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2 Samuel 22:47-51

Context

22:47 The Lord is alive! 1 

My protector 2  is praiseworthy! 3 

The God who delivers me 4  is exalted as king! 5 

22:48 The one true God completely vindicates me; 6 

he makes nations submit to me. 7 

22:49 He delivers me from my enemies; 8 

you snatch me away 9  from those who attack me; 10 

you rescue me from violent men.

22:50 So I will give you thanks, O Lord, before the nations! 11 

I will sing praises to you. 12 

22:51 He gives his chosen king magnificent victories; 13 

he is faithful to his chosen ruler, 14 

to David and to his descendants forever!”

1 tn Elsewhere the construction חַי־יְהוָה (khay-yÿhvah) as used exclusively as an oath formula, but this is not the case here, for no oath follows. Here the statement is an affirmation of the Lord’s active presence and intervention. In contrast to pagan deities, he demonstrates that he is the living God by rescuing and empowering the psalmist.

2 tn Heb “my rocky cliff,” which is a metaphor for protection.

3 tn Or “blessed [i.e., praised] be.”

4 tn Heb “the God of the rock of my deliverance.” The term צוּר (tsur, “rock”) is probably accidentally repeated from the previous line. The parallel version in Ps 18:46 has simply “the God of my deliverance.”

5 tn The words “as king” are supplied in the translation for clarification. In the Psalms the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”) when used of God, refers to his exalted position as king (Pss 99:2; 113:4; 138:6) and/or his self-revelation as king through his mighty deeds of deliverance (Pss 21:13; 46:10; 57:5, 11).

6 tn Heb “The God is the one who grants vengeance to me.” The plural form of the noun “vengeance” indicates degree here, suggesting complete vengeance or vindication. In the ancient Near East military victory was sometimes viewed as a sign that one’s God had judged in favor of the victor, avenging and/or vindicating him. See, for example, Judg 11:27, 32-33, 36.

7 tn Heb “and [is the one who] brings down nations beneath me.”

8 tn Heb “and [the one who] brings me out from my enemies.”

9 tn Heb “you lift me up.” In light of the preceding and following references to deliverance, the verb רוּם (rum) probably here refers to being rescued from danger (see Ps 9:13). However, it could mean “exalt; elevate” here, indicating that the Lord has given him victory over his enemies and forced them to acknowledge the psalmist’s superiority.

10 tn Heb “from those who rise against me.”

11 sn This probably alludes to the fact that David will praise the Lord in the presence of the defeated nations when they, as his subjects, bring their tribute payments. Ideally God’s chosen king was to testify to the nations of God’s greatness. See J. Eaton, Kingship and the Psalms (SBT), 182-85.

12 tn Heb “to your name.” God’s “name” refers metonymically to his divine characteristics as suggested by his name, in this case “Lord,” the primary name of Israel’s covenant God which suggests his active presence with his people (see Exod 3:12-15).

13 tc The translation follows the Kethib and the ancient versions in reading מַגְדִּיל (magdil, “he magnifies”) rather than the Qere and many medieval Hebrew mss of the MT which read מִגְדּוֹל (migdol, “tower”). See Ps 18:50.

14 tn Heb “[the one who] does loyalty to his anointed one.”



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