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2 Kings 17:16

17:16 They abandoned all the commandments of the Lord their God; they made two metal calves and an Asherah pole, bowed down to all the stars in the sky, 1  and worshiped 2  Baal.

2 Kings 21:3

21:3 He rebuilt the high places that his father Hezekiah had destroyed; he set up altars for Baal and made an Asherah pole just like King Ahab of Israel had done. He bowed down to all the stars in the sky 3  and worshiped 4  them.

2 Kings 21:5

21:5 In the two courtyards of the Lord’s temple he built altars for all the stars in the sky.

2 Kings 23:4-5


23:4 The king ordered Hilkiah the high priest, the high-ranking priests, 5  and the guards 6  to bring out of the Lord’s temple all the items that were used in the worship of 7  Baal, Asherah, and all the stars of the sky. 8  The king 9  burned them outside of Jerusalem in the terraces 10  of Kidron, and carried their ashes to Bethel. 11  23:5 He eliminated 12  the pagan priests whom the kings of Judah had appointed to offer sacrifices 13  on the high places in the cities of Judah and in the area right around Jerusalem. (They offered sacrifices 14  to Baal, the sun god, the moon god, the constellations, and all the stars in the sky.)

1 tn The phrase כָל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם (khol tsÿvahashamayim), traditionally translated “all the host of heaven,” refers to the heavenly lights, including stars and planets. In 1 Kgs 22:19 these heavenly bodies are pictured as members of the Lord’s royal court or assembly, but many other texts view them as the illegitimate objects of pagan and Israelite worship.

2 tn Or “served.”

3 sn See the note at 2 Kgs 17:16.

4 tn Or “served.”

5 tn Heb “the priests of the second [rank],” that is, those ranked just beneath Hilkiah.

6 tn Or “doorkeepers.”

7 tn Heb “for.”

8 tn Heb “all the host of heaven” (also in v. 5).

9 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 tn Or “fields.” For a defense of the translation “terraces,” see M. Cogan and H. Tadmor, II Kings (AB), 285.

11 map For location see Map4 G4; Map5 C1; Map6 E3; Map7 D1; Map8 G3.

12 tn Perhaps, “destroyed.”

13 tn Or “burn incense.”

14 tn Or “burned incense.”

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