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Abel

In Bible versions:

Abel: NET AVS NIV NRSV NASB TEV
Abel of Beth Maacah: NET
Abel of** Beth Maacah: NET
Abel Beth Maacah: NET NIV
Abel Keramim: NET NIV TEV
Abel Maim: NET NIV
Abel Meholah: NET NIV
Abel Mizraim: NET NIV
Abel-shittim: NET NRSV
Abel Shittim: NIV
Abel’: NRSV
Abel of Beth-maacah: NRSV
Abel-beth-maacah: NRSV
Abel-keramim: NRSV
Abel-maim: NRSV
Abel-meholah: NRSV
Abel-mizraim: NRSV
Abel of Beth-Maacah: TEV
Abel-Beth-Maacah: TEV
Abel-Maim: TEV
Abel-Meholah: TEV
Abel-Mizraim: TEV
Abel-Shittim: TEV
the second son of Adam and Eve; the brother of Cain
an English name representing two different Hebrew names
as representing the Hebrew name 'Hebel' or 'Habel'
the second son of Adam
as representing the Hebrew name 'Abel'
a town in northern Israel near Dan (OS)
a place where Jephthah pursued the Ammonites
a town of Manasseh possibly 15 km SSE of Beth-Shan
a place where the Egyptians mourned for Jacob
a place where Israel made an encampment in the plains of Moab

vanity; breath; vapor; mourning
mourning of waters
mourning of sickness
the mourning of Egyptians
mourning of thorns
NETBible Maps: Map1 C1 ; Map2 F3 ; Map5 D3
Google Maps: Abel-beth-maacah (33° 16´, 35° 34´); Abel-keramim (32° 1´, 35° 49´); Abel-meholah (32° 21´, 35° 32´); Abel-shittim (31° 51´, 35° 38´)
Arts:
Arts Topics: Cain and Abel; Portraits of Abel

Greek

Strongs #6: Abel Abel

Abel = "vanity (that is: transitory)"

1) the second son of Adam, murdered by his brother Cain

6 Abel ab'-el

of Hebrew origin (1893); Abel, the son of Adam:-Abel.
see HEBREW for 01893

Hebrew

Strongs #01893: lbh Hebel

Abel = "breath"

1) second son of Adam and Eve, killed by his brother Cain

1893 Hebel heh'-bel

the same as 1892; Hebel, the son of Adam:-Abel.
see HEBREW for 01892

Strongs #059: lba 'Abel

1) city in northern Israel near Bethmaachah
2) the place where the ark rested in the field of Joshua at Bethshemesh

59 'Abel aw-bale'

from 58; a meadow; Abel, the name of two places in
Palestine.:-Abel.
see HEBREW for 058

Strongs #062: hkem-tyb lba 'Abel Beyth-Ma`akah

Abel Beth Maachah = "meadow of the house of Maachah"

1) city in northern Israel near Beth Maachah

62 'Abel Beyth-Ma`akah aw-bale' bayth ma-a-kaw'

from 58 and 1004 and 4601; meadow of Beth-Maakah; Abel of
Beth-maakah, a place in Palestine:-Abel-beth-maachah, Abel
of Beth-maachah,
see HEBREW for 058
see HEBREW for 01004
see HEBREW for 04601

Strongs #058: lba 'abel

1) meadow (from verb - to grow green, to withstand)

58 'abel aw-bale'

from an unused root (meaning to be grassy); a
meadow:-plain. Compare also the proper names beginning with
Abel-.

Strongs #03754: Mrk kerem

1) vineyard

3754 kerem keh'-rem

from an unused root of uncertain meaning; a garden or
vineyard:-vines, (increase of the) vineyard(-s), vintage. See
also 1021.
see HEBREW for 01021

Strongs #066: Mym lba 'Abel Mayim

Abel Maim = "meadow of waters"

1) a city in northern Israel (perhaps Abel Beth Maachah)

66 'Abel Mayim aw-bale' mah'-yim

from 58 and 4325; meadow of water; Abel-Majim, a place in
Palestine:-Abel-maim.
see HEBREW for 058
see HEBREW for 04325

Strongs #065: lhwxm lba 'Abel M@chowlah

Abel Meholah = "meadow of dancing"

1) a city of Issachar, birthplace of Elisha

65 'Abel Mchowlah aw-bale' mekh-o-law'

from 58 and 4246; meadow of dancing; Abel-Mecholah, a place
in Palestine:-Abel-meholah.
see HEBREW for 058
see HEBREW for 04246

Strongs #067: Myrum lba 'Abel Mitsrayim

Abel Mizraim = "meadow of Egypt"

1) a place east of the Jordan (perhaps "as fertile as Egypt")

67 'Abel Mitsrayim aw-bale' mits-rah'-yim

from 58 and 4714; meadow of Egypt; Abel-Mitsrajim, a place in
Palestine:-Abel-mizraim.
see HEBREW for 058
see HEBREW for 04714

Strongs #063: Myjvh lba 'Abel hash-Shittiym

Abel Shittim = "meadow of acacias"

1) place in lowlands of Moab

63 'Abel hash-Shittiym aw-bale' hash-shit-teem'

from 58 and the plural of 7848, with the article inserted;
meadow of the acacias; Abel hash- Shittim, a place in
Palestine:-Abel-shittim.
see HEBREW for 058
see HEBREW for 07848

Abel [EBD]

(Heb. Hebhel), a breath, or vanity, the second son of Adam and Eve. He was put to death by his brother Cain (Gen. 4:1-16). Guided by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each of them offered up to God of the first-fruits of his labours. Cain, as a husbandman, offered the fruits of the field; Abel, as a shepherd, of the firstlings of his flock. "The Lord had respect unto Abel and his offering; but unto Cain and his offering he had not respect" (Gen. 4:3-5). On this account Cain was angry with his brother, and formed the design of putting him to death; a design which he at length found an opportunity of carrying into effect (Gen. 4:8,9. Comp. 1 John 3:12). There are several references to Abel in the New Testament. Our Saviour speaks of him as "righteous" (Matt. 23:35). "The blood of sprinkling" is said to speak "better things than that of Abel" (Heb. 12:24); i.e., the blood of Jesus is the reality of which the blood of the offering made by Abel was only the type. The comparison here is between the sacrifice offered by Christ and that offered by Abel, and not between the blood of Christ calling for mercy and the blood of the murdered Abel calling for vengeance, as has sometimes been supposed. It is also said (Heb. 11:4) that "Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain." This sacrifice was made "by faith;" this faith rested in God, not only as the Creator and the God of providence, but especially in God as the great Redeemer, whose sacrifice was typified by the sacrifices which, no doubt by the divine institution, were offered from the days of Adam downward. On account of that "faith" which looked forward to the great atoning sacrifice, Abel's offering was accepted of God. Cain's offering had no such reference, and therefore was rejected. Abel was the first martyr, as he was the first of our race to die.

Abel (Heb. 'abhel), lamentation (1 Sam. 6:18), the name given to the great stone in Joshua's field whereon the ark was "set down." The Revised Version, however, following the Targum and the LXX., reads in the Hebrew text 'ebhen (= a stone), and accordingly translates "unto the great stone, whereon they set down the ark." This reading is to be preferred.

Abel (Heb. 'abhel), a grassy place, a meadow. This word enters into the composition of the following words:

Abel-meholah [EBD]

meadow of dancing, or the dancing-meadow, the birth-place and residence of the prophet Elisha, not far from Beth-shean (1 Kings 4:12), in the tribe of Issachar, near where the Wady el-Maleh emerges into the valley of the Jordan, "the rich meadow-land which extends about 4 miles south of Beth-shean; moist and luxuriant." Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah on his return up the Jordan valley from Horeb (1 Kings 19:16). It is now called 'Ain Helweh.

Abel-mizraim [EBD]

meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i.e., on the west of Jordan, at the "threshing-floor of Atad." Here the Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob (Gen. 50:4-11). Its site is unknown.

Abel-shittim [EBD]

meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Micah 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan, in the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of the Israelites, their last resting-place before they crossed the Jordan (Num. 33:49; 22:1; 26:3; 31:12; comp. 25:1; 31:16).

Abel [NAVE]

ABEL
1. Son of Adam. History of, Gen. 4:1-15, 25.
References to the death of, Matt. 23:35; Luke 11:51; Heb. 11:4; 12:24; 1 John 3:12.
2. A stone, 1 Sam. 6:18.

Abel Beth Maacah [NAVE]

ABEL BETH MAACAH
See: Abel-Beth-Maachah.

Abel Keramim [NAVE]

ABEL KERAMIM
Judg. 11:33

Abel-Meholah [NAVE]

ABEL-MEHOLAH
A city near the Jordan, Judg. 7:22; 1 Kin. 4:12.
Elisha's birthplace, 1 Kin. 19:16.

Abel-Mizraim [NAVE]

ABEL-MIZRAIM, place where the Israelites mourned for Jacob, Gen. 50:11.

Abel-Shittim [NAVE]

ABEL-SHITTIM
See: Shittim.

ABEL [SMITH]

(i.e., breath, vapor, transitoriness , probably so called from the shortness of his life), the second son of Adam, murdered by his brother Cain, (Genesis 4:1-16) he was a keeper or feeder of sheep. Our Lord spoke of Abel as the first martyr, (Matthew 23:35) so did the early Church subsequently. The traditional site of his murder and his grave are pointed out near Damascus.

ABEL [SMITH]

the name of several places in Palestine, probably signifies a meadow .

ABEL (1) [ISBE]

ABEL (1) - a'-bel (hebhel; Abel; Westcott and Hort, The New Testament in Greek Habel; etymology uncertain. Some translation "a breath," "vapor," "transitoriness," which are suggestive of his brief existence and tragic end; others take it to be a variant of Jabal, yabhal, "shepherd" or "herdman," Gen 4:20. Compare Assyrian ablu and Babylonian abil, "son"): The second son of Adam and Eve. The absence of the verb harah (Gen 4:2; compare verse 1) has been taken to imply, perhaps truly, that Cain and Abel were twins.

1. A Shepherd:

"Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground," thus representing the two fundamental pursuits of civilized life, the two earliest subdivisions of the human race. On the Hebrew tradition of the superiority of the pastoral over agricultural and city life, see The Expositor T, V, 351 ff. The narrative may possibly bear witness to the primitive idea that pastoral life was more pleasing to Yahweh than husbandry.

2. A Worshipper:

"In process of time," the two brothers came in a solemn manner to sacrifice unto Yahweh, in order to express their gratitude to Him whose tenants they were in the land (Gen 4:3,4. See SACRIFICE). How Yahweh signified His acceptance of the one offering and rejection of the other, we are not told. That it was due to the difference in the material of the sacrifice or in their manner of offering was probably the belief among the early Israelites, who regarded animal offerings as superior to cereal offerings. Both kinds, however, were fully in accord with Hebrew law and custom. It has been suggested that the Septuagint rendering of Gen 4:7 makes Cain's offense a ritual one, the offering not being "correctly" made or rightly divided, and hence rejected as irregular. "If thou makest a proper offering, but dost not cut in pieces rightly, art thou not in fault? Be still!" The Septuagint evidently took the rebuke to turn upon Cain's neglect to prepare his offering according to strict ceremonial requirements. dieles (Septuagint in the place cited.), however, implies nathach (nattach), and would only apply to animal sacrifices. Compare Ex 29:17; Lev 8:20; Jdg 19:29; 1 Ki 18:23; and see COUCH.

3. A Righteous Man:

The true reason for the Divine preference is doubtless to be found in the disposition of the brothers (see CAIN). Well-doing consisted not in the outward offering (Gen 4:7) but in the right state of mind and feeling. The acceptability depends on the inner motives and moral characters of the offerers. "By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent (abundant, pleiona) sacrifice than Cain" (Heb 11:4). The "more abundant sacrifice," Westcott thinks, "suggests the deeper gratitude of Abel, and shows a fuller sense of the claims of God" to the best. Cain's "works (the collective expression of his inner life) were evil, and his brother's righteous" (1 Jn 3:12). "It would be an outrage if the gods looked to gifts and sacrifices and not to the soul" (Alcibiades II.149E.150A). Cain's heart was no longer pure; it had a criminal propensity, springing from envy and jealousy, which rendered both his offering and person unacceptable. His evil works and hatred of his brother culminated in the act of murder, specifically evoked by the opposite character of Abel's works and the acceptance of his offering. The evil man cannot endure the sight of goodness in another.

4. A Martyr:

Abel ranks as the first martyr (Mt 23:35), whose blood cried for vengeance (Gen 4:10; compare Rev 6:9,10) and brought despair (Gen 4:13), whereas that of Jesus appeals to God for forgiveness and speaks peace (Heb 12:24) and is preferred before Abel's.

5. A Type:

The first two brothers in history stand as the types and representatives of the two main and enduring divisions of mankind, and bear witness to the absolute antithesis and eternal enmity between good and evil.

M. O. Evans

ABEL (2) [ISBE]

ABEL (2) - a'-bel ('abhel, "meadow"): A word used in several compound names of places. It appears by itself as the name of a city concerned in the rebellion of Sheba (2 Sam 20:14; compare 1 Sam 6:18), though it is there probably an abridgment of the name Abel-beth-maacah. In 1 Sam 6:18, where the Hebrew has "the great meadow," and the Greek "the great stone," the King James Version translates "the great stone of Abel."

ABEL-BETH-MAACAH [ISBE]

ABEL-BETH-MAACAH - a'-bel-beth-ma'-a-ka ('abhel beth ma`akhah, "the meadow of the house of Maacah"): The name appears in this form in 1 Ki 15:20 and 2 Ki 15:29. In 2 Sam 20:15 (Hebrew) it is Abel-beth-hammaacah (Maacah with the article). In 20:14 it appears as Beth-maacah, and in 20:14 and 18 as Abel.

In 2 Sam it is spoken of as the city, far to the north, where Joab besieged Sheba, the son of Bichri. In 2 Ki it is mentioned, along with Ijon and other places, as a city in Naphtali captured by Tiglathpileser, king of Assyria. The capture appears also in the records of Tiglath-pileser. In 1 Ki it is mentioned with Ijon and Dan and "all the land of Naphtali" as being smitten by Benhadad of Damascus in the time of Baasha.

In the account in Chronicles parallel to this last (2 Ch 16:4) the cities mentioned are Ijon, Dan, Abel-maim. Abel-maim is either another name for Abel-beth-maacah, or the name of another place in the same vicinity.

The prevailing identification of Abel-beth-maacah is with Abil, a few miles West of Dan, on a height overlooking the Jordan near its sources. The adjacent region is rich agriculturally, and the scenery and the water supply are especially fine. Abel-maim, "meadow of water," is not an inapt designation for it.

Willis J. Beecher

ABEL-MAIM [ISBE]

ABEL-MAIM - a'-bel-ma'-im ('abhel mayim, "meadow of water").

See ABEL-BETH-MAACAH.

ABEL-MEHOLAH [ISBE]

ABEL-MEHOLAH - a'-bel-me-ho'-lah ('abhel meholah, "meadow of dancing"): The residence of Elisha the prophet (1 Ki 19:16). When Gideon and his 300 broke their pitchers in the camp of Midian, the Midianites in their first panic fled down the valley of Jezreel and the Jordan "toward Zererah" (Jdg 7:22). Zererah (Zeredah) is Zarethan (2 Ch 4:17; compare 1 Ki 7:46), separated from Succoth by the clay ground where Solomon made castings for the temple. The wing of the Midianites whom Gideon pursued crossed the Jordan at Succoth (Jdg 8:4 ff). This would indicate that Abel-meholah was thought of as a tract of country with a "border," West of the Jordan, some miles South of Beth-shean, in the territory either of Issachar or West Manasseh.

Abel-meholah is also mentioned in connection with the jurisdiction of Baana, one of Solomon's twelve commissary officers (1 Ki 4:12) as below Jezreel, with Beth-shean and Zarethan in the same list.

Jerome and Eusebius speak of Abel-meholah as a tract of country and a town in the Jordan valley, about ten Roman miles South of Beth-shean. At just that point the name seems to be perpetuated in that of the Wady Malib, and Abel-meholah is commonly located near where that Wady, or the neighboring Wady Helweh, comes down into the Jordan valley.

Presumably Adriel the Meholathite (1 Sam 18:19; 2 Sam 21:8) was a resident of Abel-meholah.

Willis J. Beecher

ABEL-MIZRAIM [ISBE]

ABEL-MIZRAIM - a'-bel-miz'-ra-im ('abhel mitsrayim, "meadow of Egypt"): A name given to "the threshing floor of Atad," East of the Jordan and North of the Dead Sea, because Joseph and his funeral party from Egypt there held their mourning over Jacob (Gen 50:11). The name is a pun. The Canaanite residents saw the 'ebhel, "the mourning," and therefore that place was called 'abhel mitsrayim.

It is remarkable that the funeral should have taken this circuitous route, instead of going directly from Egypt to Hebron. Possibly a reason may be found as we obtain additional details in Egyptian history. The explanations which consist in changing the text, or in substituting the North Arabian Mutsri for Mitsrayim, are unsatisfactory.

Willis J. Beecher

ABEL-SHITTIM [ISBE]

ABEL-SHITTIM - a'-bel-shit'-tim ('abhel ha-shiTTim, "the meadow of the Acacias"): The name appears only in Nu 33:49; but the name Shittim is used to denote the same locality (Nu 25:1; Josh 2:1; 3:1; Mic 6:5). The name always has the article, and the best expression of it in English would be "the Acacias." `The valley of the Acacias' (Joel 3:18 (4:18)) is, apparently, a different locality.

For many weeks before crossing the Jordan, Israel was encamped in the vicinity of the Jordan valley, North of the Dead Sea, East of the river. The notices in the Bible, supplemented by those in Josephus and Eusebius and Jerome, indicate that the camping region was many miles in extent, the southern limit being Beth-jeshimoth, toward the Dead Sea, while Abel of the Acacias was the northern limit and the headquarters. The headquarters are often spoken of as East of the Jordan at Jericho (e.g. Nu 22:1; 26:3,63). During the stay there occurred the Balaam incident (Nu 22 through 24), and the harlotry with Moab and Midian (Nu 25) and the war with Midian (Nu 31), in both of which Phinehas distinguished himself. It was from the Acacias that Joshua sent out the spies, and that Israel afterward moved down to the river for the crossing. Micah aptly calls upon Yahweh's people to remember all that happened to them from the time when they reached the Acacias to the time when Yahweh had brought them safely across the river to Gilgal.

Josephus is correct in saying that Abel of the Acacias is the place from which the Deuteronomic law purports to have been given. In his time the name survived as Abila, a not very important town situated there. He says that it was "sixty furlongs from Abila to the Jordan," that is a little more than seven English miles (Ant., IV, viii, 1 and V, i, 1; BJ, IV, vii, 6). There seems to be a consensus for locating the site at Kefrein, near where the wady of that name comes down into the Jordan valley.

Willis J. Beecher


Also see definition of "Abel" in Word Study


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