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ISBE: HOW
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How

HOW [ISBE]

HOW - Represents various Hebrew and Greek words, interrogative, interjectional and relative. Its different uses refer to (1) the manner or way, e.g. Gen 44:34, "How shall I go up to my father?" ('ekh); Mt 6:28, "how they grow" (pos); 1 Cor 15:35, "How are the dead raised?"; (2) degree, extent, frequently, "how great" (Dan 4:3, mah; Mk 5:19, hosos, "how much"); "how many" (Mt 27:13, posos); "how much" (Acts 9:13, hosos); "how much more" (Mt 7:11, posos; 1 Sam 14:30, 'aph ki); "how oft" (Ps 78:40, kammah; Mt 18:21, posakis); "how long" (Job 7:19, kammah; Mt 17:17, heos pote), etc.; (3) the reason, wherefore, etc. (Mt 18:12; Lk 12:49, tis); (4) means--by what means? (Jn 3:4,9, pos); (5) cause (Jn 12:34; Acts 2:8; 4:21, pos); (6) condition, in what state, etc. (Lk 23:55, hos; Acts 15:36, pos; Eph 6:21, tis); "how" is sometimes used to emphasize a statement or exclamation (2 Sam 1:19,25,27, "How are the mighty fallen!"); "how" is also used for "that" (Gen 30:29, 'eth 'asher, frequently "how that"; Ex 9:29, ki most frequently, in the New Testament, hoti, Mt 12:5; 16:12,21; Acts 7:25; Rom 7:1, etc., in the King James Version).

The Revised Version (British and American) has "wherefore" for "how" (Gen 38:29, margin "how"); has "what" (Jdg 13:12; 1 Ki 12:6; Job 13; 1 Cor 14:26), omits (2 Cor 13:5); has "how that" (1 Sam 2:22); "that" (1 Ch 18:9; Lk 1:58; Gal 4:13; Jas 2:22; Rev 2:2); has "that even" for "how that" (Heb 12:17);" What is this?" for "How is it that?" (Lk 16:2); omits" How is it ?" (Mk 2:16, different text); has "Do ye not yet," for "How is it that?" (Mk 8:21); "Have ye not yet" (Mk 4:40, different text); "what" for "how much" (Lk 19:15, different text); omits "how that" (Lk 7:22); "then how" (Jas 2:24); has "cannot" for "How can he" (1 Jn 4:20); omits "How hast thou" (Job 26:3), "how is" (Jer 51:41); has "how" for "the fashion which" (Gen 6:15), for "and" (Ex 18:1), for "what" (Jdg 18:24; 1 Sam 4:16; 1 Cor 7:16), for "why" (Job 19:28; 31:1; Jer 2:33; Gal 2:14), for "when" (Job 37:15), for "for" (Ps 42:4), for "but God" (Prov 21:12), for "whereunto" (Mk 4:30); for "by what means" (Lk 8:36; Jn 9:21), for "how greatly" (Phil 1:8); "how that" for "because" (Ezek 6:9; 1 Thess 1:5), for "and how" (Acts 20:20); "know how to" for "can" (Mt 16:3); "how" for "by whom" (Am 7:2,5).

"How" in compounds gives us Howbeit (how be it). It is the translation of 'ulam, "but," "truly," "yet" (Jdg 18:29); of 'akh, "certainly," "only" (1 Sam 8:9); of 'ephes, "moreover," etc. (2 Sam 12:14); of ken, "so," "thus" (2 Ch 32:31); of rak, "only," "surely" "nevertheless" (1 Ki 11:13); of alla, "but," etc. (Jn 7:27; Acts 7:48; 1 Cor 8:7, etc.); of de, "but," etc. (Jn 6:23); of mentoi (Jn 7:13 the King James Version); many other instances.

For "howbeit," the Revised Version (British and American) has frequently "but" (2 Ki 12:13, etc.), "and" (2 Ch 21:20; Mk 5:19), "surely" (ERV) (Job 30:24), "now" (Jn 11:13), "yet" (2 Cor 11:21), "nay, did" (Heb 3:16); omits (Mt 17:21, different text); it has "howbeit" for "but" (2 Ki 12:3; Lk 19:27; Jn 5:34, etc.), for "also" (Lev 23:27,39), for "nevertheless" (Nu 13:28; 1 Ki 22:43; Mk 14:36; Lk 13:33 the English Revised Version; 18:8; 2 Tim 2:19), for "notwithstanding" (Josh 22:19; Lk 10:20 the English Revised Version, "nevertheless" the American Standard Revised Version; Phil (4:14), for "nay" (Rom 7:7).

Howsoever (in what manner soever, although, however) is the translation of kol 'asher, "all that which," etc. (Zeph 3:7, "howsoever I punished them," the Revised Version (British and American) "according to all that I have appointed concerning her," margin "howsoever I have punished her"; the English Revised Version omits "have"); of raq, "only," "surely," "nevertheless" (Jdg 19:20); of yehi-mah, "let be what" (2 Sam 18:22,23, the Revised Version (British and American) "but come what may"); in 2 Sam 24:3 "how" and "soever" are separated (kahem), "how many soever they may be," literally, "as they and as they."

W. L. Walker


Also see definition of "How" in Word Study


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