In Bible versions:
son of Jephunneh; representative of Judah among the 12 spies
son of Hezron of Judah; forefather of Caleb the spy (YC)
son of Hezron son of Perez son of Judah
a dog; a crow; a basket
he altogether against me
Caleb = "dog"
1) the godly son of Jephunneh and the faithful spy who reported the
Promised Land favourably and urged its capture
2) son of Hezron and grandson of Pharez and great grandson of Judah
and the father of Hur and grandfather of Caleb the spy
3612 Kaleb kaw-labe'
perhaps a form of 3611, or else from the same root in the
sense of forcible; Caleb, the name of three
see HEBREW for 03611
Chelub ai = "my caged one"
1) son of Hezron of Judah; also 'Caleb'
3621 Kluwbay kel-oo-bay'-ee
a form of 3612; Kelubai, an Israelite: -Chelubai.
see HEBREW for 03612
a dog. (1.) One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. He is also called Chelubai (1 Chr. 2:9). His descendants are enumerated (18-20, 42-49).
(2.) A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" (1 Chr. 2:50). Some would read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list in ver. 42-49] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc." Thus Hur would be the name of the son and not the father of Caleb (ver. 19).
(3.) The son of Jephunneh (Num. 13:6; 32:12; Josh. 14:6, 14). He was one of those whom Moses sent to search the land in the second year after the Exodus. He was one of the family chiefs of the tribe of Judah. He and Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the whole number who encouraged the people to go up and possess the land, and they alone were spared when a plague broke out in which the other ten spies perished (Num. 13; 14). All the people that had been numbered, from twenty years old and upward, perished in the wilderness except these two. The last notice we have of Caleb is when (being then eighty-five years of age) he came to Joshua at the camp at Gilgal, after the people had gained possession of the land, and reminded him of the promise Moses had made to him, by virtue of which he claimed a certain portion of the land of Kirjath-arba as his inheritance (Josh. 14:6-15; 15:13-15; 21:10-12; 1 Sam. 25:2,3; 30:14). He is called a "Kenezite" in Josh. 14:6,14. This may simply mean "son of Kenez" (Num. 32:12). Some, however, read "Jephunneh, the son of Kenez," who was a descendant of Hezron, the son of Pharez, a grandson of Judah (1 Chr. 2:5). This Caleb may possibly be identical with (2).
(4.) Caleb gave his name apparently to a part of the south country (1 Sam. 30:14) of Judah, the district between Hebron and Carmel, which had been assigned to him. When he gave up the city of Hebron to the priests as a city of refuge, he retained possession of the surrounding country (Josh. 21:11,12; comp. 1 Sam. 25:3).
One of the two survivors of the Israelites permitted to enter the land of promise, Num. 14:30
; Deut. 1:34-36
; Josh. 14:6-15
Sent to Canaan as a spy, Num. 13:6
Brings favorable report, Num. 13:26-30
Assists in dividing Canaan, Num. 34:19
Life of, miraculously saved, Num. 14:10-12
Leader of the Israelites after Joshua's death, Judg. 1:11
Age of, Josh. 14:7-10
Inheritance of, Josh. 14:6-15
Descendants of, 1 Chr. 4:15
- According to (1Ã‚Â Chronicles 2:9,18,19,42,50) the son of Hezron the son of Pharez the son of Judah, and the father of Hur, and consequently grandfather of Caleb the spy. (B.C. about 1600.)
- Son of Jephunneh, one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to Canaan. (Numbers 13:6) (B.C. 1490.) He and Oshea or Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the whole number who encouraged the people to enter in boldly to the land and take possession of it. Fortyfive years afterwards Caleb came to Joshua and claimed possession of the land of the Anakim, Kirjath-arba or Hebron, and the neighboring hill country. Josh 14. This was immediately granted to him, and the following chapter relates how he took possession of Hebron, driving out the three sons of Anak; and how he offered Achsah his daughter in marriage to whoever would take Kirjath-sepher, i.e. Debir; and how when Othniel, his younger brother, had performed the feat, he not only gave him his daughter to wife, but with her the upper and nether springs of water which she asked for. It is probable that Caleb was a foreigner by birth, --a proselyte, incorporated into the tribe of Judah.
- ka'-leb (kalebh; in the light of the cognate Syriac and Arabic words, the meaning is not "dog," which is kelebh, in Hebrew, but "raging with canine madness"; Chaleb): As a person, Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, occurs in the story of the spies (Nu 13
ff). He represents the tribe of Judah as its prince (Nu 13:6
; compare 13:2). While the majority of the men sent out by Moses bring back evil report, Caleb and Hoshea, or Joshua, the son of Nun, are the only ones to counsel the invasion of the promised land (Nu 13:30
ff). Accordingly, these two alone are permitted to survive (Nu 14:38
). Upon the conquest and distribution of the land by Joshua, Caleb reminds the leader of the promise made by God through Moses, and so he receives Hebron as an inheritance for himself and his descendants (Josh 14:6-15
), after driving out from thence the Anakim who were in possession of the city (Josh 15:14
). In the parallel account in Jdg 1:8
ff, the dispossession of the Canaanite inhabitants of Hebron is ascribed to Judah (verse 10). Both accounts agree in mentioning Othniel, a younger brother of Caleb, as the conqueror of Kiriath-sepher or Debir; as his reward he receives the hand of Achsah, Caleb's daughter. Achsah is given by her father a portion of the Southland; but, upon request, she obtains a more fruitful locality with upper and nether springs (Josh 15:15-19
; Jdg 1:12-15
In 1 Sam 30:14 Caleb is undoubtedly the name of a clan which is, moreover, differentiated from Judah. Modern scholars therefore assume that Caleb was originally an independent clan which in historical times merged with Judah. As Caleb is called the son f Kenaz (Jdg 1:13) or the Kenizzite (Nu 32:12), it is further believed that the Calebites were originally associated with an Edomite clan named Kenaz (Gen 36:11), and that they entered their future homes in the southern part of Palestine from the south. Their migration up north would then be reflected in the story of the spies.
In the genealogical tables (1 Ch 2), Caleb is made a descendant of Judah through his father Hezron. He is the brother of Jerahmeel, and the "father" of Hebron and of other towns in Judah. (Chelubai, 1 Ch 9:9, is apparently identical with Caleb.)
Nabal, with whom David had an encounter, is called a Calebite, i.e. one belonging to the house of Caleb (1 Sam 25:3).
Max. L. Margolis
- ke-loo'-bi (kelubhay): Another form of Caleb used in 1 Ch 2:9
; compare 2:18,42. Caleb is here described as the brother of Jerahmeel, and son of Hezron, a remote ancestor, instead of as the son of Jephunneh.