18:1 When David 1 had finished talking with Saul, Jonathan and David became bound together in close friendship. 2 Jonathan loved David as much as he did his own life. 3 18:2 Saul retained David 4 on that day and did not allow him to return to his father’s house. 18:3 Jonathan made a covenant with David, for he loved him as much as he did his own life. 5 18:4 Jonathan took off the robe he was wearing and gave it to David, along with the rest of his gear, including his sword, his bow, and even his belt.
1 Samuel 20:1-42Context
20:2 Jonathan 8 said to him, “By no means are you going to die! My father does nothing 9 large or small without making me aware of it. 10 Why would my father hide this matter from me? It just won’t happen!”
20:3 Taking an oath, David again 11 said, “Your father is very much aware of the fact 12 that I have found favor with you, and he has thought, 13 ‘Don’t let Jonathan know about this, or he will be upset.’ But as surely as the Lord lives and you live, there is about one step between me and death!” 20:4 Jonathan replied to David, “Tell me what I can do for you.” 14
20:5 David said to Jonathan, “Tomorrow is the new moon, and I am certainly expected to join the king for a meal. 15 You must send me away so I can hide in the field until the third evening from now. 20:6 If your father happens to miss me, you should say, ‘David urgently requested me to let him go 16 to his city Bethlehem, 17 for there is an annual sacrifice there for his entire family.’ 20:7 If he should then say, ‘That’s fine,’ 18 then your servant is safe. But if he becomes very angry, be assured that he has decided to harm me. 19 20:8 You must be loyal 20 to your servant, for you have made a covenant with your servant in the Lord’s name. 21 If I am guilty, 22 you yourself kill me! Why bother taking me to your father?”
20:9 Jonathan said, “Far be it from you to suggest this! If I were at all aware that my father had decided to harm you, wouldn’t I tell you about it?” 20:10 David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me if your father answers you harshly?” 20:11 Jonathan said to David, “Come on. Let’s go out to the field.”
When the two of them had gone out into the field, 20:12 Jonathan said to David, “The Lord God of Israel is my witness. 23 I will feel out my father about this time the day after tomorrow. If he is favorably inclined toward David, will I not then send word to you and let you know? 24 20:13 But if my father intends to do you harm, may the Lord do all this and more to Jonathan, if I don’t let you know 25 and send word to you so you can go safely on your way. 26 May the Lord be with you, as he was with my father. 20:14 While I am still alive, extend to me the loyalty of the Lord, or else I will die! 20:15 Don’t ever cut off your loyalty to my family, not even when the Lord has cut off every one of David’s enemies from the face of the earth 20:16 and called David’s enemies to account.” So Jonathan made a covenant 27 with the house of David. 28 20:17 Jonathan once again took an oath with David, because he loved him. In fact Jonathan loved him as much as he did his own life. 29 20:18 Jonathan said to him, “Tomorrow is the new moon, and you will be missed, for your seat will be empty. 20:19 On the third day 30 you should go down quickly 31 and come to the place where you hid yourself the day this all started. 32 Stay near the stone Ezel. 20:20 I will shoot three arrows near it, as though I were shooting at a target. 20:21 When I send a boy after them, I will say, “Go and find the arrows.” If I say to the boy, ‘Look, the arrows are on this side of you; 33 get them,’ then come back. For as surely as the Lord lives, you will be safe and there will no problem. 20:22 But if I say to the boy, “Look, the arrows are on the other side of you,’ 34 get away. For in that case the Lord has sent you away. 20:23 With regard to the matter that you and I discussed, the Lord is the witness between us forever!” 35
20:24 So David hid in the field. When the new moon came, the king sat down to eat his meal. 20:25 The king sat down in his usual place by the wall, with Jonathan opposite him 36 and Abner at his side. 37 But David’s place was vacant. 20:26 However, Saul said nothing about it 38 that day, for he thought, 39 “Something has happened to make him ceremonially unclean. Yes, he must be unclean.” 20:27 But the next morning, the second day of the new moon, David’s place was still vacant. So Saul said to his son Jonathan, “Why has Jesse’s son not come to the meal yesterday or today?”
20:28 Jonathan replied to Saul, “David urgently requested that he be allowed to go to Bethlehem. 20:29 He said, ‘Permit me to go, 40 for we are having a family sacrifice in the city, and my brother urged 41 me to be there. So now, if I have found favor with you, let me go 42 to see my brothers.’ For that reason he has not come to the king’s table.”
20:30 Saul became angry with Jonathan 43 and said to him, “You stupid traitor! 44 Don’t I realize that to your own disgrace and to the disgrace of your mother’s nakedness you have chosen this son of Jesse? 20:31 For as long as 45 this son of Jesse is alive on the earth, you and your kingdom will not be established. Now, send some men 46 and bring him to me. For he is as good as dead!” 47
20:32 Jonathan responded to his father Saul, “Why should he be put to death? What has he done?” 20:33 Then Saul threw his spear at Jonathan 48 in order to strike him down. So Jonathan was convinced 49 that his father had decided to kill David. 20:34 Jonathan got up from the table enraged. He did not eat any food on that second day of the new moon, for he was upset that his father had humiliated David. 50
20:35 The next morning Jonathan, along with a young servant, went out to the field to meet David. 20:36 He said to his servant, “Run, find the arrows that I am about to shoot.” As the servant ran, Jonathan 51 shot the arrow beyond him. 20:37 When the servant came to the place where Jonathan had shot the arrow, Jonathan called out to 52 the servant, “Isn’t the arrow further beyond you?” 20:38 Jonathan called out to the servant, “Hurry! Go faster! Don’t delay!” Jonathan’s servant retrieved the arrow and came back to his master. 20:39 (Now the servant did not understand any of this. Only Jonathan and David knew what was going on.) 53 20:40 Then Jonathan gave his equipment to the servant who was with him. He said to him, “Go, take these things back to the city.”
20:41 When the servant had left, David got up from beside the mound, 54 knelt 55 with his face to the ground, and bowed three times. Then they kissed each other and they both wept, especially David. 20:42 Jonathan said to David, “Go in peace, for the two of us have sworn together in the name of the Lord saying, ‘The Lord will be between me and you and between my descendants and your descendants forever.’”(21:1)
1 tn Heb “he”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
2 tn Heb “the soul of Jonathan was bound with the soul of David.”
3 tn Heb “like his [own] soul.”
sn On the nature of Jonathan’s love for David, see J. A. Thompson, “The Significance of the Verb Love in the David-Jonathan Narratives in 1 Samuel,” VT 24 (1974): 334-38.
4 tn Heb “him”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
5 tn Heb “like his [own] soul.”
6 tn Heb “and he came and said before Jonathan.”
7 tn Heb “What is my guilt?”
8 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jonathan) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
9 tc The translation follows the Qere, many medieval Hebrew
10 tn Heb “without uncovering my ear.”
11 tc The LXX and the Syriac Peshitta lack the word “again.”
12 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.
14 tn Heb “whatever your soul says, I will do for you.”
15 tn Heb “and I must surely sit with the king to eat.” The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.
16 tn Heb “to run.”
18 tn Heb “good.”
19 tn Heb “know that the evil is completed from with him.”
20 tn Heb “and you must do loyalty.”
21 tn Heb “for into a covenant of the
22 tn Heb “and if there is in me guilt.”
23 tc The Hebrew text has simply “the
24 tn Heb “and uncover your ear.”
25 tn Heb “uncover your ear.”
26 tn Heb “in peace.”
27 tn Heb “cut.” The object of the verb (“covenant”) must be supplied.
28 tn The word order is different in the Hebrew text, which reads “and Jonathan cut with the house of David, and the
29 tn Heb “for [with] the love of his [own] life he loved him.”
30 tc Heb “you will do [something] a third time.” The translation assumes an emendation of the verb from שִׁלַּשְׁתָּ (shillashta, “to do a third time”) to שִׁלִּישִׁית (shillishit, “[on the] third [day]”).
33 tn Heb “from you and here.”
34 tn Heb “from you and onward.”
35 tc Heb “the
36 tc Heb “and Jonathan arose.” Instead of MT’s וַיָּקָם (vayyaqam, “and he arose”; from the hollow verbal root קוּם, qum), the translation assumes a reading וַיִּקַדֵּם (vayyiqaddem, “and he was in front of”; from the verbal root קדם, qdm). See P. K. McCarter, I Samuel (AB), 338.
37 tn Heb “and Abner sat at the side of Saul.”
38 tn The words “about it” are not present in the Hebrew text, although they are implied.
39 tn Heb “said,” that is, to himself.
40 tn Heb “send me.”
41 tn Heb “commanded.”
42 tn Heb “be released [from duty].”
43 tc Many medieval Hebrew
44 tn Heb “son of a perverse woman of rebelliousness.” But such an overly literal and domesticated translation of the Hebrew expression fails to capture the force of Saul’s unrestrained reaction. Saul, now incensed and enraged over Jonathan’s liaison with David, is actually hurling very coarse and emotionally charged words at his son. The translation of this phrase suggested by Koehler and Baumgartner is “bastard of a wayward woman” (HALOT 796 s.v. עוה), but this is not an expression commonly used in English. A better English approximation of the sentiments expressed here by the Hebrew phrase would be “You stupid son of a bitch!” However, sensitivity to the various public formats in which the Bible is read aloud has led to a less startling English rendering which focuses on the semantic value of Saul’s utterance (i.e., the behavior of his own son Jonathan, which he viewed as both a personal and a political betrayal [= “traitor”]). But this concession should not obscure the fact that Saul is full of bitterness and frustration. That he would address his son Jonathan with such language, not to mention his apparent readiness even to kill his own son over this friendship with David (v. 33), indicates something of the extreme depth of Saul’s jealousy and hatred of David.
45 tn Heb “all the days that.”
46 tn The words “some men” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
47 tn Heb “a son of death.”
48 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Jonathan) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
49 tn Heb “knew.”
50 tn Heb “for he was upset concerning David for his father had humiliated him.” The referent of the pronoun “him” is not entirely clear, but the phrase “concerning David” suggests that it refers to David, rather than Jonathan.
51 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jonathan) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
53 tn Heb “knew the matter.”
54 tc The translation follows the LXX in reading “the mound,” rather than the MT’s “the south.” It is hard to see what meaning the MT reading “from beside the south” would have as it stands, since such a location lacks specificity. The NIV treats it as an elliptical expression, rendering the phrase as “from the south side of the stone (rock NCV).” This is perhaps possible, but it seems better to follow the LXX rather than the MT here.
55 tn Heb “fell.”
56 sn Beginning with 20:42b, the verse numbers through 21:15 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 20:42b ET = 21:1 HT, 21:1 ET = 21:2 HT, 21:2 ET = 21:3 HT, etc., through 21:15 ET = 21:16 HT. With 22:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.
57 tn Heb “he”; the referent (David) has been specified in the translation for clarity.