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NAVE: Cloak
EBD: Cloak
ISBE: CLOAK; CLOKE
Cleopas | Cleopatra | Clergy | Clerk | Clift | Cloak | Clod | Clopas | Close | Closet | Clothed Upon

Cloak

Cloak [EBD]

an upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to the ankles, but without sleeves" (Isa. 59:17). The word so rendered is elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn by the high priest under the ephod (Ex. 28:31), by kings and others of rank (1 Sam. 15:27; Job 1:20; 2:12), and by women (2 Sam. 13:18).

The word translated "cloke", i.e., outer garment, in Matt. 5:40 is in its plural form used of garments in general (Matt. 17:2; 26:65). The cloak mentioned here and in Luke 6:29 was the Greek himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the abba of the Arabs. This could be taken by a creditor (Ex. 22:26,27), but the coat or tunic (Gr. chiton) mentioned in Matt. 5:40 could not.

The cloak which Paul "left at Troas" (2 Tim. 4:13) was the Roman paenula, a thick upper garment used chiefly in travelling as a protection from the weather. Some, however, have supposed that what Paul meant was a travelling-bag. In the Syriac version the word used means a bookcase. (See Dress.)

Cloak [NAVE]

CLOAK, Paul's, left at Troas, 2 Tim. 4:13.
Figurative
John 15:22; 1 Pet. 2:16.

CLOAK; CLOKE [ISBE]

CLOAK; CLOKE - klok, (me`il, simlah, etc.; himation, stole, etc.): "Cloke" is retained in the English Revised Version, as in the King James Version, instead of modern "cloak" (American Revised Version). In the Old Testament, me'il (compare New Testament himation) uniformly stands for the ordinary upper garment worn over the coat (kethoneth). In Mt 5:40 both "cloak" and "coat" are mentioned together; compare Lk 6:29. In size and material the "cloak" differed according to age and sex, class and occupation, but in shape it was like our mantle or shawl. It might be sewed up to have the surplice form of the robe of the Ephod (Ex 39:23), or be worn loose and open like a Roman toga, the Arabic Abaa, or the Geneva gown. This is the "garment" referred to in Gen 39:12; Ex 22:26; Dt 24:13; "the robe" that Jonathan "stripped himself of" and gave to David (1 Sam 18:4); "the robe" of Saul, "the robe" in which it is said the "old man" (Samuel) was "covered" (1 Sam 28:14); and in the New Testament "the best robe" put on the returning prodigal (Lk 15:22). Paul's "cloak" that he left at Troas (2 Tim 4:13; phailones, Latin, paenula, Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek phelones), it has been suggested, "may have been a light mantle like a cashmere dust-cloak, in which the books and parchment were wrapped"

(HDB, under the word).

Figuratively: The word lent itself easily and naturally to figurative uses. We find Paul (1 Thess 2:5) disclaiming using "a cloak of covetousness" (compare 1 Pet 2:16) and Jesus (Jn 15:22) saying, "Now they have no excuse ("cloak") for their sin." Some such usage seems common to all languages; compare English "palliate."

See DRESS.

George B. Eager


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