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1 Samuel 28:3-4

Context

28:3 Now Samuel had died, and all Israel had lamented over him and had buried him in Ramah, his hometown. 1  In the meantime Saul had removed the mediums 2  and magicians 3  from the land. 28:4 The Philistines assembled; they came and camped at Shunem. Saul mustered all Israel and camped at Gilboa.

1 tn Heb “in Ramah, even in his city.”

2 tn The Hebrew term translated “mediums” actually refers to a pit used by a magician to conjure up underworld spirits (see 2 Kgs 21:6). In v. 7 the witch of Endor is called the owner of a ritual pit. See H. Hoffner, “Second Millennium Antecedents to the Hebrew ’OñBù,” JBL 86 (1967): 385-401. Here the term refers by metonymy to the owner of such a pit (see H. A. Hoffner, TDOT 1:133).

3 sn See Isa 8:19 for another reference to magicians who attempted to conjure up underworld spirits.



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