Reading Plan 
Daily Bible Reading (daily) September 9
<<
>>
1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
2930     

Ezekiel 19:1--21:32

Context
Lament for the Princes of Israel

19:1 “And you, sing 1  a lament for the princes of Israel, 19:2 and say:

“‘What a lioness was your mother among the lions!

She lay among young lions; 2  she reared her cubs.

19:3 She reared one of her cubs; he became a young lion.

He learned to tear prey; he devoured people. 3 

19:4 The nations heard about him; he was trapped in their pit.

They brought him with hooks to the land of Egypt. 4 

19:5 “‘When she realized that she waited in vain, her hope was lost.

She took another of her cubs 5  and made him a young lion.

19:6 He walked about among the lions; he became a young lion.

He learned to tear prey; he devoured people.

19:7 He broke down 6  their strongholds 7  and devastated their cities.

The land and everything in it was frightened at the sound of his roaring.

19:8 The nations – the surrounding regions – attacked him.

They threw their net over him; he was caught in their pit.

19:9 They put him in a collar with hooks; 8 

they brought him to the king of Babylon;

they brought him to prison 9 

so that his voice would not be heard

any longer on the mountains of Israel.

19:10 “‘Your mother was like a vine in your vineyard, 10  planted by water.

It was fruitful and full of branches because it was well-watered.

19:11 Its boughs were strong, fit 11  for rulers’ scepters; it reached up into the clouds.

It stood out because of its height and its many branches. 12 

19:12 But it was plucked up in anger; it was thrown down to the ground.

The east wind 13  dried up its fruit;

its strong branches broke off and withered –

a fire consumed them.

19:13 Now it is planted in the wilderness,

in a dry and thirsty land. 14 

19:14 A fire has gone out from its branch; it has consumed its shoot and its fruit. 15 

No strong branch was left in it, nor a scepter to rule.’

This is a lament song, and has become a lament song.”

Israel’s Rebellion

20:1 In the seventh year, in the fifth month, on the tenth of the month, 16  some of the elders 17  of Israel came to seek 18  the Lord, and they sat down in front of me. 20:2 The word of the Lord came to me: 20:3 “Son of man, speak to the elders of Israel, and tell them: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Are you coming to seek me? As surely as I live, I will not allow you to seek me, 19  declares the sovereign Lord.’ 20:4 “Are you willing to pronounce judgment? 20  Are you willing to pronounce judgment, son of man? Then confront them with the abominable practices of their fathers, 20:5 and say to them:

“‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On the day I chose Israel I swore 21  to the descendants 22  of the house of Jacob and made myself known to them in the land of Egypt. I swore 23  to them, “I am the Lord your God.” 20:6 On that day I swore 24  to bring them out of the land of Egypt to a land which I had picked out 25  for them, a land flowing with milk and honey, 26  the most beautiful of all lands. 20:7 I said to them, “Each of you must get rid of the detestable idols you keep before you, 27  and do not defile yourselves with the idols of Egypt; I am the Lord your God.” 20:8 But they rebelled against me, and refused to listen to me; no one got rid of their detestable idols, 28  nor did they abandon the idols of Egypt. Then I decided to pour out 29  my rage on them and fully vent my anger against them in the midst of the land of Egypt. 20:9 I acted for the sake of my reputation, 30  so that I would not be profaned before the nations among whom they lived, 31  before whom I revealed myself by bringing them out of the land of Egypt. 32 

20:10 “‘So I brought them out of the land of Egypt and led them to the wilderness. 20:11 I gave them my statutes 33  and revealed my regulations to them. The one 34  who carries 35  them out will live by them! 36  20:12 I also gave them my Sabbaths 37  as a reminder of our relationship, 38  so that they would know that I, the Lord, sanctify them. 39  20:13 But the house of Israel rebelled against me in the wilderness; they did not follow my statutes and they rejected my regulations (the one who obeys them will live by them), and they utterly desecrated my Sabbaths. So I decided to pour out 40  my rage on them in the wilderness and destroy them. 41  20:14 I acted for the sake of my reputation, so that I would not be profaned before the nations in whose sight I had brought them out. 20:15 I also swore 42  to them in the wilderness that I would not bring them to the land I had given them – a land flowing with milk and honey, the most beautiful of all lands. 20:16 I did this 43  because they rejected my regulations, did not follow my statutes, and desecrated my Sabbaths; for their hearts followed their idols. 44  20:17 Yet I had pity on 45  them and did not destroy them, so I did not make an end of them in the wilderness.

20:18 “‘But I said to their children 46  in the wilderness, “Do not follow the practices of your fathers; do not observe their regulations, 47  nor defile yourselves with their idols. 20:19 I am the Lord your God; follow my statutes, observe my regulations, and carry them out. 20:20 Treat my Sabbaths as holy 48  and they will be a reminder of our relationship, 49  and then you will know that I am the Lord your God.” 20:21 “‘But the children 50  rebelled against me, did not follow my statutes, did not observe my regulations by carrying them out (the one who obeys 51  them will live by them), and desecrated my Sabbaths. I decided to pour out 52  my rage on them and fully vent my anger against them in the wilderness. 20:22 But I refrained from doing so, 53  and acted instead for the sake of my reputation, so that I would not be profaned before the nations in whose sight I had brought them out. 20:23 I also swore 54  to them in the wilderness that I would scatter them among the nations and disperse them throughout the lands. 55  20:24 I did this 56  because they did not observe my regulations, they rejected my statutes, they desecrated my Sabbaths, and their eyes were fixed on 57  their fathers’ idols. 20:25 I also gave 58  them decrees 59  which were not good and regulations by which they could not live. 20:26 I declared them to be defiled because of their sacrifices 60  – they caused all their first born to pass through the fire 61  – so that I would devastate them, so that they will know that I am the Lord.’ 62 

20:27 “Therefore, speak to the house of Israel, son of man, and tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: In this way too your fathers blasphemed me when they were unfaithful to me. 20:28 I brought them to the land which I swore 63  to give them, but whenever they saw any high hill or leafy tree, they offered their sacrifices there and presented the offerings that provoke me to anger. They offered their soothing aroma there and poured out their drink offerings. 20:29 So I said to them, What is this high place you go to?’” (So it is called “High Place” 64  to this day.)

20:30 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Will you defile yourselves like your fathers 65  and engage in prostitution with detestable idols? 20:31 When you present your sacrifices 66  – when you make your sons pass through the fire – you defile yourselves with all your idols to this very day. Will I allow you to seek me, 67  O house of Israel? As surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, I will not allow you to seek me! 68 

20:32 “‘What you plan 69  will never happen. You say, “We will be 70  like the nations, like the clans of the lands, who serve gods of wood and stone.” 71  20:33 As surely as I live, declares the sovereign Lord, with a powerful hand and an outstretched arm, 72  and with an outpouring of rage, I will be king over you. 20:34 I will bring you out from the nations, and will gather you from the lands where you are scattered, with a powerful hand and an outstretched arm and with an outpouring of rage! 20:35 I will bring you into the wilderness of the nations, and there I will enter into judgment with you face to face. 20:36 Just as I entered into judgment with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will enter into judgment with you, declares the sovereign Lord. 20:37 I will make you pass under 73  the shepherd’s staff, 74  and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant. 20:38 I will eliminate from among you the rebels and those who revolt 75  against me. I will bring them out from the land where they have been residing, but they will not come to the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the Lord.

20:39 “‘As for you, O house of Israel, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Each of you go and serve your idols, 76  if you will not listen to me. 77  But my holy name will not be profaned 78  again by your sacrifices 79  and your idols. 20:40 For there on my holy mountain, the high mountain of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord, all the house of Israel will serve me, all of them 80  in the land. I will accept them there, and there I will seek your contributions and your choice gifts, with all your holy things. 20:41 When I bring you out from the nations and gather you from the lands where you are scattered, I will accept you along with your soothing aroma. I will display my holiness among you in the sight of the nations. 20:42 Then you will know that I am the Lord when I bring you to the land of Israel, to the land I swore 81  to give to your fathers. 20:43 And there you will remember your conduct 82  and all your deeds by which you defiled yourselves. You will despise yourselves 83  because of all the evil deeds you have done. 20:44 Then you will know that I am the Lord, when I deal with you for the sake of my reputation and not according to your wicked conduct and corrupt deeds, O house of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

Prophecy Against the South

20:45 (21:1) 84  The word of the Lord came to me: 20:46 “Son of man, turn toward 85  the south, 86  and speak out against the south. 87  Prophesy against the open scrub 88  land of the Negev, 20:47 and say to the scrub land of the Negev, ‘Hear the word of the Lord: This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look here, 89  I am about to start a fire in you, 90  and it will devour every green tree and every dry tree in you. The flaming fire will not be extinguished, and the whole surface of the ground from the Negev to the north will be scorched by it. 20:48 And everyone 91  will see that I, the Lord, have burned it; it will not be extinguished.’”

20:49 Then I said, “O sovereign Lord! They are saying of me, ‘Does he not simply speak in eloquent figures of speech?’”

The Sword of Judgment

21:1 (21:6) 92  The word of the Lord came to me: 21:2 “Son of man, turn toward 93  Jerusalem 94  and speak out against the sanctuaries. Prophesy against the land of Israel 21:3 and say to them, 95  ‘This is what the Lord says: Look, 96  I am against you. 97  I will draw my sword 98  from its sheath and cut off from you both the righteous and the wicked. 99  21:4 Because I will cut off from you both the righteous and the wicked, my sword will go out from its sheath against everyone 100  from the south 101  to the north. 21:5 Then everyone will know that I am the Lord, who drew my sword from its sheath – it will not be sheathed again!’

21:6 “And you, son of man, groan with an aching heart 102  and bitterness; groan before their eyes. 21:7 When they ask you, ‘Why are you groaning?’ you will reply, ‘Because of the report that has come. Every heart will melt with fear and every hand will be limp; everyone 103  will faint and every knee will be wet with urine.’ 104  Pay attention – it is coming and it will happen, declares the sovereign Lord.”

21:8 The word of the Lord came to me: 21:9 “Son of man, prophesy and say: ‘This is what the Lord says:

“‘A sword, a sword is sharpened,

and also polished.

21:10 It is sharpened for slaughter,

it is polished to flash like lightning!

“‘Should we rejoice in the scepter of my son? No! The sword despises every tree! 105 

21:11 “‘He gave it to be polished,

to be grasped in the hand –

the sword is sharpened, it is polished –

giving it into the hand of the executioner.

21:12 Cry out and moan, son of man,

for it is wielded against my people;

against all the princes of Israel.

They are delivered up to the sword, along with my people.

Therefore, strike your thigh. 106 

21:13 “‘For testing will come, and what will happen when the scepter, which the sword despises, is no more? 107  declares the sovereign Lord.’

21:14 “And you, son of man, prophesy,

and clap your hands together.

Let the sword strike twice, even three times!

It is a sword for slaughter,

a sword for the great slaughter surrounding them.

21:15 So hearts melt with fear and many stumble.

At all their gates I have stationed the sword for slaughter.

Ah! It is made to flash, it is drawn for slaughter!

21:16 Cut sharply on the right!

Swing to 108  the left,

wherever your edge 109  is appointed to strike.

21:17 I too will clap my hands together,

I will exhaust my rage;

I the Lord have spoken.”

21:18 The word of the Lord came to me: 21:19 “You, son of man, mark out two routes for the king of Babylon’s sword to take; both of them will originate in a single land. Make a signpost and put it at the beginning of the road leading to the city. 21:20 Mark out the routes for the sword to take: “Rabbah of the Ammonites” and “Judah with Jerusalem in it.” 110  21:21 For the king of Babylon stands at the fork 111  in the road at the head of the two routes. He looks for omens: 112  He shakes arrows, he consults idols, 113  he examines 114  animal livers. 115  21:22 Into his right hand 116  comes the portent for Jerusalem – to set up battering rams, to give the signal 117  for slaughter, to shout out the battle cry, 118  to set up battering rams against the gates, to erect a siege ramp, to build a siege wall. 21:23 But those in Jerusalem 119  will view it as a false omen. They have sworn solemn oaths, 120  but the king of Babylon 121  will accuse them of violations 122  in order to seize them. 123 

21:24 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘Because you have brought up 124  your own guilt by uncovering your transgressions and revealing your sins through all your actions, for this reason you will be taken by force. 125 

21:25 “‘As for you, profane and wicked prince of Israel, 126 

whose day has come, the time of final punishment,

21:26 this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Tear off the turban, 127 

take off the crown!

Things must change! 128 

Exalt the lowly,

bring down the proud! 129 

21:27 A total ruin I will make it! 130 

It will come to an end

when the one arrives to whom I have assigned judgment.’ 131 

21:28 “As for you, son of man, prophesy and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says concerning the Ammonites and their coming humiliation; 132  say:

“‘A sword, a sword drawn for slaughter,

polished to consume, 133  to flash like lightning –

21:29 while seeing false visions for you

and reading lying omens for you 134 

to place that sword 135  on the necks of the profane wicked, 136 

whose day has come,

the time of final punishment.

21:30 Return it to its sheath! 137 

In the place where you were created, 138 

in your native land, I will judge you.

21:31 I will pour out my anger on you;

the fire of my fury I will blow on you.

I will hand you over to brutal men,

who are skilled in destruction.

21:32 You will become fuel for the fire –

your blood will stain the middle of the land; 139 

you will no longer be remembered,

for I, the Lord, have spoken.’”

1 tn Heb “lift up.”

2 sn Lions probably refer to Judahite royalty and/or nobility. The lioness appears to symbolize the Davidic dynasty, though some see the referent as Hamutal, the wife of Josiah and mother of Jehoahaz and Zedekiah. Gen 49:9 seems to be the background for Judah being compared to lions.

3 tn Heb “a man.”

4 sn The description applies to king Jehoahaz (2 Kgs 23:31-34; Jer 22:10-12).

5 sn The identity of this second lion is unclear; the referent is probably Jehoiakim or Zedekiah. If the lioness is Hamutal, then Zedekiah is the lion described here.

6 tc The Hebrew text reads “knew,” but is apparently the result of a ר-ד (dalet-resh) confusion. For a defense of the emendation, see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 1:284. However, Allen retains the reading “widows” as the object of the verb, which he understands in the sense of “do harm to,” and translates the line: “He did harm to women by making them widows” (p. 282). The line also appears to be lacking a beat for the meter of the poem.

7 tc The Hebrew text reads “widows” instead of “strongholds,” apparently due to a confusion of ר (resh) and ל (lamed). L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 1:284) favors the traditional text, understanding “widows” in the sense of “women made widows.” D. I. Block, (Ezekiel [NICOT], 1:602) also defends the Hebrew text, arguing that the image is that of a dominant male lion who takes over the pride and by copulating with the females lays claim to his predecessor’s “widows.”

8 tn Or “They put him in a neck stock with hooks.” The noun סּוּגַר (sugar), translated “collar,” occurs only here in the Bible. L. C. Allen and D. I. Block point out a Babylonian cognate that refers to a device for transporting prisoners of war that held them by their necks (D. I. Block, Ezekiel [NICOT], 1:597, n. 35; L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 1:284). Based on the Hebrew root, the traditional rendering had been “cage” (cf. ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

9 tc The term in the MT occurs only here and in Eccl 9:12 where it refers to a net for catching fish. The LXX translates this as “prison,” which assumes a confusion of dalet and resh took place in the MT.

10 tc The Hebrew text reads “in your blood,” but most emend to “in your vineyard,” assuming a ב-כ (beth-kaph) confusion. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 1:284. Another attractive emendation assumes a faulty word division and yields the reading “like a vine full of tendrils, which/because…”; see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:607, n. 68.

11 tn The word “fit” does not occur in the Hebrew text.

12 tn Heb “and it was seen by its height and by the abundance of its branches.”

13 sn The east wind symbolizes the Babylonians.

14 sn This metaphor depicts the Babylonian exile of the Davidic dynasty.

15 tn The verse describes the similar situation recorded in Judg 9:20.

16 sn The date would be August 14th, 591 b.c. The seventh year is the seventh year of Jehoiachin’s exile.

17 tn Heb “men from the elders.”

18 tn See the note at 14:3.

19 tn Or “I will not reveal myself to you.”

20 tn Heb “will you judge.” Here the imperfect form of the verb is probably used with a desiderative nuance. Addressed to the prophet, “judge” means to warn of or pronounce God’s impending judgment.

21 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

22 tn Heb “seed.”

23 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

24 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand to them.”

25 tn Or “searched out.” The Hebrew word is used to describe the activity of the spies in “spying out” the land of Canaan (Num 13-14); cf. KJV “I had espied for them.”

26 sn The phrase “a land flowing with milk and honey,” a figure of speech describing the land’s abundant fertility, occurs in v. 15 as well as Exod 3:8, 17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev 20:24; Num 13:27; Deut 6:3; 11:9; 26:9; 27:3; Josh 5:6; Jer 11:5; 32:23 (see also Deut 1:25; 8:7-9).

27 tn Heb “each one, the detestable things of his eyes, throw away.” The Pentateuch does not refer to the Israelites worshiping idols in Egypt, but Josh 24:14 appears to suggest that they did so.

28 tn Heb “each one, the detestable things of their eyes did not throw away.”

29 tn Heb “and I said/thought to pour out.”

30 tn Heb “for the sake of my name.”

31 tn Heb “before the eyes of the nations in whose midst they were.”

32 tn Heb “to whom I made myself known before their eyes to bring them out from the land of Egypt.” The translation understands the infinitive construct (“to bring them out”) as indicating manner. God’s deliverance of his people from Egypt was an act of self-revelation in that it displayed his power and his commitment to his promises.

33 sn The laws were given at Mount Sinai.

34 tn Heb “the man.”

35 tn Heb “does.”

36 tn The wording and the concept is contained in Lev 18:5 and Deut 30:15-19.

37 sn Ezekiel’s contemporary, Jeremiah, also stressed the importance of obedience to the Sabbath law (Jer 17).

38 tn Heb “to become a sign between me and them.”

39 tn Or “set them apart.” The last phrase of verse 12 appears to be a citation of Exod 31:13.

40 tn Heb “and I said/thought to pour out.”

41 tn Heb “to bring them to an end.”

42 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

43 tn The words “I did this” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for stylistic reasons. Verses 15-16 are one long sentence in the Hebrew text. The translation divides this sentence into two for stylistic reasons.

44 tn Heb “for after their idols their heart was going.” The use of the active participle (“was going”) in the Hebrew text draws attention to the ongoing nature of their idolatrous behavior.

45 tn Heb “my eye pitied.”

46 tn Heb “sons,” reflecting the patriarchal idiom of the culture.

47 tn Or “standard of justice.” See Ezek 7:27.

48 tn Or “set apart my Sabbaths.”

49 tn Heb “and they will become a sign between me and you.”

50 tn Heb “sons.”

51 tn Or “carries them out.”

52 tn Heb “and I said/thought to pour out.”

53 tn Heb “drew my hand back.” This idiom also occurs in Lam 2:8 and Ps 74:11.

54 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

55 sn Though the Pentateuch does not seem to know of this episode, Ps 106:26-27 may speak of God’s oath to exile the people before they had entered Canaan.

56 tn The words “I did this” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for stylistic reasons. Verses 23-24 are one long sentence in the Hebrew text. The translation divides this sentence into two for stylistic reasons.

57 tn Or “they worshiped” (NCV, TEV, CEV); Heb “their eyes were on” or “were after” (cf. v. 16).

58 tn Or “permitted.”

sn The content of the verse is shocking: that God would “give” bad decrees. This probably does not refer to the Mosaic law but to the practices of the Canaanites who were left in the land in order to test Israel. See Judg 2:20-23, the note on “decrees” in v. 25, and the note on “pass through the fire” in v. 26.

59 tn The Hebrew term חֻקּוֹת (khuqot; translated “statutes” elsewhere in this chapter) is normally feminine. Here Ezekiel changes the form to masculine: חֻקִּים (khuqim). Further, they are not called “my decrees” as vv. 11 and 13 refer to “my statutes.” The change is a signal that Ezekiel is not talking about the same statutes in vv. 11 and 13, which lead to life.

60 tn Or “gifts.”

61 sn This act is prohibited in Deut 12:29-31 and Jer 7:31; 19:5; 32:35. See also 2 Kgs 21:6; 23:10. This custom indicates that the laws the Israelites were following were the disastrous laws of pagan nations (see Ezek 16:20-21).

62 sn God sometimes punishes sin by inciting the sinner to sin even more, as the biblical examples of divine hardening and deceit make clear. See Robert B. Chisholm, Jr., “Divine Hardening in the Old Testament,” BSac 153 (1996): 410-34; idem, “Does God Deceive?” BSac 155 (1998): 11-28. For other instances where the Lord causes individuals to act unwisely or even sinfully as punishment for sin, see 1 Sam 2:25; 2 Sam 17:14; 1 Kgs 12:15; 2 Chr 25:20.

63 tn Heb “which I lifted up my hand.”

64 tn The Hebrew word (“Bamah”) means “high place.”

65 tn Heb “in the way of your fathers.”

66 tn Or “gifts.”

67 tn Or “Will I reveal myself to you?”

68 tn Or “I will not reveal myself to you.”

69 tn Heb “what comes upon your mind.”

70 tn The Hebrew could also read: “Let us be.”

71 tn Heb “serving wood and stone.”

sn This verse echoes the content of 1 Sam 8:20.

72 sn This phrase occurs frequently in Deuteronomy (Deut 4:34; 5:15; 7:19; 11:2; 26:8).

73 tn This is the same Hebrew verb used to describe the passing of the children through the fire.

74 sn The metaphor may be based in Lev 27:32 (see also Jer 33:13; Matt 25:32-33). A shepherd would count his sheep as they passed beneath his staff.

75 tn See the note at 2:3.

76 sn Compare the irony here to Amos 4:4 and Jer 44:25.

77 tn Heb “and after, if you will not listen to me.” The translation leaves out “and after” for smoothness. The text is difficult. M. Greenberg (Ezekiel [AB], 1:374) suggests that it may mean “but afterwards, if you will not listen to me…” with an unspoken threat.

78 sn A similar concept may be found in Lev 18:21; 20:3.

79 tn Or “gifts.”

80 tn Heb “all of it.”

81 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

82 tn Heb “ways.”

83 tn Heb “loathe yourselves in your faces.”

84 sn Beginning with 20:45, the verse numbers through 21:32 in the English Bible differ by five from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 20:45 ET = 21:1 HT, 20:46 ET = 21:2 HT, 21:1 ET = 21:6 HT etc., through 21:32 ET = 21:37 HT. Beginning with 22:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.

85 tn Heb “set your face toward.” This expression occurs as well in Ezek 6:2; 13:17.

86 tn Or “the way toward the south,” or “the way toward Teman.” Teman is in the south and may be a location or the direction.

87 tn Or “toward Darom.” Darom may mean the south or a region just north of southern city of Beer Sheba. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:417-18.

88 tn The Hebrew term can also mean “forest,” but a meaning of uncultivated wasteland fits the Negev region far better. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:418.

89 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

90 tn Fire also appears as a form of judgment in Ezek 15:4-7; 19:12, 14.

91 tn Heb “all flesh.”

92 sn Ezek 21:1 in the English Bible is 21:6 in the Hebrew text (BHS). See the note at 20:45.

93 tn Heb “set your face toward.”

94 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

95 tn Heb “the land of Israel.”

96 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) draws attention to something and has been translated here as a verb.

97 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

98 sn This is the sword of judgment, see Isa 31:8; 34:6; 66:16.

99 sn Ezekiel elsewhere pictures the Lord’s judgment as discriminating between the righteous and the wicked (9:4-6; 18:1-20; see as well Pss 1 and 11) and speaks of the preservation of a remnant (3:21; 6:8; 12:16). Perhaps here he exaggerates for rhetorical effect in an effort to subdue any false optimism. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:25-26; D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:669-70; and W. Zimmerli, Ezekiel (Hermeneia), 1:424-25.

100 tn Heb “all flesh” (also in the following verse).

101 tn Heb “Negev.” The Negev is the south country.

102 tn Heb “breaking loins.”

103 tn Heb “every spirit will be dim.”

104 sn This expression depicts in a very vivid way how they will be overcome with fear. See the note on the same phrase in 7:17.

105 tn Heb “Or shall we rejoice, scepter of my son, it despises every tree.” The translation understands the subject of the verb “despises,” which is a feminine form in the Hebrew text, to be the sword (which is a feminine noun) mentioned just before this. Alternatively, the line may be understood as “let us not rejoice, O tribe of my son; it despises every tree.” The same word in Hebrew may be either “rod,” “scepter,” or “tribe.” The word sometimes translated as “or” or taken as an interrogative particle may be a negative particle. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:672, n. 79.

sn The people of Judah should not place false hope in their king, symbolized by his royal scepter, for God’s judgment (symbolized by fire and then a sword) would destroy every tree (see 20:47), symbolizing the righteous and wicked (see 21:3-4).

106 sn This physical action was part of an expression of grief. Cp. Jer. 31:19.

107 tn Heb “For testing (will come) and what if also a scepter, it despises, will not be?” The translation understands the subject of the verb “despises,” which is a feminine form in the Hebrew text, to be the sword (which is a feminine noun) mentioned in the previous verses. The text is very difficult and any rendering is uncertain.

108 tn Heb “Put to.”

109 tn Heb “face.”

110 tc The MT reads “Judah in fortified Jerusalem,” a geographic impossibility. The translation follows the LXX, which assumes בְּתוֹכָהּ (bÿtokhah, “in it”) for בְּצוּרָה (bÿtsurah, “fortified”).

sn As the Babylonians approached from the north, one road would branch off to the left and lead down the east side of the Jordan River to Ammon. The other road would veer to the right and lead down west of the Jordan to Jerusalem.

111 tn Heb “mother.”

112 sn Mesopotamian kings believed that the gods revealed the future through omens. They employed various divination techniques, some of which are included in the list that follows. A particularly popular technique was the examination and interpretation of the livers of animals. See R. R. Wilson, Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel, 90-110.

113 tn This word refers to personal idols that were apparently used for divination purposes (Gen 31:19; 1 Sam 19:13, 16).

114 tn Heb “sees.”

115 tn Heb “the liver.”

116 tn Or “on the right side,” i.e., the omen mark on the right side of the liver.

117 tn Heb “to open the mouth” for slaughter.

118 tn Heb “to raise up a voice in a battle cry.”

119 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the people in Jerusalem) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

120 sn When the people of Judah realized the Babylonians’ intentions, they would object on grounds that they had made a treaty with the Babylonian king (see 17:13).

121 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king of Babylon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

122 tn Or “iniquity.”

123 tn Heb “and he will remind of guilt for the purpose of being captured.” The king would counter their objections by pointing out that they had violated their treaty with him (see 17:18).

124 tn Heb “caused to be remembered.”

125 tn Heb “Because you have brought to remembrance your guilt when your transgressions are uncovered so that your sins are revealed in all your deeds – because you are remembered, by the hand you will be seized.”

126 tn This probably refers to King Zedekiah.

127 tn Elsewhere in the Bible the turban is worn by priests (Exod 28:4, 37, 39; 29:6; 39:28, 31; Lev 8:9; 16:4), but here a royal crown is in view.

128 tn Heb “This not this.”

129 tn Heb “the high one.”

130 tn Heb “A ruin, a ruin, a ruin I will make it.” The threefold repetition of the noun “ruin” is for emphasis and draws attention to the degree of ruin that would take place. See IBHS 233 §12.5a and GKC 431-32 §133.k. The pronominal suffix (translated “it”) on the verb “make” is feminine in Hebrew. The probable antecedent is the “turban/crown” (both nouns are feminine in form) mentioned in verse 26. The point is that the king’s royal splendor would be completely devastated as judgment overtook his realm and brought his reign to a violent end.

131 tn Heb “Also this, he was not, until the coming of the one to whom the judgment belongs and I have given it.” The Hebrew text, as it stands, is grammatically difficult. The pronoun “this” is feminine, while the following negated verb (“was not”) is masculine. Some emend the verb to a feminine form (see BHS). In this case the statement refers to the destiny of the king’s turban/crown (symbolizing his reign). See the previous note. The preposition translated “when” normally means “until,” but here it seems to refer to the period during which the preceding situation is realized, rather than its termination point. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:19, 21. The second part of the statement, though awkward, probably refers to the arrival of the Babylonian king, to whom the Lord had assigned the task of judgment (see 23:24). Or the verse may read “A total ruin I will make, even this. It will not be until the one comes to whom is (the task of) judgment and I have assigned it.”

132 tn Heb “their reproach.”

133 tn Heb “to contain, endure.” Since the Hebrew text as it stands makes little, if any, sense, most emend the text to read either “to consume” or “for destruction.” For discussion of options see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:693.

134 tn Heb “in the seeing concerning you falsehood, in divining concerning you a lie.” This probably refers to the attempts of the Ammonites to ward off judgment through prophetic visions and divination.

135 tn Heb “you”; the referent (the sword mentioned in v. 28) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

136 sn The second half of the verse appears to state that the sword of judgment would fall upon the wicked, despite their efforts to prevent it.

137 sn Once the Babylonian king’s sword (vv. 19-20) has carried out its assigned task, the Lord commands it to halt and announces that Babylon itself will also experience his judgment. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:28.

138 tn In the Hebrew text of vv. 30-32 the second person verbal and pronominal forms are feminine singular. This may indicate that the personified Babylonian sword is being addressed. The Hebrew word for “sword” (see v. 28) is feminine. However, it may refer to the Ammonites.

139 tn Heb “your blood will be in the middle of the land.”



TIP #05: Try Double Clicking on any word for instant search. [ALL]
created in 0.06 seconds
powered by bible.org