4:1 “And you, son of man, take a brick 1 and set it in front of you. Inscribe 2 a city on it – Jerusalem. 4:2 Lay siege to it! Build siege works against it. Erect a siege ramp 3 against it! Post soldiers outside it 4 and station battering rams around it. 4:3 Then for your part take an iron frying pan 5 and set it up as an iron wall between you and the city. Set your face toward it. It is to be under siege; you are to besiege it. This is a sign 6 for the house of Israel.
4:4 “Also for your part lie on your left side and place the iniquity 7 of the house of Israel on it. For the number of days you lie on your side you will bear their iniquity. 4:5 I have determined that the number of the years of their iniquity are to be the number of days 8 for you – 390 days. 9 So bear the iniquity of the house of Israel. 10
4:6 “When you have completed these days, then lie down a second time, but on your right side, and bear the iniquity of the house of Judah 40 days 11 – I have assigned one day for each year. 4:7 You must turn your face toward the siege of Jerusalem with your arm bared and prophesy against it. 4:8 Look here, I will tie you up with ropes, so you cannot turn from one side to the other until you complete the days of your siege. 12
4:9 “As for you, take wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt, 13 put them in a single container, and make food 14 from them for yourself. For the same number of days that you lie on your side – 390 days 15 – you will eat it. 4:10 The food you eat will be eight ounces 16 a day by weight; you must eat it at fixed 17 times. 4:11 And you must drink water by measure, a pint and a half; 18 you must drink it at fixed times. 4:12 And you must eat the food like you would a barley cake. You must bake it in front of them over a fire made with dried human excrement.” 19 4:13 And the Lord said, “This is how the people of Israel will eat their unclean food among the nations 20 where I will banish them.”
4:14 And I said, “Ah, sovereign Lord, I have never been ceremonially defiled before. I have never eaten a carcass or an animal torn by wild beasts; from my youth up, unclean meat 21 has never entered my mouth.”
4:15 So he said to me, “All right then, I will substitute cow’s manure instead of human excrement. You will cook your food over it.”
4:16 Then he said to me, “Son of man, I am about to remove the bread supply 22 in Jerusalem. 23 They will eat their bread ration anxiously, and they will drink their water ration in terror 4:17 because they will lack bread and water. Each one will be terrified, and they will rot for their iniquity. 24
5:1 “As for you, son of man, take a sharp sword and use it as a barber’s razor. 25 Shave off some of the hair from your head and your beard. 26 Then take scales and divide up the hair you cut off. 5:2 Burn a third of it in the fire inside the city when the days of your siege are completed. Take a third and slash it with a sword all around the city. Scatter a third to the wind, and I will unleash a sword behind them. 5:3 But take a few strands of hair 27 from those and tie them in the ends of your garment. 28 5:4 Again, take more of them and throw them into the fire, 29 and burn them up. From there a fire will spread to all the house of Israel.
5:5 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: This is Jerusalem; I placed her in the center of the nations with countries all around her. 5:6 Then she defied my regulations and my statutes, becoming more wicked than the nations 30 and the countries around her. 31 Indeed, they 32 have rejected my regulations, and they do not follow my statutes.
5:7 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Because you are more arrogant 33 than the nations around you, 34 you have not followed my statutes and have not carried out my regulations. You have not even 35 carried out the regulations of the nations around you!
5:8 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: I – even I – am against you, 36 and I will execute judgment 37 among you while the nations watch. 38 5:9 I will do to you what I have never done before and will never do again because of all your abominable practices. 39 5:10 Therefore fathers will eat their sons within you, Jerusalem, 40 and sons will eat their fathers. I will execute judgments on you, and I will scatter any survivors 41 to the winds. 42
5:11 “Therefore, as surely as I live, says the sovereign Lord, because you defiled my sanctuary with all your detestable idols and with all your abominable practices, I will withdraw; my eye will not pity you, nor will I spare 43 you. 5:12 A third of your people will die of plague or be overcome by the famine within you. 44 A third of your people will fall by the sword surrounding you, 45 and a third I will scatter to the winds. I will unleash a sword behind them. 5:13 Then my anger will be fully vented; I will exhaust my rage on them, and I will be appeased. 46 Then they will know that I, the Lord, have spoken in my jealousy 47 when I have fully vented my rage against them.
5:14 “I will make you desolate and an object of scorn among the nations around you, in the sight of everyone who passes by. 5:15 You will be 48 an object of scorn and taunting, 49 a prime example of destruction 50 among the nations around you when I execute judgments against you in anger and raging fury. 51 I, the Lord, have spoken! 5:16 I will shoot against them deadly, 52 destructive 53 arrows of famine, 54 which I will shoot to destroy you. 55 I will prolong a famine on you and will remove the bread supply. 56 5:17 I will send famine and wild beasts against you and they will take your children from you. 57 Plague and bloodshed will overwhelm you, 58 and I will bring a sword against you. I, the Lord, have spoken!”
6:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 6:2 “Son of man, turn toward 59 the mountains of Israel and prophesy against them: 6:3 Say, ‘Mountains of Israel, 60 Hear the word of the sovereign Lord! 61 This is what the sovereign Lord says to the mountains and the hills, to the ravines and the valleys: I am bringing 62 a sword against you, and I will destroy your high places. 63 6:4 Your altars will be ruined and your incense altars will be broken. I will throw down your slain in front of your idols. 64 6:5 I will place the corpses of the people of Israel in front of their idols, 65 and I will scatter your bones around your altars. 6:6 In all your dwellings, the cities will be laid waste and the high places ruined so that your altars will be laid waste and ruined, your idols will be shattered and demolished, your incense altars will be broken down, and your works wiped out. 66 6:7 The slain will fall among you and then you will know that I am the Lord. 67
6:8 “‘But I will spare some of you. Some will escape the sword when you are scattered in foreign lands. 68 6:9 Then your survivors will remember me among the nations where they are exiled. They will realize 69 how I was crushed by their unfaithful 70 heart which turned from me and by their eyes which lusted after their idols. They will loathe themselves 71 because of the evil they have done and because of all their abominable practices. 6:10 They will know that I am the Lord; my threats to bring this catastrophe on them were not empty.’ 72
6:11 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Clap your hands, stamp your feet, and say, “Ah!” because of all the evil, abominable practices of the house of Israel, for they will fall by the sword, famine, and pestilence. 73 6:12 The one far away will die by pestilence, the one close by will fall by the sword, and whoever is left and has escaped these 74 will die by famine. I will fully vent my rage against them. 6:13 Then you will know that I am the Lord – when their dead lie among their idols around their altars, on every high hill and all the mountaintops, under every green tree and every leafy oak, 75 the places where they have offered fragrant incense to all their idols. 6:14 I will stretch out my hand against them 76 and make the land a desolate waste from the wilderness to Riblah, 77 in all the places where they live. Then they will know that I am the Lord!”
7:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 7:2 “You, son of man – this is what the sovereign Lord says to the land of Israel: An end! The end is coming on the four corners of the land! 78 7:3 The end is now upon you, and I will release my anger against you; I will judge 79 you according to your behavior, 80 I will hold you accountable for 81 all your abominable practices. 7:4 My eye will not pity you; I will not spare 82 you. 83 For I will hold you responsible for your behavior, 84 and you will suffer the consequences of your abominable practices. 85 Then you will know that I am the Lord!
7:5 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: A disaster 86 – a one-of-a-kind 87 disaster – is coming! 7:6 An end comes 88 – the end comes! 89 It has awakened against you 90 – the end is upon you! Look, it is coming! 91 7:7 Doom is coming upon you who live in the land! The time is coming, the day 92 is near. There are sounds of tumult, not shouts of joy, on the mountains. 93 7:8 Soon now I will pour out my rage 94 on you; I will fully vent my anger against you. I will judge you according to your behavior. I will hold you accountable for all your abominable practices. 7:9 My eye will not pity you; I will not spare 95 you. For your behavior I will hold you accountable, 96 and you will suffer the consequences of your abominable practices. Then you will know that it is I, the Lord, who is striking you. 97
7:10 “Look, the day! Look, it is coming! Doom has gone out! The staff has budded, pride has blossomed! 7:11 Violence 98 has grown into a staff that supports wickedness. Not one of them will be left 99 – not from their crowd, not from their wealth, not from their prominence. 100 7:12 The time has come; the day has struck! The customer should not rejoice, nor the seller mourn; for divine wrath 101 comes against their whole crowd. 7:13 The customer will no longer pay the seller 102 while both parties are alive, for the vision against their whole crowd 103 will not be revoked. Each person, for his iniquity, 104 will fail to preserve his life.
7:14 “They have blown the trumpet and everyone is ready, but no one goes to battle, because my anger is against their whole crowd. 105 7:15 The sword is outside; pestilence and famine are inside the house. Whoever is in the open field will die by the sword, and famine and pestilence will consume everyone in the city. 7:16 Their survivors will escape to the mountains and become like doves of the valleys; all of them will moan – each one for his iniquity. 7:17 All of their hands will hang limp; their knees will be wet with urine. 106 7:18 They will wear sackcloth, terror will cover them; shame will be on all their faces, and all of their heads will be shaved bald. 107 7:19 They will discard their silver in the streets, and their gold will be treated like filth. 108 Their silver and gold will not be able to deliver them on the day of the Lord’s fury. 109 They will not satisfy their hunger or fill their stomachs because their wealth 110 was the obstacle leading to their iniquity. 111 7:20 They rendered the beauty of his ornaments into pride, 112 and with it they made their abominable images – their detestable idols. Therefore I will render it filthy to them. 7:21 I will give it to foreigners as loot, to the world’s wicked ones as plunder, and they will desecrate it. 7:22 I will turn my face away from them and they will desecrate my treasured place. 113 Vandals will enter it and desecrate it. 114 7:23 (Make the chain, 115 because the land is full of murder 116 and the city is full of violence.) 7:24 I will bring the most wicked of the nations and they will take possession of their houses. I will put an end to the arrogance of the strong, and their sanctuaries 117 will be desecrated. 7:25 Terror 118 is coming! They will seek peace, but find none. 7:26 Disaster after disaster will come, and one rumor after another. They will seek a vision from a prophet; priestly instruction will disappear, along with counsel from the elders. 7:27 The king will mourn and the prince will be clothed with shuddering; the hands of the people of the land will tremble. Based on their behavior I will deal with them, and by their standard of justice 119 I will judge them. Then they will know that I am the Lord!”
1 sn Ancient Near Eastern bricks were 10 to 24 inches long and 6 to 13 1/2 inches wide.
2 tn Or perhaps “draw.”
3 tn Or “a barricade.”
4 tn Heb “set camps against it.”
5 tn Or “a griddle,” that is, some sort of plate for cooking.
6 tn That is, a symbolic object lesson.
8 tn Heb “I have assigned for you that the years of their iniquity be the number of days.” Num 14:33-34 is an example of the reverse, where the days were converted into years, the number of days spying out the land becoming the number of years of the wilderness wanderings.
9 tc The LXX reads “190 days.”
sn The significance of the number 390 is not clear. The best explanation is that “days” are used figuratively for years and the number refers to the years of the sinfulness of Israel during the period of the First Temple. Some understand the number to refer to the length of the division of the northern and southern kingdoms down to the fall of Jerusalem (931-586
10 tn Or “When you have carried the iniquity of the house of Israel,” and continuing on to the next verse.
11 sn The number 40 may refer in general to the period of Judah’s exile using the number of years Israel was punished in the wilderness. In this case, however, one would need to translate, “you will bear the punishment of the house of Judah.”
12 sn The action surely refers to a series of daily acts rather than to a continuous period.
13 sn Wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, and spelt. All these foods were common in Mesopotamia where Ezekiel was exiled.
14 tn Heb “bread.”
15 tc The LXX reads “190 days.”
16 sn Eight ounces (Heb “twenty shekels”). The standards for weighing money varied considerably in the ancient Near East, but the generally accepted weight for the shekel is 11.5 grams (0.4 ounce). This makes the weight of grain about 230 grams here (8 ounces).
17 tn Heb “from time to time.”
18 sn A pint and a half [Heb “one-sixth of a hin”]. One-sixth of a hin was a quantity of liquid equal to about 1.3 pints or 0.6 liters.
22 tn Heb, “break the staff of bread.” The bread supply is compared to a staff that one uses for support.
24 tn Or “in their punishment.” Ezek 4:16-17 alludes to Lev 26:26, 39. The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here, 3:18, 19; 7:13, 16; 18: 17, 18, 19, 20; 24:23; 33:6, 8, 9; 39:23. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment for iniquity.”
25 tn The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.
26 tn Heb, “pass (it) over your head and your beard.”
27 tn Heb “from there a few in number.” The word “strands” has been supplied in the translation for clarification.
29 tn Heb “into the midst of” (so KJV, ASV). This phrase has been left untranslated for stylistic reasons.
31 tn Heb “she defied my laws, becoming wicked more than the nations, and [she defied] my statutes [becoming wicked] more than the countries around her.”
32 sn One might conclude that the subject of the plural verbs is the nations/countries, but the context (vv. 5-6a) indicates that the people of Jerusalem are in view. The text shifts from using the feminine singular (referring to personified Jerusalem) to the plural (referring to Jerusalem’s residents). See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 1:73.
33 tn Traditionally this difficult form has been derived from a hypothetical root הָמוֹן (hamon), supposedly meaning “be in tumult/uproar,” but such a verb occurs nowhere else. It is more likely that it is to be derived from a root מָנוֹן (manon), meaning “disdain” (see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 1:52). A derivative from this root is used in Prov 29:21 of a rebellious servant. See HALOT 600 s.v. מָנוֹן.
36 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8. The Hebrew text switches to a second feminine singular form here, indicating that personified Jerusalem is addressed (see vv. 5-6a). The address to Jerusalem continues through v. 15. In vv. 16-17 the second masculine plural is used, as the people are addressed.
37 tn The Hebrew text uses wordplay here to bring out the appropriate nature of God’s judgment. “Execute” translates the same Hebrew verb translated “carried out” (literally meaning “do”) in v. 7, while “judgment” in v. 8 and “regulations” in v. 7 translate the same Hebrew noun (meaning “regulations” or in some cases “judgments” executed on those who break laws). The point seems to be this: God would “carry out judgments” against those who refused to “carry out” his “laws.”
38 tn Heb “in the sight of the nations.”
sn This is one of the ironies of the passage. The Lord set Israel among the nations for honor and praise as they would be holy and obey God’s law as told in Ezek 5:5 and Deut 26:16-19. The practice of these laws and statutes would make the peoples consider Israel wise. (See Deut 4:5-8, where the words for laws and statutes are the same as those used here). Since Israel did not obey, they are made a different kind of object lesson to the nations, not by their obedience but in their punishment as told in Ezek 5:8 and Deut 29:24-29. Yet Deut 30 goes on to say that when they remember the cursings and blessings of the covenant and repent, God will restore them from the nations to which they have been scattered.
39 tn Or “abominable idols.”
40 tn In context “you” refers to the city of Jerusalem. To make this clear for the modern reader, “Jerusalem” has been supplied in the translation in apposition to “you.”
sn This cannibalism would occur as a result of starvation due to the city being besieged. It is one of the judgments threatened for a covenant law violation (Lev 26:29; see also Deut 28:53; Jer 19:9; Lam 2:20; Zech 11:9).
41 tn Heb “all of your survivors.”
42 tn Heb “to every wind.”
43 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term is primarily emotional: “to pity,” which in context implies an action, as in being moved by pity in order to spare them from the horror of their punishment.
46 tn Or “calm myself.”
47 tn The Hebrew noun translated “jealousy” is used in the human realm to describe suspicion of adultery (Num 5:14ff.; Prov 6:34). Since Israel’s relationship with God was often compared to a marriage this term is appropriate here. The term occurs elsewhere in Ezekiel in 8:3, 5; 16:38, 42; 23:25.
48 tc This reading is supported by the versions and by the Dead Sea Scrolls (11QEzek). Most Masoretic Hebrew
50 tn Heb “discipline and devastation.” These words are omitted in the Old Greek. The first term pictures Jerusalem as a recipient or example of divine discipline; the second depicts her as a desolate ruin (see Ezek 6:14).
51 tn Heb “in anger and in fury and in rebukes of fury.” The heaping up of synonyms emphasizes the degree of God’s anger.
53 tn Heb “which are/were to destroy.”
55 tn Or “which were to destroy those whom I will send to destroy you” (cf. NASB).
57 tn Heb “will bereave you.”
59 tn Heb “set your face against.” The expression occurs at the beginning of Ezekiel’s prophetic oracles in Ezek 13:17; 20:46; 21:2; 25:2; 28:21; 29:2; 35:2; 38:2.
sn Based on comparison to a similar expression in Ugaritic, the phrase may imply that Ezekiel was to actually go to these locations to deliver his message.
60 tn The phrase “mountains of Israel” occurs only in the book of Ezekiel (6:2, 3; 19:9; 33:28; 34:13, 14; 35:12; 36:1, 4, 8; 37:22; 38:8; 39:2, 4, 17). The expression refers to the whole land of Israel.
sn The mountainous terrain of Israel would contrast with the exiles’ habitat in the river valley of Babylonia.
62 tn Heb “Look I, I am bringing.” The repetition of the pronoun draws attention to the speaker. The construction also indicates that the action is soon to come; the Lord is “about to bring a sword against” them.
63 tn The Hebrew term refers to elevated platforms where pagan sacrifices were performed.
64 tn Thirty-nine of the forty-eight biblical occurrences of this Hebrew word are found in the book of Ezekiel.
sn This verse is probably based on Lev 26:30 in which God forecasts that he will destroy their high places, cut off their incense altars, and set their corpses by the corpses of their idols.
65 tc This first sentence, which explains the meaning of the last sentence of the previous verse, does not appear in the LXX and may be an instance of a marginal explanatory note making its way into the text.
67 sn The phrase you will know that I am the
68 tn Heb “when you have fugitives from the sword among the nations, when you are scattered among the lands.”
69 tn The words “they will realize” are not in the Hebrew text; they are added here for stylistic reasons since this clause assumes the previous verb “to remember” or “to take into account.”
70 tn Heb “how I was broken by their adulterous heart.” The image of God being “broken” is startling, but perfectly natural within the metaphorical framework of God as offended husband. The idiom must refer to the intense grief that Israel’s unfaithfulness caused God. For a discussion of the syntax and semantics of the Hebrew text, see M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 1:134.
71 tn Heb adds “in their faces.”
74 tn Heb “the one who is left, the one who is spared.”
75 sn By referring to every high hill…all the mountaintops…under every green tree and every leafy oak Ezekiel may be expanding on the phraseology of Deut 12:2 (see 1 Kgs 14:23; 2 Kgs 16:4; 17:10; Jer 2:20; 3:6, 13; 2 Chr 28:4).
77 tc The Vulgate reads the name as “Riblah,” a city north of Damascus. The MT reads Diblah, a city otherwise unknown. The letters resh (ר) and dalet (ד) may have been confused in the Hebrew text. The town of Riblah was in the land of Hamath (2 Kgs 23:33) which represented the northern border of Israel (Ezek 47:14).
79 tn Or “punish” (cf. BDB 1047 s.v. שָׁפַט 3.c).
80 tn Heb “ways.”
81 tn Heb “I will place on you.”
82 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term is primarily emotional: “to pity,” which in context implies an action, as in being moved by pity in order to spare them from the horror of their punishment.
83 tn The pronoun “you” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.
84 tn “I will set your behavior on your head.”
85 tn Heb “and your abominable practices will be among you.”
87 tc So most Hebrew
88 tn Or “has come.”
89 tn Or “has come.”
90 tc With different vowels the verb rendered “it has awakened” would be the noun “the end,” as in “the end is upon you.” The verb would represent a phonetic wordplay. The noun by virtue of repetition would continue to reinforce the idea of the end. Whether verb or noun, this is the only instance to occur with this preposition.
91 tc For this entire verse, the LXX has only “the end is come.”
tn In each of the three cases of the verb translated with forms of “to come,” the form may either be a participle (“comes/is coming”) or a perfect (“has come”). Either form would indicate that the end is soon to arrive. This last form appears also to be feminine, although “end” is masculine. This shift may be looking ahead to the next verse, whose first noun (“Doom”) is feminine.
92 sn The day refers to the day of the Lord, a concept which, beginning in Amos 5:18-20, became a common theme in the OT prophetic books. It refers to a time when the Lord intervenes in human affairs as warrior and judge.
93 tc The LXX reads “neither tumult nor birth pains.” The LXX varies at many points from the MT in this chapter. The context suggests that one or both of these would be present on a day of judgment, thus favoring the MT. Perhaps more significant is the absence of “the mountains” in the LXX. If the ר (resh) in הָרִים (harim, “the mountains” not “on the mountains”) were a ד (dalet), which is a common letter confusion, then it could be from the same root as the previous word, הֵד (hed), meaning “the day is near – with destruction, not joyful shouting.”
94 tn The expression “to pour out rage” also occurs in Ezek 9:8; 14:19; 20:8, 13, 21; 22:31; 30:15; 36:18.
95 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term is primarily emotional: “to pity,” which in context implies an action, as in being moved by pity in order to spare them from the horror of their punishment.
96 tn Heb “According to your behavior I will place on you.”
97 tn The MT lacks “you.” It has been added for clarification.
98 tn Heb “the violence.”
99 tc The LXX reads “he will crush the wicked rod without confusion or haste.”
tn The verb has been supplied for the Hebrew text to clarify the sense.
100 tn The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT.
101 tn Heb “wrath.” Context clarifies that God’s wrath is in view.
102 tc The translation follows the LXX for the first line of the verse, although the LXX has lost the second line due to homoioteleuton (similar endings of the clauses). The MT reads “The seller will not return to the sale.” This Hebrew reading has been construed as a reference to land redemption, the temporary sale of the use of property, with property rights returned to the seller in the year of Jubilee. But the context has no other indicator that land redemption is in view. If correct, the LXX evidence suggests that one of the cases of “the customer” has been replaced by “the seller” in the MT, perhaps due to hoimoioarcton (similar beginnings of the words).
103 tn The Hebrew word refers to the din or noise made by a crowd, and by extension may refer to the crowd itself.
104 tn Or “in their punishment.” The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here and in v. 16; 3:18, 19; 4:17; 18:17, 18, 19, 20; 24:23; 33:6, 8, 9; 39:23. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment for iniquity.”
105 tn The Hebrew word refers to the din or noise made by a crowd, and by extension may refer to the crowd itself.
106 tn Heb “their knees will run with water.” The expression probably refers to urination caused by fright, which is how the LXX renders the phrase. More colloquial English would simply be “they will wet their pants,” but as D. I. Block (Ezekiel [NICOT], 1:261, n. 98) notes, the men likely wore skirts which were short enough to expose urine on the knees.
107 tn Heb “baldness will be on their heads.”
110 tn Heb “it.” Apparently the subject is the silver and gold mentioned earlier (see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 1:102).
112 tc The MT reads “he set up the beauty of his ornament as pride.” The verb may be repointed as plural without changing the consonantal text. The Syriac reads “their ornaments” (plural), implying עֶדְיָם (’edyam) rather than עֶדְיוֹ (’edyo) and meaning “they were proud of their beautiful ornaments.” This understands “ornaments” in the common sense of women’s jewelry, which then were used to make idols. The singular suffix “his ornaments” would refer to using items from the temple treasury to make idols. D. I. Block points out the foreshadowing of Ezek 16:17 which, with Rashi and the Targum, supports the understanding that this is a reference to temple items. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:265.
113 sn My treasured place probably refers to the temple (however, cf. NLT “my treasured land”).
114 sn Since the pronouns “it” are both feminine, they do not refer to the masculine “my treasured place”; instead they probably refer to Jerusalem or the land, both of which are feminine in Hebrew.
115 tc The Hebrew word “the chain” occurs only here in the OT. The reading of the LXX (“and they will make carnage”) seems to imply a Hebrew text of ַהבַּתּוֹק (habbattoq, “disorder, slaughter”) instead of הָרַתּוֹק (haratoq, “the chain”). The LXX is also translating the verb as a third person plural future and taking this as the end of the preceding verse. As M. Greenberg (Ezekiel [AB], 1:154) notes, this may refer to a chain for a train of exiles but “the context does not speak of exile but of the city’s fall. The versions guess desperately and we can do little better.”
117 sn Or “their holy places” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NCV, NRSV).
118 tn The Hebrew word occurs only here in the OT. It is interpreted based on a Syriac cognate meaning “to bristle or stiffen (in terror).”
119 tn Heb “and by their judgments.”