors, 77 you are the God who lives in heaven 78 and rules over all the kingdoms of the nations. You possess strength and power; no one can stand against you. 20:7 Our God, you drove out 79 the inhabitants of this land before your people Israel and gave it as a permanent possession 80 to the descendants of your friend 81 Abraham. 20:8 They settled down in it and built in it a temple 82 to honor you, 83 saying, 20:9 ‘If disaster comes on us in the form of military attack, 84 judgment, plague, or famine, we will stand in front of this temple before you, for you are present in this temple. 85 We will cry out to you for help in our distress, so that you will 86 hear and deliver us.’ 20:10 Now the Ammonites, Moabites, and men from Mount Seir are coming! 87 When Israel came from the land of Egypt, you did not allow them to invade these lands. 88 They bypassed them and did not destroy them. 20:11 Look how they are repaying us! They come to drive us out of our allotted land which you assigned to us! 20:12 Our God, will you not judge them? For we are powerless against this huge army that attacks us! We don’t know what we should do; we look to you for help.” 89
20:13 All the men of Judah 90 were standing before the Lord, along with their infants, wives, and children. 20:14 Then in the midst of the assembly, the Lord’s Spirit came upon Jachaziel son of Zechariah, son of Benaiah, son of Jeiel, son of Mattaniah, a Levite and descendant of Asaph. 20:15 He said: “Pay attention, all you people of Judah, 91 residents of Jerusalem, and King Jehoshaphat! This is what the Lord says to you: ‘Don’t be afraid and don’t panic 92 because of this huge army! For the battle is not yours, but God’s. 20:16 Tomorrow march down against them as 93 they come up the Ascent of Ziz. You will find them at the end of the ravine in front of the Desert of Jeruel. 20:17 You will not fight in this battle. Take your positions, stand, and watch the Lord deliver you, 94 O Judah and Jerusalem. Don’t be afraid and don’t panic! 95 Tomorrow march out toward them; the Lord is with you!’”
20:18 Jehoshaphat bowed down with his face toward the ground, and all the people of Judah 96 and the residents of Jerusalem fell down before the Lord and worshiped him. 97 20:19 Then some Levites, from the Kohathites and Korahites, got up and loudly praised the Lord God of Israel. 98
20:20 Early the next morning they marched out to the Desert of Tekoa. When they were ready to march, Jehoshaphat stood up and said: “Listen to me, you people of Judah 99 and residents of Jerusalem! Trust in the Lord your God and you will be safe! 100 Trust in the message of his prophets and you will win.” 20:21 He met 101 with the people and appointed musicians to play before the Lord and praise his majestic splendor. As they marched ahead of the warriors they said: “Give thanks to the Lord, for his loyal love endures.” 102
20:22 When they began to shout and praise, the Lord suddenly attacked 103 the Ammonites, Moabites, and men from Mount Seir 104 who were invading Judah, and they were defeated. 20:23 The Ammonites and Moabites attacked the men from Mount Seir 105 and annihilated them. 106 When they had finished off the men 107 of Seir, they attacked and destroyed one another. 108 20:24 When the men of Judah 109 arrived at the observation post overlooking the desert and looked at 110 the huge army, they saw dead bodies on the ground; there were no survivors! 20:25 Jehoshaphat and his men 111 went to gather the plunder; they found a huge amount of supplies, clothing 112 and valuable items. They carried away everything they could. 113 There was so much plunder, it took them three days to haul it off. 114
20:26 On the fourth day they assembled in the Valley of Berachah, where 115 they praised the Lord. So that place is called the Valley of Berachah 116 to this very day. 20:27 Then all the men of Judah and Jerusalem returned joyfully to Jerusalem with Jehoshaphat leading them; the Lord had given them reason to rejoice over their enemies. 20:28 They entered Jerusalem to the sound of stringed instruments and trumpets and proceeded to the temple of the Lord. 20:29 All the kingdoms of the surrounding lands were afraid of God 117 when they heard how the Lord had fought against Israel’s enemies. 20:30 Jehoshaphat’s kingdom enjoyed peace; his God made him secure on every side. 118
20:31 Jehoshaphat reigned over Judah. He was thirty-five years old when he became king and he reigned for twenty-five years in Jerusalem. 119 His mother was Azubah, the daughter of Shilhi. 20:32 He followed in his father Asa’s footsteps and was careful to do what the Lord approved. 120 20:33 However, the high places were not eliminated; the people were still not devoted to the God of their ancestors. 121
20:35 Later King Jehoshaphat of Judah made an alliance with King Ahaziah of Israel, who 123 did evil. 20:36 They agreed 124 to make large seagoing merchant ships; 125 they built the ships in Ezion Geber. 20:37 Eliezer son of Dodavahu from Mareshah prophesied against Jehoshaphat, “Because 126 you made an alliance with Ahaziah, the Lord will shatter what you have made.” The ships were wrecked and unable to go to sea. 127
1 tn Heb “and strengthened himself over Israel.”
2 tn Or perhaps, “governors.”
3 tn Heb “father.”
4 tn Heb “for he walked in the ways of David his father [in] the beginning [times].”
5 tn Heb “fathers.”
6 tn Heb “walked in.”
7 tn Heb “and not like the behavior of Israel.”
8 tn Heb “established the kingdom in his hand.”
9 tn Heb “and he had wealth and honor in abundance.”
11 tn Heb “and the terror of the
12 tn Heb “and many supplies were his in the cities of Judah, and men of war, warriors of skill in Jerusalem.”
13 tn Or perhaps “from Judah, commanders of the thousands.”
14 tn Heb “at the end of years.”
15 tn The word “visit” is supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
17 tn Heb “and Ahab slaughtered for him sheep and cattle in abundance, and for the people who were with him.”
18 tn Heb “to go up.”
19 tn Heb “Like me, like you; and like your people, my people; and with you in battle.”
20 tn Heb “and Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel.”
21 tn Heb “the word of the
22 tn Heb “Should we go against Ramoth Gilead for war or should I refrain?”
23 tn Though Jehoshaphat had requested an oracle from “the
24 tn Heb “to seek the
25 tn Or “hate.”
26 tn Heb “all his days.”
27 tn The words “his name is” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
28 tn Heb “at,” which in this case probably means “near.”
29 tn Heb “the words of the prophets are [with] one mouth good for the king.”
30 tn Heb “let your words be like one of them and speak good.”
31 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Micaiah) has been specified in the translation both for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
32 sn One does not expect Micaiah, having just vowed to speak only what the
33 tn Or “swear an oath by.”
34 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Micaiah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
35 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Micaiah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
36 tn Heb “the spirit.” The significance of the article prefixed to רוּחַ (ruakh) is uncertain, but it could contain a clue as to this spirit’s identity, especially when interpreted in light of verse 23. It is certainly possible, and probably even likely, that the article is used in a generic or dramatic sense and should be translated, “a spirit.” In the latter case it would show that this spirit was vivid and definite in the mind of Micaiah the storyteller. However, if one insists that the article indicates a well-known or universally known spirit, the following context provides a likely referent. Verse 23 tells how Zedekiah slapped Micaiah in the face and then asked sarcastically, “Which way did the spirit from the
37 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the
38 tn The Hebrew text has two imperfects connected by וְגַם (vÿgam). These verbs could be translated as specific futures, “you will deceive and also you will prevail,” in which case the
39 tn Heb “the bread of affliction and the water of affliction.”
40 tn Heb “Listen.”
41 tn The Hebrew verbal forms could be imperatives (“Disguise yourself and enter”), but this would make no sense in light of the immediately following context. The forms are better interpreted as infinitives absolute functioning as cohortatives (see IBHS 594 §35.5.2a). Some prefer to emend the forms to imperfects.
42 tn Heb “small or great.”
43 tn Heb “now a man drew a bow in his innocence” (i.e., with no specific target in mind, or at least without realizing his target was the king of Israel).
44 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
45 tn Heb “camp.”
47 tn Or “seer.”
48 tn Heb “went out to his face.”
49 tn Heb “and love those who hate the
50 tn Heb “and because of this upon you is anger from before the
51 tn Heb “nevertheless good things are found with you.”
52 tn Here בָּעַר (ba’ar) is not the well attested verb “burn,” but the less common homonym meaning “devastate, sweep away, remove.” See HALOT 146 s.v. II בער.
53 tn Heb “and you set your heart to seek the
55 tn Heb “and turned them back to.”
56 tn Heb “fathers.”
57 tn Heb “in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city.”
58 tn Heb “see what you are doing.”
59 tn Heb “and now let the terror of the
60 tn Heb “for the judgment of the
61 tc Heb “and to conduct a case [or “for controversy”], and they returned [to] Jerusalem.” Some emend וַיָּשֻׁבוּ (vayyashuvu, “and they returned”) to וַיֵּשְׁבוּ (vayyeshÿvu, “and they lived [in]”). The present translation assumes an emendation to יֹשְׁבֵי (yoshÿvey, “residents of”).
62 tn Heb “This you must do with the fear of the
63 tn Heb “and every case which comes to you from your brothers who live in their cities.”
64 tn Heb “between blood pertaining to blood.”
65 tn Heb “and anger will be upon you and your brothers; do this and you will not be guilty.”
66 tn Heb “and look, Amariah the chief priest is over you with respect to every matter of the
67 tn Heb “Be strong and act!”
69 tn Heb “they”; the implied referent (messengers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
70 tn Heb “the Sea”; in context (“from the direction of Edom”) this must refer to the Dead Sea, which has been specified in the translation for clarity (cf. NEB, NLT).
71 tc Most Hebrew
72 tn Heb “and he set his face to seek the
73 tn The words “the people of” are supplied in the translation for clarity. The Hebrew text uses the name “Judah” by metonymy for the people of Judah.
78 tn Heb “are you not God in heaven?” The rhetorical question expects the answer “yes,” resulting in the positive statement “you are the God who lives in heaven” employed in the translation.
79 tn Heb “did you not drive out?” This is another rhetorical question which expects a positive response; see the note on the word “heaven” in the previous verse.
80 tn Heb “permanently.”
82 tn Or “sanctuary.”
83 tn Heb “for your name.” The word “name” sometimes refers to one’s reputation or honor (thus the translation here, “to honor you
84 tn Heb “sword.”
85 tn Heb “for your name is in this house.” The “name” of the
86 tn Or “so that you may.”
87 tn Heb “now, look, the sons of Ammon, Moab and Mount Seir.”
88 tn Heb “whom you did not allow Israel to enter when they came from the land of Egypt.”
89 tn Heb “for [or “indeed”] upon you are our eyes.”
90 tn Heb “Judah.” The words “the men of” are supplied in the translation for clarity. The Hebrew text uses the name “Judah” by metonymy for the men of Judah.
91 tn Heb “all Judah.” The words “you people of” are supplied in the translation for clarity. The Hebrew text uses the name “Judah” by metonymy for the people of Judah. Unlike the previous instance in v. 13 where infants, wives, and children are mentioned separately, this reference appears to include them all.
92 tn Or perhaps “don’t get discouraged.”
93 tn Heb “look.”
94 tn Heb “the deliverance of the
95 tn Or perhaps “don’t get discouraged.”
97 tn Heb “to worship the
98 tn Heb “arose to praise the
100 tn There is a wordplay in the Hebrew text. The Hiphil verb form הַאֲמִינוּ (ha’aminu, “trust”) and the Niphal form תֵאָמֵנוּ (te’amenu, “you will be safe”) come from the same verbal root (אָמַן, ’aman).
101 tn Or “consulted.”
102 tn Or “is eternal.”
103 tn Heb “set ambushers against.” This is probably idiomatic here for launching a surprise attack.
104 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon, Moab, and Mount Seir.”
105 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon and Moab stood against the residents of Mount Seir.”
106 tn Heb “to annihilate and to destroy.”
107 tn Heb “residents.”
108 tn Heb “they helped, each one his fellow, for destruction.” The verb עָזַר (’azar), traditionally understood as the well-attested verb meaning “to help,” is an odd fit in this context. It is possible that it is from a homonymic root, perhaps meaning to “attack.” This root is attested in Ugaritic in a nominal form meaning “young man, warrior, hero.” For a discussion of the proposed root, see HALOT 811 s.v. II עזר.
109 tn Heb “Judah.” The words “the men of” are supplied in the translation for clarity. The Hebrew text uses the name “Judah” by metonymy for the men of Judah.
110 tn Heb “turned toward.”
111 tn Or “army.”
112 tc The MT reads פְגָרִים (fÿgarim, “corpses”), but this seems odd among a list of plunder. A few medieval Hebrew
113 tn Heb “and they snatched away for themselves so that there was no carrying away.”
114 tn Heb “and they were three days looting the plunder for it was great.”
115 tn Heb “for there.”
116 sn The name Berachah, which means “blessing” in Hebrew, is derived from the verbal root “to praise [or “to bless”],” which appears earlier in the verse.
117 tn Heb “and the terror of God [or “a great terror”] was upon all the kingdoms of the lands.” It is uncertain if אֱלֹהִים (’elohim) should be understood as a proper name here (“God”), or taken in an idiomatic superlative sense.
118 tn Heb “and his God gave him rest all around.”
120 tn Heb “he walked in the way of his father Asa and did not turn from it, doing what is right in the eyes of the
121 tn Heb “and still the people did not set their heart[s] on the God of their fathers.”
122 tn Heb “the rest of the events of Jehoshaphat, the former and the latter, look, they are written in the records of Jehu son of Hanani, which are taken up in the scroll of the kings of Israel.”
123 tn Heb “he.” The pronoun has been translated as a relative pronoun for stylistic reasons.
124 tn Heb “he made an alliance with him.”
125 tn Heb “make ships to go to Tarshish.” This probably refers to large ships either made in or capable of traveling to the distant western port of Tarshish; a “Tarshish-ship” was essentially a large seagoing merchant ship.
126 tn Heb “when.”
127 tn Heb “to go to Tarshish.”