(1.) Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest's mitre (Ex. 29:6; 39:30). The same Hebrew word so rendered (ne'zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2 Sam. 1:10), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash (2 Kings 11:12).
(2.) The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is 'atarah, meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers kinds, including royal crowns. Such was the crown taken from the king of Ammon by David (2 Sam. 12:30). The crown worn by the Assyrian kings was a high mitre, sometimes adorned with flowers. There are sculptures also representing the crowns worn by the early Egyptian and Persian kings. Sometimes a diadem surrounded the royal head-dress of two or three fillets. This probably signified that the wearer had dominion over two or three countries. In Rev. 12:3; 13:1, we read of "many crowns," a token of extended dominion.
(3.) The ancient Persian crown (Esther 1:11; 2:17; 6:8) was called kether; i.e., "a chaplet," a high cap or tiara. Crowns were worn sometimes to represent honour and power (Ezek. 23:42). They were worn at marriages (Cant. 3:11; Isa. 61:10, "ornaments;" R.V., "a garland"), and at feasts and public festivals.
The crown was among the Romans and Greeks a symbol of victory and reward. The crown or wreath worn by the victors in the Olympic games was made of leaves of the wild olive; in the Pythian games, of laurel; in the Nemean games, of parsley; and in the Isthmian games, of the pine. The Romans bestowed the "civic crown" on him who saved the life of a citizen. It was made of the leaves of the oak. In opposition to all these fading crowns the apostles speak of the incorruptible crown, the crown of life (James 1:12; Rev. 2:10) "that fadeth not away" (1 Pet. 5:4, Gr. amarantinos; comp. 1:4). Probably the word "amaranth" was applied to flowers we call "everlasting," the "immortal amaranth."
This ornament, which is both ancient and universal, probably originated from the fillets used to prevent the hair from being dishevelled by the wind. Such fillets are still common; they gradually developed into turbans, which by the addition of ornamental or precious materials assumed the dignity of mitres or crowns. Both the ordinary priests and the high priest wore them. The crown was a symbol of royalty, and was worn by kings, (2Ã‚Â Chronicles 23:11
) and also by queens. (Esther 2:17
) The head-dress of bridegrooms, (Ezekiel 24:17
; Isaiah 61:10
) Bar. 5:2, and of women, (Isaiah 3:20
) a head-dress of great splendor, (Isaiah 28:5
) a wreath of flowers, (Proverbs 1:9
) denote crowns. In general we must attach to it the notion of a costly turban
irradiated with pearls and gems of priceless value, which often form aigrettes for feathers, as in the crowns of modern Asiatics sovereigns. Such was probably the crown which weighed (or rather "was worth") a talent, mentioned in (2Ã‚Â Samuel 12:30
) taken by David from the king of Ammon at Rabbah, and used as the state crown of Judah. (2Ã‚Â Samuel 12:30
) In (Revelation 12:3
) allusion is made to "many
crowns" worn in token of extended dominion. The laurel, pine or parsley crowns given to victors int he great games of Greece are finely alluded to by St. Paul. (1Ã‚Â Corinthians 9:25
; 2Ã‚Â Timothy 2:5
- kroun: The word crown in the Old Testament is a translation of five different Hebrew words, and in the New Testament of two Greek words. These express the several meanings, and must be examined to ascertain the same.
1. In Hebrew:
The five Hebrew words are as follows: (1) qodhqodh, from qadhadh; (2) zer, from zarar; (3) nezer, or nezer, both from nazar; (4) aTarah, from `atar; (5) kether, from kathar.
(1) Qodhqodh means "the crown of the head," and is also rendered in the King James Version "top of the head," "scalp," "pate." It comes from qadhadh, meaning "to shrivel up," "contract," or bend the body or neck through courtesy. Both the Revised Version (British and American) and the American Standard Revised Version, in Dt 28:35 and 33:16, translation it "crown" instead of "top" as in the King James Version. Jacob in his prophecy concerning his sons says: "The blessings of thy father .... shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of him that is prince among his brethren" (Gen 49:26 the American Revised Version, margin). Other references are: Dt 33:20; 2 Sam 14:25; Job 2:7; Isa 3:17; Jer 2:16; 48:45. Translated "scalp" in Ps 68:21 and "pate" in Ps 7:16.
(2) Zer means a "chaplet," something spread around the top as a molding about the border, and because of its wreath-like appearance called a crown. "That which presses, binds" (BDB). Comes from zarar, meaning "to diffuse" or "scatter." It is used in Ex 25:11,24,25; 30:3,1; 37:2,11,12,26,27.
(3) Nezer means something "set apart"; i.e. a dedication to the priesthood or the dedication of a Nazarite, hence, a chaplet or fillet as a symbol of such consecration. The word in the King James Version is rendered "crown," "consecration," "separation," "hair." Comes from nazar, meaning "to hold aloof" from impurity, even from drink and food, more definitely, "to set apart" for sacred purposes, i.e. "to separate," "devote," "consecrate." It is found in Ex 29:6; 39:30; Lev 8:9; 21:12; 2 Sam 1:10; 2 Ki 11:12; 2 Ch 23:11; Ps 89:39; 132:18; Prov 27:24; Zec 9:16.
(4) `ATarah means a crown in the usual sense. Comes from `aTar, meaning "to encircle," as in war for offense or defense; also actually and figuratively "to crown." Rendered sometimes "to compass." It is used in 2 Sam 12:30; 1 Ch 20:2; Est 8:15; Job 19:9; 31:36; Ps 21:3; Prov 4:9; 12:4; 14:24; 16:31; 17:6; Song 3:11; Isa 28:1,3,1; 62:3; Jer 13:18; Lam 5:16; Ezek 16:12; 21:26; 23:42; Zec 6:11,14; "crowned," Song 3:11; "crownest," Ps 65:11; "crowneth," Ps 103:4. the Revised Version (British and American) translations "crowned," of Ps 8:5 "hast crowned." the American Standard Revised Version prefers to translation "crowning," in Isa 23:8, "the bestower of crowns."
(5) Kether means a "circlet" or "a diadem." From kathar, meaning "to enclose": as a friend, "to crown"; as an enemy, "to besiege." Variously translated "beset round," "inclose round," "suffer," "compass about." Found in Est 1:11; 2:17, 6:8; "crowned," in Prov 14:18.
2. In Greek:
The two Greek words of the New Testament translated crown are: (1) stephanos, from stepho, and (2) diadema, from diadeo, "to bind round." (1) Stephanos means a chaplet (wreath) made of leaves or leaf-like gold, used for marriage and festive occasions, and expressing public recognition of victory in races, games and war; also figuratively as a reward for efficient Christian life and service (see GAMES). This symbol was more noticeable and intricate than the plain fillet. Only in the Rev of John is stephanos called "golden." The "crown of thorns" which Jesus wore was a stephanos (woven wreath) of thorns; the kind is not known (Mt 27:29; Mk 15:17; Jn 19:2,5). Luke makes no mention of it. Whether intended to represent royalty or victory, it was caricature crown. Stephanos is found in 1 Cor 9:25; Phil 4:1; 1 Thess 2:19; 2 Tim 4:8; Jas 1:12; 1 Pet 5:4; Rev 2:10; 3:11; 6:2; 12:1; 14:14; plural in Rev 4:4,10; 9:7; "crowned" in 2 Tim 2:5; Heb 2:9; "crownedst" in Heb 2:7.
(2) Diadema is the word for "diadem," from dia (about) and deo (bound), i.e. something bound about the head. In the three places where it occurs (Rev 12:3; 13:1 and 19:12) both the Revised Version (British and American) and the American Standard Revised Version translation it not "crowns" but "diadems," thus making the proper distinction between stephanos and diadema, such as is not done either in the King James Version or the Septuagint (see Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament). According to Thayer the distinction was not observed in Hellenic Greek "Diadems" are on the dragon (Rev 12:3), the beast (Rev 13:1) and on the Rider of the White Horse, "the Faithful and True" (Rev 19:12). In each case the "diadems" are symbolic of power to rule.
3. Use and Significance:
There are five uses of the crown as seen in the Scripture references studied, namely, decoration, consecration, coronation, exaltation, and remuneration.
The zer of Ex, as far as it was a crown at all, was for ornamentation, its position not seeming to indicate any utility purpose. These wavelet, gold moldings, used in the furnishings of the tabernacle of Moses, were placed about (a) the table of shewbread (Ex 25:24; 37:11); (b) the ark of the covenant (Ex 25:11; 37:2); (c) the altar of incense (Ex 30:3,1; 37:26,27). The position of these crowns is a debated question among archaeologists. Their purpose other than decoration is not known. The encircling gold might signify gratitude, parity and enduring worth.
The nezer had a twofold use as the crown of consecration: (a) It was placed as a frontlet on the miter of the high priest, being tied with a blue lace (Ex 39:30). The priestly crown was a flat piece of pure gold, bearing the inscription, "Holy to Yahweh," signifying the consecration of the priest as the representative of the people (Ex 29:6; Lev 8:9). (b) Likewise the Hebrew king (2 Ki 11:12) was set apart by God in wearing on his head a royal nezer, whether of silk or gold we do not know. It was set with jewels (Zec 9:16) and was light enough to be taken into battle (2 Sam 1:10).
The ordinary use of the crown. There were three kinds of kingly crowns used in coronation services: (a) The nezer or consecration crown, above referred to, was the only one used in crowning Hebrew kings. What seems to be an exception is in the case of Joshua, who represented both priest and king (Zec 6:11 the American Revised Version, margin). (b) The `aTarah, and (c) the kether were used in crowning foreign monarchs. No king but a Hebrew could wear a nezer--a "Holy to Yahweh" crown. It is recorded that David presumed to put on his own head the `atarah of King Malcam (2 Sam 12:30 the American Revised Version, margin). The kether or jeweled turban was the crown of the Persian king and queen (Est 1:11; 2:17; 6:8).
The `atarah, the stephanos and the diadema were used as crowns of exaltation. Stephanos was the usual crown of exaltation for victors of games, achievement in war and places of honor at feasts. The `atarah was worn at banquets (Song 3:11; Isa 28:1,3), probably taking the form of a wreath of flowers; also as a crown of honor and victory (Ezek 16:12; 21:26; 23:42). Stephanos is the crown of exaltation bestowed upon Christ (Rev 6:2; 14:14; Heb 2:9). "Exaltation was the logical result of Christ's humiliation" (Vincent). The Apocalyptic woman and locusts receive this emblem of exaltation (Rev 12:1; 9:7). The symbolic dragon and beast are elevated, wearing diadema, (Rev 12:3; 13:1). The conquering Christ has "upon his head .... many diadems" (Rev 19:12). See further Tertullian, De corona.
Paul, witnessing the races and games, caught the vision of wreath-crowned victors flush with the reward of earnest endeavor. See GAMES. He also saw the persistent, faithful Christian at the end of his hard-won race wearing the symbolic stephanos of rejoicing (1 Thess 2:19 the King James Version), of righteousness (2 Tim 4:8), of glory (1 Pet 5:4), of life (Jas 1:12; Rev 2:10). Paul's fellow Christians were his joy and stephanos (Phil 4:1), "of which Paul might justly make his boast" (Ellicott). Long before Paul, his Hebrew ancestors saw the `aTarah of glory (Prov 4:9) and the `aTarah of a good wife, children's children, riches and a peaceful old age (Prov 12:4; 14:24; 16:31; 17:6). For Apocrypha references see 1 Macc 10:29; 11:35; 13:39.
William Edward Raffety