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In Bible versions:

Ludites: NET NIV
son of Shem son of Noah
a people from Lydia in Eastern Turkey
a people who were descendants of Egypt son of Ham son of Noah
the first European woman to convert to Christ as a result of Paul's preaching

nativity; generation ( --> same as Lod, Ludim)
nativity; generation ( --> same as Lod, Lud)
a standing pool ( --> same as Lydda)

NET Glossary: (1) a district in the center of the western slope of Asia Minor, with major cities Sardis, Thyatira, and Philadelphia (some of the coastal cities like Ephesus and Smyrna were sometimes considered Lydian as well); (2) a woman from Thyatira who at Philippi became Paul's first convert in Europe (Acts 16:14-15, 40)
Google Maps: Lud (31° 57´, 34° 53´)
Arts Topics: Lydia


Strongs #3070: ludia Ludia

Lydia = "travail"

1) a woman of Thyatira, a seller of purple, the first European convert
of Paul, and afterward his hostess during his first stay at Philippi

3070 Ludia loo-dee'-ah

properly, feminine of Ludios (of foreign origin) (a Lydian, in Asia
Minor); Lydia, a Christian woman: -Lydia.


Strongs #03865: dwl Luwd

Lud or Lydia = "strife"

n pr m
1) the 4th listed son of Shem and supposed progenitor of the Lydians

n patr
2) descendants of Lud the son of Shem who settled in northern Africa

3865 Luwd lood

probably of foreign derivation; Lud, the name of two
nations:-Lud, Lydia.

Strongs #03866: ydwl Luwdiy or yydwl Luwdiyiy

Ludim or Lydians = "to the firebrands: travailings"

1) the descendants of Lud the son of Shem

3866 Luwdiy loo-dee'

or Luwdiyiy {loo-dee-ee'}; patrial from 3865; a Ludite or
inhabitants of Lud (only in plural):-Ludim. Lydians.
see HEBREW for 03865

Lud [EBD]

(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably.

(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19; comp. Jer. 46:9).

Ludim [EBD]

probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11). They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt.

Lydia [EBD]

(1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.

(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in Philippi (Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul (16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul and his companions. (See THYATIRA.)

Lud [NAVE]

LUD, a son of Shem, Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17.

Ludim [NAVE]

1. Son of Mizraim, Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11.
2. Descendants of Ludim, Gen. 10:13.
Warriors, Isa. 66:19; Jer. 46:9; Ezek. 27:10; 30:5.

Ludites [NAVE]

See: Ludim.

Lydia [NAVE]

1. A woman of Thyatira, who with her household was converted through the preaching of Paul, Acts 16:14, 15.
Entertains Paul and Silas, Acts 16:15, 40.
2. Incorrectly put for Lud, Ezek. 30:5.


(strife) the fourth name in the list of the children of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) comp. 1Chr 1:17 Supposed to have been the ancestor of the Lydians.


(strife), (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11) a Mizraite people or tribe descended from Ludim the son of Mizraim; also called Lydians. It is probable that the Ludim were settled to the west of Egypt, perhaps farther than any other Mizraite tribe. Lud and the Ludim are mentioned in four passages of the prophets -- (Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 27:10; 38:5) There call be no doubt that but one nation is intended in these passages, and it seems that the preponderance of evidence is in favor of the Mizaraite Ludim.


(land of Lydus), a maritime province in the west of Asia Minor bounded by Mysia on the north, Phrygia on the east, and Caria on the south. It is enumerated among the districts which the Romans took away from Antiochos the Great after the battle of Magnesia in B.C. 190, and transferred to Eumenus II. king of Pergamus. Lydia is included in the "Asia" of the New Testament.


the first European convert of St. Paul, and afterward his hostess during his first stay at Philippi. (Acts 18:14,15) also Acts 18:40 (A.D. 47.) She was a Jewish proselyte at the time of the apostle?s coming; and it was at the Jewish Sabbath-worship by the side of a stream ver 13, that the preaching of the gospel reached her heart. Her native place was Thyatira, in the province of Asia. ver. 14; (Revelation 2:18) Thyatira was famous for its dyeing works; and Lydia wars connected with this trade, as a seller either of dye or of dyed goods. We infer that she was a person of considerable wealth.


LUD; LUDIM - lud, lu'-dim, lood'-im (ludh, ludhim, ludhiyum, "Ludites"; Loud, Loudieim; Targum Onk: ludha'e):

1. Two Different Nationalities:

In Gen 10:13 Ludim appears as the firstborn of Mizraim (Egypt), and in 10:22 Lud is the fourth son of Shem. #We have therefore to do with two different nationalities bearing the same name, and not always easy to distinguish. 1 Ch 1:11,17 simply repeat the statements of Gen 10:13,22. In Isa 66:19 Lud is mentioned with Tarshish and Pul (generally regarded as a mistake for Phut), Tubal, Javan, and the isles. Accepting this emendation, the passage agrees with Jer 46:9, where the Ludim are spoken of with Kush and Phut as the allies of Egypt; and also with Ezek 27:10, where Lud is referred to with Persia and Put as soldiers of Tyre. Lud, again, is mentioned with Ethiopia (Gush), Put, all the mingled people, Cab, and the children of the land which is in league (or, margin "the land of the covenant"), which were all to fall by the sword (Ezek 30:5).

2. The Semitic Lud:

Coming to the Semitic Lud, it is to be noted that the Assyrians called Lydia Lu(d)du, and that the mythical ancestor of the Lydians, according to Herodotus (i.7), was Lydos, and their first king, Agros, was descended from Ninos and Belos, i.e. Assyria and Babylonia. The apparently Assyrian colony in Cappadocia about 2000 BC, who used the Babylonian script, may be regarded as supporting this statement, and that there were other colonies of the same nationality in the neighborhood is implied by the fact that Assyro-Babylonian was one of the official languages of the Hittite state whose capital was Hattu or Boghaz-keui. On the other hand when Gyges sent an embassy to Assur-bani-apli of Assyria, Lu(d)du is described as a country whose name had never before been heard, and whose language was unknown. As, however, the earlier kings of Assyria certainly warred in that district, this statement has to be taken with caution. Perhaps the name had changed in the interval, owing to an immigration similar to that which brought the Hittites into Asia Minor, and caused change in the language at the same time.

3. Not Recognizable as Semitic Later:

Naturally Lydia was not recognizable as Semitic in classical times. The existence of Lud in the neighborhood of Egypt as well as in Asia Minor finds parallels in the Syrian Mucri of the Assyrian inscriptions by the side of the Mucur which stood for Egypt, and still more in the Cappadocian Cush (Kusu) of certain Assyrian letters relating to horses, by the side of the Cush (Kusu likewise) which stands for Ethiopia.

4. Egyptian Lud Not Recognizable:

Everything points, therefore, to the Semitic Lud and Ludim being Lydia, and the identification may be regarded as satisfactory. It is altogether otherwise with the Egyptian Lud and Ludim, however, about which little can be said at present. The reference to a city which seems to be Putu-yawan in an inscription mentioning the 37th year of Nebuchadrezzar, and apparently referring to an expedition against Amasis, though it may stand for "Grecian Phut," has very little bearing upon the position of the Egyptian Lud, especially as the text in which it occurs is very mutilated. One thing is certain, however: the Hebrews regarded this Lud and Ludim as being Hamitic, and not Semitic.

T. G. Pinches


LYDIA (1) - lid'-i-a (Ludia): An important country in the western part of Asia Minor bounded on the North by Mysia, on the East by Phrygia, on the South by Caria, and on the West by the Aegean Sea. Its surface is rugged, but along the valleys between its mountain ranges ran some of the most important highways from the coast cities to the distant interior. Of its many rivers the chief are the Cayster, the Lower Hermus, the Cogamos, the Caicus and, during a part of its course, the Meander.

Lydia was an exceedingly ancient and powerful kingdom whose history is composed chiefly of that of its individual cities. In 546 BC it fell into the hands of the Persians, and in 334 BC it became a part of Alexander's empire. After the death of Alexander its possession was claimed by the kings both of Pergamos and of Seleucia, but in 190 BC it became the undisputed possession of the former (1 Macc 8:8). With the death of Attalus III, 133 BC, it was transferred by the will of that king to Rome, and Lydia, which then became but a name, formed, along with Caria, Mysia and Phrygia, a part of the Roman province of Asia (see ASIA). Chief among its cities were Smyrna and Ephesus, two of the most important in Asia Minor, and Smyrna is still the largest and wealthiest city of that part of Turkey. At Ephesus, the seat of the goddess Diana, Paul remained longer than elsewhere in Asia, and there his most important missionary work was done (Acts 19). Hence, Lydia figures prominently in the early history of the church; it became Christianized during the residence of the apostle at Ephesus, or soon afterward (see also LUD).

E. J. Banks


LYDIA (2) - lid'-i-a (Ludia): The feminine of Lydian, a native of Lydia, a large country on the West of Asia Minor, and the name of Paul's first convert in Europe. This name was a popular one for women (compare Horace Odes i.8; iii.9; vi.20), but Ramsay thinks she "was familiarly known in the town by the ethnic that showed her origin" (H D B, under the word "Lydia"; compare Paul the Traveler, 214). It has always been and is still a common custom in the Orient to refer to one living in a foreign land by employing the adjective which designates the nationality. Renan thinks it means "the Lydian"; Thyatira is a city of Lydia. Lydia was (1) living in Philippi, (2) of the city of Thyatira, (3) a seller of the purple-dyed garments from her native town, (4) and "one that worshipped God." Her occupation shows her to have been a woman of some capital. The phrase which describes her religion (sebomene ton Theon) is the usual designation for a proselyte. She was in the habit of frequenting a place of prayer by a riverside, a situation convenient for the necessary ablutions required by the Jewish worship, and there Paul and his companions met her. After she had been listening to Paul (Greek imperfect), the Lord opened her heart to give heed to his teaching ("To open is the part of God, to pay attention that of the woman," Chrysostom). Her baptism and that of her household followed. To prove her sincerity she besought the missionaries to accept the hospitality of her home. Her house probably became the center for the church in Philippi (Acts 16:14,15,40). Lydia is not mentioned in Paul's letter to the Philippians, but, if Ramsay be correct, she may have been Euodias or Syntyche (Phil 4:2).

S. F. Hunter

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