Reading Plan 
Daily Bible Reading (daily) September 21
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Daniel 7:1--9:27

Context
Daniel has a Vision of Four Animals Coming up from the Sea

7:1 In the first 1  year of King Belshazzar of Babylon, Daniel had 2  a dream filled with visions 3  while he was lying on his bed. Then he wrote down the dream in summary fashion. 4  7:2 Daniel explained: 5  “I was watching in my vision during the night as 6  the four winds of the sky 7  were stirring up the great sea. 8  7:3 Then four large beasts came up from the sea; they were different from one another.

7:4 “The first one was like a lion with eagles’ wings. As I watched, its wings were pulled off and it was lifted up from the ground. It was made to stand on two feet like a human being, and a human mind 9  was given to it. 10 

7:5 “Then 11  a second beast appeared, like a bear. It was raised up on one side, and there were three ribs 12  in its mouth between its teeth. 13  It was told, 14  ‘Get up and devour much flesh!’

7:6 “After these things, 15  as I was watching, another beast 16  like a leopard appeared, with four bird-like wings on its back. 17  This beast had four heads, 18  and ruling authority was given to it.

7:7 “After these things, as I was watching in the night visions 19  a fourth beast appeared – one dreadful, terrible, and very strong. 20  It had two large rows 21  of iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and anything that was left it trampled with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that came before it, and it had ten horns.

7:8 “As I was contemplating the horns, another horn – a small one – came up between them, and three of the former horns were torn out by the roots to make room for it. 22  This horn had eyes resembling human eyes and a mouth speaking arrogant 23  things.

7:9 “While I was watching,

thrones were set up,

and the Ancient of Days 24  took his seat.

His attire was white like snow;

the hair of his head was like lamb’s 25  wool.

His throne was ablaze with fire

and its wheels were all aflame. 26 

7:10 A river of fire was streaming forth

and proceeding from his presence.

Many thousands were ministering to him;

Many tens of thousands stood ready to serve him. 27 

The court convened 28 

and the books were opened.

7:11 “Then I kept on watching because of the arrogant words of the horn that was speaking. I was watching 29  until the beast was killed and its body destroyed and thrown into 30  the flaming fire. 7:12 As for the rest of the beasts, their ruling authority had already been removed, though they were permitted to go on living 31  for a time and a season. 7:13 I was watching in the night visions,

“And with 32  the clouds of the sky 33 

one like a son of man 34  was approaching.

He went up to the Ancient of Days

and was escorted 35  before him.

7:14 To him was given ruling authority, honor, and sovereignty.

All peoples, nations, and language groups were serving 36  him.

His authority is eternal and will not pass away. 37 

His kingdom will not be destroyed. 38 

An Angel Interprets Daniel’s Vision

7:15 “As for me, Daniel, my spirit was distressed, 39  and the visions of my mind 40  were alarming me. 7:16 I approached one of those standing nearby and asked him about the meaning 41  of all this. So he spoke with me and revealed 42  to me the interpretation of the vision: 43  7:17 ‘These large beasts, which are four in number, represent four kings who will arise from the earth. 7:18 The holy ones 44  of the Most High will receive the kingdom and will take possession of the kingdom forever and ever.’

7:19 “Then I wanted to know the meaning 45  of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others. It was very dreadful, with two rows of iron teeth and bronze claws, and it devoured, crushed, and trampled anything that was left with its feet. 7:20 I also wanted to know 46  the meaning of the ten horns on its head, and of that other horn which came up and before which three others fell. This was the horn that had eyes 47  and a mouth speaking arrogant things, whose appearance was more formidable than the others. 48  7:21 While I was watching, that horn began to wage war against the holy ones and was defeating 49  them, 7:22 until the Ancient of Days arrived and judgment was rendered 50  in favor of the holy ones of the Most High. Then the time came for the holy ones to take possession of the kingdom.

7:23 “This is what he told me: 51 

‘The fourth beast means that there will be a fourth kingdom on earth

that will differ from all the other kingdoms.

It will devour all the earth

and will trample and crush it.

7:24 The ten horns

mean that ten kings will arise from that kingdom.

Another king will arise after them,

but he will be different from the earlier ones.

He will humiliate 52  three kings.

7:25 He will speak words against the Most High.

He will harass 53  the holy ones of the Most High continually.

His intention 54  will be to change times established by law. 55 

They will be delivered into his hand

For a time, times, 56  and half a time.

7:26 But the court will convene, 57  and his ruling authority will be removed –

destroyed and abolished forever!

7:27 Then the kingdom, authority,

and greatness of the kingdoms under all of heaven

will be delivered to the people of the holy ones 58  of the Most High.

His kingdom is an eternal kingdom;

all authorities will serve him and obey him.’

7:28 “This is the conclusion of the matter. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts troubled me greatly, and the color drained from my face. 59  But I kept the matter to myself.” 60 

Daniel Has a Vision of a Goat and a Ram

8:1 61 In the third year 62  of King Belshazzar’s reign, a vision appeared to me, Daniel, after the one that had appeared to me previously. 63  8:2 In this 64  vision I saw myself in Susa 65  the citadel, 66  which is located in the province of Elam. In the vision I saw myself at the Ulai Canal. 67  8:3 I looked up 68  and saw 69  a 70  ram with two horns standing at the canal. Its two horns were both long, 71  but one was longer than the other. The longer one was coming up after the shorter one. 8:4 I saw that the ram was butting westward, northward, and southward. No animal 72  was able to stand before it, and there was none who could deliver from its power. 73  It did as it pleased and acted arrogantly. 74 

8:5 While I was contemplating all this, 75  a male goat 76  was coming from the west over the surface of all the land 77  without touching the ground. This goat had a conspicuous horn 78  between its eyes. 8:6 It came to the two-horned ram that I had seen standing beside the canal and rushed against it with raging strength. 79  8:7 I saw it approaching the ram. It went into a fit of rage against the ram 80  and struck it 81  and broke off its two horns. The ram had no ability to resist it. 82  The goat hurled the ram 83  to the ground and trampled it. No one could deliver the ram from its power. 84  8:8 The male goat acted even more arrogantly. But no sooner had the large horn become strong than it was broken, and there arose four conspicuous horns 85  in its place, 86  extending toward the four winds of the sky. 87 

8:9 From one of them came a small horn. 88  But it grew to be very big, toward the south and the east and toward the beautiful land. 89  8:10 It grew so big it reached the army 90  of heaven, and it brought about the fall of some of the army and some of the stars 91  to the ground, where it trampled them. 8:11 It also acted arrogantly against the Prince of the army, 92  from whom 93  the daily sacrifice was removed and whose sanctuary 94  was thrown down. 8:12 The army was given over, 95  along with the daily sacrifice, in the course of his sinful rebellion. 96  It hurled 97  truth 98  to the ground and enjoyed success. 99 

8:13 Then I heard a holy one 100  speaking. Another holy one said to the one who was speaking, “To what period of time does the vision pertain – this vision concerning the daily sacrifice and the destructive act of rebellion and the giving over of both the sanctuary and army to be trampled?” 8:14 He said to me, “To 2,300 evenings and mornings; 101  then the sanctuary will be put right again.” 102 

An Angel Interprets Daniel’s Vision

8:15 While I, Daniel, was watching the vision, I sought to understand it. Now one who appeared to be a man was standing before me. 8:16 Then I heard a human voice coming from between the banks of the Ulai. It called out, “Gabriel, 103  enable this person to understand the vision.” 8:17 So he approached the place where I was standing. As he came, I felt terrified and fell flat on the ground. 104  Then he said to me, “Understand, son of man, 105  that the vision pertains to the time of the end.” 8:18 As he spoke with me, I fell into a trance with my face to the ground. But he touched me and stood me upright. 106 

8:19 Then he said, “I am going to inform you about what will happen in the latter time of wrath, for the vision 107  pertains to the appointed time of the end. 8:20 The ram that you saw with the two horns stands for the kings of Media and Persia. 8:21 The male goat 108  is the king of Greece, 109  and the large horn between its eyes is the first king. 8:22 The horn that was broken 110  and in whose place there arose four others stands for four kingdoms that will arise from his nation, though they will not have his strength. 8:23 Toward the end of their rule, when rebellious acts 111  are complete, a rash 112  and deceitful 113  king will arise. 114  8:24 His power will be great, but it will not be by his strength alone. He will cause terrible destruction. 115  He will be successful in what he undertakes. 116  He will destroy powerful people and the people of the holy ones. 117  8:25 By his treachery 118  he will succeed through deceit. 119  He will have an arrogant attitude, 120  and he will destroy many who are unaware of his schemes. 121  He will rise up against the Prince of princes, yet he will be broken apart – but not by human agency. 122  8:26 The vision of the evenings and mornings that was told to you is correct. 123  But you should seal up the vision, for it refers to a time many days from now.”

8:27 I, Daniel, was exhausted 124  and sick for days. Then I got up and again carried out the king’s business. But I was astonished at the vision, and there was no one to explain it.

Daniel Prays for His People

9:1 In the first year of Darius 125  son of Ahasuerus, 126  who was of Median descent and who had been 127  appointed king over the Babylonian 128  empire – 9:2 in the first year of his reign 129  I, Daniel, came to understand from the sacred books 130  that, according to the word of the LORD 131  disclosed to the prophet Jeremiah, the years for the fulfilling of the desolation of Jerusalem 132  were seventy in number. 9:3 So I turned my attention 133  to the Lord God 134  to implore him by prayer and requests, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes. 135  9:4 I prayed to the LORD my God, confessing in this way:

“O Lord, 136  great and awesome God who is faithful to his covenant 137  with those who love him and keep his commandments, 9:5 we have sinned! We have done what is wrong and wicked; we have rebelled by turning away from your commandments and standards. 9:6 We have not paid attention to your servants the prophets, who spoke by your authority 138  to our kings, our leaders, and our ancestors, 139  and to all the inhabitants 140  of the land as well.

9:7 “You are righteous, 141  O Lord, but we are humiliated this day 142  – the people 143  of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem and all Israel, both near and far away in all the countries in which you have scattered them, because they have behaved unfaithfully toward you. 9:8 O LORD, we have been humiliated 144  – our kings, our leaders, and our ancestors – because we have sinned against you. 9:9 Yet the Lord our God is compassionate and forgiving, 145  even though we have rebelled against him. 9:10 We have not obeyed 146  the LORD our God by living according to 147  his laws 148  that he set before us through his servants the prophets.

9:11 “All Israel has broken 149  your law and turned away by not obeying you. 150  Therefore you have poured out on us the judgment solemnly threatened 151  in the law of Moses the servant of God, for we have sinned against you. 152  9:12 He has carried out his threats 153  against us and our rulers 154  who were over 155  us by bringing great calamity on us – what has happened to Jerusalem has never been equaled under all heaven! 9:13 Just as it is written in the law of Moses, so all this calamity has come on us. Still we have not tried to pacify 156  the LORD our God by turning back from our sin and by seeking wisdom 157  from your reliable moral standards. 158  9:14 The LORD was mindful of the calamity, and he brought it on us. For the LORD our God is just 159  in all he has done, 160  and we have not obeyed him. 161 

9:15 “Now, O Lord our God, who brought your people out of the land of Egypt with great power 162  and made a name for yourself that is remembered to this day – we have sinned and behaved wickedly. 9:16 O Lord, according to all your justice, 163  please turn your raging anger 164  away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain. For due to our sins and the iniquities of our ancestors, Jerusalem and your people are mocked by all our neighbors.

9:17 “So now, our God, accept 165  the prayer and requests of your servant, and show favor to 166  your devastated sanctuary for your own sake. 167  9:18 Listen attentively, 168  my God, and hear! Open your eyes and look on our desolated ruins 169  and the city called by your name. 170  For it is not because of our own righteous deeds that we are praying to you, 171  but because your compassion is abundant. 9:19 O Lord, hear! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, pay attention, and act! Don’t delay, for your own sake, O my God! For your city and your people are called by your name.” 172 

Gabriel Gives to Daniel a Prophecy of Seventy Weeks

9:20 While I was still speaking and praying, confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and presenting my request before the LORD my God concerning his holy mountain 173 9:21 yes, while I was still praying, 174  the man Gabriel, whom I had seen previously 175  in a vision, was approaching me in my state of extreme weariness, 176  around the time of the evening offering. 9:22 He spoke with me, instructing me as follows: 177  “Daniel, I have now come to impart understanding to you. 9:23 At the beginning of your requests a message went out, and I have come to convey it to you, for you are of great value in God’s sight. 178  Therefore consider the message and understand the vision: 179 

9:24 “Seventy weeks 180  have been determined

concerning your people and your holy city

to put an end to 181  rebellion,

to bring sin 182  to completion, 183 

to atone for iniquity,

to bring in perpetual 184  righteousness,

to seal up 185  the prophetic vision, 186 

and to anoint a most holy place. 187 

9:25 So know and understand:

From the issuing of the command 188  to restore and rebuild

Jerusalem 189  until an anointed one, a prince arrives, 190 

there will be a period of seven weeks 191  and sixty-two weeks.

It will again be built, 192  with plaza and moat,

but in distressful times.

9:26 Now after the sixty-two weeks,

an anointed one will be cut off and have nothing. 193 

As for the city and the sanctuary,

the people of the coming prince will destroy 194  them.

But his end will come speedily 195  like a flood. 196 

Until the end of the war that has been decreed

there will be destruction.

9:27 He will confirm a covenant with many for one week. 197 

But in the middle of that week

he will bring sacrifices and offerings to a halt.

On the wing 198  of abominations will come 199  one who destroys,

until the decreed end is poured out on the one who destroys.”

1 sn The first year of Belshazzar’s reign would have been ca. 553 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately 67 years old at the time of this vision.

2 tn Aram “saw.”

3 tn Aram “and visions of his head.” The Aramaic is difficult here. Some scholars add a verb thought to be missing (e.g., “the visions of his head [were alarming him]”), but there is no external evidence to support such a decision and the awkwardness of the text at this point may be original.

4 tn Aram “head of words.” The phrase is absent in Theodotion. Cf. NIV “the substance of his dream.”

5 tn Aram “answered and said.”

6 tn Aram “and behold.”

7 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

8 sn The referent of the great sea is unclear. The common view that the expression refers to the Mediterranean Sea is conjectural.

9 tn Aram “heart of a man.”

10 sn The identity of the first animal, derived from v. 17 and the parallels in chap. 2, is Babylon. The reference to the plucking of its wings is probably a reference to the time of Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity (cf. chap. 4). The latter part of v. 4 then describes the restoration of Nebuchadnezzar. The other animals have traditionally been understood to represent respectively Media-Persia, Greece, and Rome, although most of modern scholarship identifies them as Media, Persia, and Greece. For a biblical parallel to the mention of lion, bear, and leopard together, see Hos 13:7-8.

11 tn Aram “and behold.”

12 sn The three ribs held securely in the mouth of the bear, perhaps representing Media-Persia, apparently symbolize military conquest, but the exact identity of the “ribs” is not clear. Possibly it is a reference to the Persian conquest of Lydia, Egypt, and Babylonia.

13 tc The LXX lacks the phrase “between its teeth.”

14 tn Aram “and thus they were saying to it.”

15 tn Aram “this.” So also in v. 7.

16 tn Aram “and behold, another one.”

17 tn Or “sides.”

18 sn If the third animal is Greece, the most likely identification of these four heads is the four-fold division of the empire of Alexander the Great following his death. See note on Dan 8:8.

19 tn The Aramaic text has also “and behold.” So also in vv. 8, 13.

20 sn The fourth animal differs from the others in that it is nondescript. Apparently it was so fearsome that Daniel could find nothing with which to compare it. Attempts to identify this animal as an elephant or other known creature are conjectural.

21 tn The Aramaic word for “teeth” is dual rather than plural, suggesting two rows of teeth.

22 tn Aram “were uprooted from before it.”

23 tn Aram “great.” So also in vv. 11, 20.

24 tn Or “the Ancient One” (NAB, NRSV, NLT), although the traditional expression has been retained in the present translation because it is familiar to many readers. Cf. TEV “One who had been living for ever”; CEV “the Eternal God.”

25 tn Traditionally the Aramaic word נְקֵא (nÿqe’) has been rendered “pure,” but here it more likely means “of a lamb.” Cf. the Syriac neqya’ (“a sheep, ewe”). On this word see further, M. Sokoloff, “’amar neqe’, ‘Lamb’s Wool’ (Dan 7:9),” JBL 95 (1976): 277-79.

26 tn Aram “a flaming fire.”

27 tn Aram “were standing before him.”

28 tn Aram “judgment sat.”

29 tc The LXX and Theodotion lack the words “I was watching” here. It is possible that these words in the MT are a dittography from the first part of the verse.

30 tn Aram “and given over to” (so NRSV).

31 tn Aram “a prolonging of life was granted to them.”

32 tc The LXX has ἐπί (epi, “upon”) here (cf. Matt 24:30; 26:64). Theodotion has μετά (meta, “with”) here (cf. Mark 14:62; Rev 1:7).

33 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

34 sn This text is probably the main OT background for Jesus’ use of the term “son of man.” In both Jewish and Christian circles the reference in the book of Daniel has traditionally been understood to refer to an individual, usually in a messianic sense. Many modern scholars, however, understand the reference to have a corporate identity. In this view, the “son of man” is to be equated with the “holy ones” (vv. 18, 21, 22, 25) or the “people of the holy ones” (v. 27) and understood as a reference to the Jewish people. Others understand Daniel’s reference to be to the angel Michael.

35 tn Aram “they brought him near.”

36 tn Some take “serving” here in the sense of “worshiping.”

37 tn Aram “is an eternal authority which will not pass away.”

38 tn Aram “is one which will not be destroyed.”

39 tn The Aramaic text includes the phrase “in its sheath,” apparently viewing the body as a container or receptacle for the spirit somewhat like a sheath or scabbard is for a knife or a sword (cf. NAB “within its sheath of flesh”). For this phrase the LXX and Vulgate have “in these things.”

40 tn Aram “head.”

41 tn Aram “what is certain.”

42 tn Aram “and made known.”

43 tn Aram “matter,” but the matter at hand is of course the vision.

44 sn The expression holy ones is either a reference to angels or to human beings devoted to God.

45 tn Aram “to make certain.”

46 tn The words “I also wanted to know” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons.

47 tc The conjunction in the MT before “eyes” is odd. The ancient versions do not seem to presuppose it.

48 tn Aram “greater than its companions.”

49 tn Aram “prevailing against” (KJV and ASV both similar); NASB “overpowering them”; TEV “conquered them.”

50 tc In the LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate the verb is active, understanding “judgment” to be the object rather than the subject of the verb (i.e., “the Ancient of Days rendered judgment”). This presupposes a different vocalization of the verb ( יְהַב [yÿhav] rather than the MT יְהִב [yÿhiv]).

51 tn Aram “thus he said.”

52 tn Or “subjugate”; KJV, NASB, NIV “subdue”; ASV, NRSV “put down.”

53 tn Aram “wear out” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NASB, NLT “wear down.” The word is a hapax legomenon in biblical Aramaic, but in biblical Hebrew it especially refers to wearing out such things as garments. Here it is translated “harass…continually.”

54 tn Aram “he will think.”

55 tn Aram “times and law.” The present translation is based on the understanding that the expression is a hendiadys.

56 sn Although the word times is vocalized in the MT as a plural, it probably should be regarded as a dual. The Masoretes may have been influenced here by the fact that in late Aramaic (and Syriac) the dual forms fall out of use. The meaning would thus be three and a half “times.”

57 tn Aram “judgment will sit” (KJV similar).

58 tn If the “holy ones” are angels, then this probably refers to the angels as protectors of God’s people. If the “holy ones” are God’s people, then this is an appositional construction, “the people who are the holy ones.” See 8:24 for the corresponding Hebrew phrase and the note there.

59 tn Aram “my brightness was changing on me.”

60 tn Aram “in my heart.”

61 sn Dan 8:1 marks the switch from Aramaic (= 2:4b-7:28) back to Hebrew as the language in which the book is written in its present form. The remainder of the book from this point on (8:1-12:13) is in Hebrew. The bilingual nature of the book has been variously explained, but it most likely has to do with the book’s transmission history.

62 sn The third year of King Belshazzar’s reign would have been ca. 551 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately 69 years old at the time of this vision.

63 tn Heb “in the beginning.” This refers to the vision described in chapter seven.

64 tn Heb “the.”

65 sn Susa (Heb. שׁוּשַׁן, shushan), located some 230 miles (380 km) east of Babylon, was a winter residence for Persian kings during the Achaemenid period. The language of v. 2 seems to suggest that Daniel may not have been physically present at Susa, but only saw himself there in the vision. However, the Hebrew is difficult, and some have concluded that the first four words of v. 2 in the MT are a later addition (cf. Theodotion).

66 tn The Hebrew word בִּירָה (birah, “castle, palace”) usually refers to a fortified structure within a city, but here it is in apposition to the city name Susa and therefore has a broader reference to the entire city (against this view, however, see BDB 108 s.v. 2). Cf. NAB “the fortress of Susa”; TEV “the walled city of Susa.”

67 tn The term אוּבַל (’uval = “stream, river”) is a relatively rare word in biblical Hebrew, found only here and in vv. 3 and 6. The Ulai was apparently a sizable artificial canal in Susa (cf. NASB, NIV, NCV), and not a river in the ordinary sense of that word.

68 tn Heb “lifted my eyes.”

69 tn Heb “and behold.”

70 tn Heb “one.” The Hebrew numerical adjective occasionally functions like an English indefinite article. See GKC 401 §125.b.

71 tn Heb “high” (also “higher” later in this verse).

72 tn Or “beast” (NAB).

73 tn Heb “hand.” So also in v. 7.

74 tn In the Hiphil the Hebrew verb גָּדַל (gadal, “to make great; to magnify”) can have either a positive or a negative sense. For the former, used especially of God, see Ps 126:2, 3; Joel 2:21. In this chapter (8:4, 8, 11, 25) the word has a pejorative sense, describing the self-glorification of this king. The sense seems to be that of vainly assuming one’s own superiority through deliberate hubris.

75 tn The words “all this” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.

76 tn Heb “and behold, a he-goat of the goats.”

77 tn Or “of the whole earth” (NAB, ASV, NASB, NRSV).

78 tn Heb “a horn of vision” [or “conspicuousness”], i.e., “a conspicuous horn,” one easily seen.

79 tn Heb “the wrath of its strength.”

80 tn Heb “him.”

81 tn Heb “the ram.”

82 tn Heb “stand before him.”

83 tn Heb “he hurled him.” The referents of both pronouns (the male goat and the ram) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

84 sn The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s rapid conquest of the Persians involved three battles of major significance which he won against overwhelming odds: Granicus (334 B.C.), Isus (333 B.C.), and Gaugemela (331 B.C.).

85 tn The word “horns” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

86 sn The four conspicuous horns refer to Alexander’s successors. After his death, Alexander’s empire was divided up among four of his generals: Cassander, who took Macedonia and Greece; Lysimachus, who took Thrace and parts of Asia Minor; Seleucus, who took Syria and territory to its east; and Ptolemy, who took control of Egypt.

87 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

88 sn This small horn is Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who controlled the Seleucid kingdom from ca. 175-164 B.C. Antiochus was extremely hostile toward the Jews and persecuted them mercilessly.

89 sn The expression the beautiful land (Heb. הַצֶּבִי [hatsÿvi] = “the beauty”) is a cryptic reference to the land of Israel. Cf. 11:16, 41, where it is preceded by the word אֶרֶץ (’erets, “land”).

90 tn Traditionally, “host.” The term refers to God’s heavenly angelic assembly, which he sometimes leads into battle as an army.

91 sn In prescientific Israelite thinking the stars were associated with the angelic members of God’s heavenly assembly. See Judg 5:20; Job 38:7; Isa 40:26. In west Semitic mythology the stars were members of the high god’s divine assembly (see Isa 14:13).

92 sn The prince of the army may refer to God (cf. “whose sanctuary” later in the verse) or to the angel Michael (cf. 12:1).

93 tn Or perhaps “and by him,” referring to Antiochus rather than to God.

94 sn Here the sanctuary is a reference to the temple of God in Jerusalem.

95 tc The present translation reads וּצְבָאָהּ נִתַּן (utsÿvaah nittan) for the MT וְצָבָא תִּנָּתֵן (vÿtsavatinnaten). The context suggests a perfect rather than an imperfect verb.

96 tn Heb “in (the course of) rebellion.” The meaning of the phrase is difficult to determine. It could mean “due to rebellion,” referring to the failures of the Jews, but this is not likely since it is not a point made elsewhere in the book. The phrase more probably refers to the rebellion against God and the atrocities against the Jews epitomized by Antiochus.

97 tc Two medieval Hebrew MSS and the LXX have a passive verb here: “truth was hurled to the ground” (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV).

98 sn Truth here probably refers to the Torah. According to 1 Macc 1:56, Antiochus initiated destruction of the sacred books of the Jews.

99 tn Heb “it acted and prospered.”

100 sn The holy one referred to here is presumably an angel. Cf. 4:13[10], 23 [20].

101 sn The language of evenings and mornings is reminiscent of the creation account in Genesis 1. Since “evening and morning” is the equivalent of a day, the reference here would be to 2,300 days. However, some interpreters understand the reference to be to the evening sacrifice and the morning sacrifice, in which case the reference would be to only 1,150 days. Either way, the event that marked the commencement of this period is unclear. The event that marked the conclusion of the period is the rededication of the temple in Jerusalem following the atrocious and sacrilegious acts that Antiochus implemented. This took place on December 25, 165 B.C. The Jewish celebration of Hanukkah each year commemorates this victory.

102 tn Heb “will be vindicated” or “will be justified.” This is the only occurrence of this verb in the Niphal in the OT. English versions interpret it as “cleansed” (KJV, ASV), “restored” (NASB, TEV, NLT), or “reconsecrated” (NIV).

103 sn The only angels whose names are given in the OT are Gabriel (Dan 8:16; 9:21; cf. Luke 1:19, 26) and Michael (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; cf. Jude 9; Rev 12:7). The name Gabriel means in Hebrew “man of God,” and Michael means “who is like God?”

104 tn Heb “on my face.”

105 tn Or “human one.”

106 tn Heb “on my standing.”

107 tn The Hebrew text does not actually state the referent (the vision Daniel saw in vv. 8-12; cf. also v. 13), which has been specified in the translation for clarity. Some Greek witnesses add “the vision” here.

108 tn Heb “the he-goat, the buck.” The expression is odd, and the second word may be an explanatory gloss.

109 tn Heb “Javan.”

110 tn Heb “the broken one.” The word “horn” has been supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.

111 tc The present translation reads הַפְּשָׁעִים (happÿshaim, “rebellious acts”) for the MT הַפֹּשְׁעִים (happoshÿim, “rebels”). While the MT is understandable (cf. NIV, “when rebels have become completely wicked”), the filling up of transgressions is a familiar OT expression (cf. Gen 15:16) and fits this context well. Cf. the LXX, Theodotion, the Vulgate, and the Syriac.

112 tn Heb “strong of face.”

113 tn Heb “understanding riddles.” Possible meanings include “double-dealing” (BDB 295 s.v. חִידָה; cf. TEV, CEV) and “with a good knowledge of intrigue” (HALOT 309 s.v. חִידָה; cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

114 tn Heb “stand” or “stand up.”

115 tn Heb “extraordinarily he will destroy.”

116 tn Heb “he will succeed and act.”

117 tn See the corresponding Aramaic expression in 7:27. If the “holy ones” are angels, then this probably refers to the angels as protectors of God’s people. One could translate, “people belonging to (i.e., protected by) the holy ones.” If the “holy ones” are God’s people, then this is an appositional construction, “the people who are the holy ones.” One could translate simply “holy people.” For examples of a plural appositional genitive after “people,” see 11:15, 32. Because either interpretation is possible, the translation has deliberately preserved the ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar here.

118 tn The Hebrew term has a primary meaning of “skill, insight,” but here it has the connotation “cunning, treachery.” See BDB 968 s.v. שֵׂכֶל, שֶׂכֶל.

119 tn Heb “he will cause deceit to succeed by his hand.”

120 tn Heb “in his heart he will act arrogantly.”

121 tn Heb “in peace.” The Hebrew word used here is difficult. It may refer to the security felt by those who did not realize the danger of imminent attack, or it may refer to the condition of being unaware of the impending danger. The latter idea is reflected in the present translation. See further, BDB 1017 s.v. שַׁלְוָה.

122 tn Heb “with nothingness of hand.”

123 tn Heb “truth.”

124 tn The Hebrew word here is נִהְיֵיתִי (nihyetiy). Its meaning is not entirely clear. Hebrew הָיָה (hayah) normally has meanings such as “to be” or “become.” Here, however, it describes Daniel’s emotional and physical response to the enigmatic vision that he has seen. It is parallel to the following verb, which refers to illness, and seems to refer to a state of utter exhaustion due to the amazing things that Daniel has just seen. The LXX lacks the word. On the meaning of the word see further, BDB 227-28 s.v. הָיָה Niph.2; DCH 2:540 s.v. היה I Ni.3.

125 sn The identity of this Darius is a major problem in correlating the biblical material with the extra-biblical records of this period. Most modern scholars treat the reference as a mistaken allusion to Darius Hystaspes (ca. 522-486 B.C.). Others have maintained instead that this name is a reference to the Persian governor Gubaru. Still others understand the reference to be to the Persian king Cyrus (cf. 6:28, where the vav (ו) may be understood as vav explicativum, meaning “even”). Under either of these latter two interpretations, the first year of Darius would have been ca. 538 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately eighty-two years old at this time.

126 tc The LXX reads “Xerxes.” This is the reading used by some English versions (e.g., NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV). Most other English versions retain the Hebrew name “Ahasuerus.”

127 tc The present translation follows the MT in reading a Hophal (i.e., passive). Theodotion, the Syriac, and the Vulgate all presuppose the Hiphil (i.e., active). Even though this is the only occurrence of the Hophal of this verb in the Bible, there is no need to emend the vocalization to the Hiphil.

128 tn Heb “was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans.”

129 tc This phrase, repeated from v. 1, is absent in Theodotion.

130 tn The Hebrew text has “books”; the word “sacred” has been added in the translation to clarify that it is Scriptures that are referred to.

131 sn The tetragrammaton (the four Hebrew letters which constitute the divine Name, YHWH) appears eight times in this chapter, and nowhere else in the book of Daniel.

132 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

133 tn Heb “face.”

134 tn The Hebrew phrase translated “Lord God” here is אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים (’adonay haelohim).

135 sn When lamenting, ancient Israelites would fast, wear sackcloth, and put ashes on their heads to show their sorrow and contrition.

136 tn The Hebrew term translated “Lord” here and in vv. 7, 9, 15, 16, and 19 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

137 tn Heb “who keeps the covenant and the loyal love.” The expression is a hendiadys.

138 tn Heb “in your name.” Another option is to translate, “as your representatives.”

139 tn Heb “our fathers” (also in vv. 8, 16). The Hebrew term translated “father” can refer to more distant relationships such as grandfathers or ancestors.

140 tn Heb “people.”

141 tn Heb “to you (belongs) righteousness.”

142 tn Heb “and to us (belongs) shame of face like this day.”

143 tn Heb “men.”

144 tn Heb “to us (belongs) shame of face.”

145 tn Heb “to the Lord our God (belong) compassion and forgiveness.”

146 tn Heb “paid attention to the voice of,” which is an idiomatic expression for obedience (cf. NASB “nor have we obeyed the voice of”).

147 tn Heb “to walk in.”

148 tc The LXX and Vulgate have the singular.

149 tn Or “transgressed.” The Hebrew verb has the primary sense of crossing a boundary, in this case, God’s law.

150 tn Heb “by not paying attention to your voice.”

151 tn Heb “the curse and the oath which is written.” The term “curse” refers here to the judgments threatened in the Mosaic law (see Deut 28) for rebellion. The expression “the curse and the oath” is probably a hendiadys (cf. Num 5:21; Neh 10:29) referring to the fact that the covenant with its threatened judgments was ratified by solemn oath and made legally binding upon the covenant community.

152 tn Heb “him.”

153 tn Heb “he has fulfilled his word(s) which he spoke.”

154 tn Heb “our judges.”

155 tn Heb “who judged.”

156 tn Heb “we have not pacified the face of.”

157 tn Or “by gaining insight.”

158 tn Heb “by your truth.” The Hebrew term does not refer here to abstract truth, however, but to the reliable moral guidance found in the covenant law. See vv 10-11.

159 tn Or “righteous.”

160 tn Heb “in all his deeds which he has done.”

161 tn Heb “we have not listened to his voice.”

162 tn Heb “with a powerful hand.”

163 tn Or “righteousness.”

164 tn Heb “your anger and your rage.” The synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of God’s anger. This is best expressed in English by making one of the terms adjectival (cf. NLT “your furious anger”; CEV “terribly angry”).

165 tn Heb “hear.” Here the verb refers to hearing favorably, accepting the prayer and responding positively.

166 tn Heb “let your face shine.” This idiom pictures God smiling in favor. See Pss 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19.

167 tn Heb “for the sake of my Lord.” Theodotion has “for your sake.” Cf. v. 19.

168 tn Heb “turn your ear.”

169 tn Heb “desolations.” The term refers here to the ruined condition of Judah’s towns.

170 tn Heb “over which your name is called.” Cf. v. 19. This expression implies that God is the owner of his city, Jerusalem. Note the use of the idiom in 2 Sam 12:28; Isa 4:1; Amos 9:12.

171 tn Heb “praying our supplications before you.”

172 tn Heb “for your name is called over your city and your people.” See the note on this expression in v 18.

173 tn Heb “the holy mountain of my God.”

174 tn Heb “speaking in prayer.”

175 tn Heb “in the beginning.”

176 tn The Hebrew expression בִּיעָף מֻעָף (muaf biaf) is very difficult. The issue is whether the verb derives from עוּף (’uf, “to fly”) or from יָעַף (yaaf, “to be weary”). Many ancient versions and modern commentators take the first of these possibilities and understand the reference to be to the swift flight of the angel Gabriel in his coming to Daniel. The words more likely refer to the extreme weariness, not of the angel, but of Daniel. Cf. 7:28; 8:27; 10:8-9, 16-17; also NASB.

177 tn Heb “he instructed and spoke with me.” The expression is a verbal hendiadys.

178 tn Or “a precious treasure”; KJV “greatly beloved”; NASB, NIV “highly esteemed.”

179 tn This sentence is perhaps a compound hendiadys (“give serious consideration to the revelatory vision”).

180 tn Heb “sevens.” Elsewhere the term is used of a literal week (a period of seven days), cf. Gen 29:27-28; Exod 34:22; Lev 12:5; Num 28:26; Deut 16:9-10; 2 Chr 8:13; Jer 5:24; Dan 10:2-3. Gabriel unfolds the future as if it were a calendar of successive weeks. Most understand the reference here as periods of seventy “sevens” of years, or a total of 490 years.

181 tc Or “to finish.” The present translation reads the Qere (from the root תָּמַם, tamam) with many witnesses. The Kethib has “to seal up” (from the root הָתַם, hatam), a confusion with a reference later in the verse to sealing up the vision.

182 tc The present translation reads the Qere (singular), rather than the Kethib (plural).

183 tn The Hebrew phrase לְכַלֵּא (lÿkhalle’) is apparently an alternative (metaplastic) spelling of the root כָּלָה (kalah, “to complete, finish”), rather than a form of כָּלָא (kala’, “to shut up, restrain”), as has sometimes been supposed.

184 tn Or “everlasting.”

185 sn The act of sealing in the OT is a sign of authentication. Cf. 1 Kgs 21:8; Jer 32:10, 11, 44.

186 tn Heb “vision and prophecy.” The expression is a hendiadys.

187 tn Or “the most holy place” (NASB, NLT); or “a most holy one”; or “the most holy one,” though the expression is used of places or objects elsewhere, not people.

188 tn Or “decree” (NASB, NIV); or “word” (NAB, NRSV).

189 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

190 tn The word “arrives” is added in the translation for clarification.

191 tn Heb “sevens” (also later in this line and in v. 26).

sn The accents in the MT indicate disjunction at this point, which would make it difficult, if not impossible, to identify the “anointed one/prince” of this verse as messianic. The reference in v. 26 to the sixty-two weeks as a unit favors the MT accentuation, not the traditional translation. If one follows the MT accentuation, one may translate “From the going forth of the message to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince arrives, there will be a period of seven weeks. During a period of sixty-two weeks it will again be built, with plaza and moat, but in distressful times.” The present translation follows a traditional reading of the passage that deviates from the MT accentuation.

192 tn Heb “it will return and be built.” The expression is a verbal hendiadys.

193 sn The expression have nothing is difficult. Presumably it refers to an absence of support or assistance for the anointed one at the time of his “cutting off.” The KJV rendering “but not for himself,” apparently suggesting a vicarious death, cannot be defended.

194 tc Some witnesses (e.g., the Syriac) understand a passive verb and the preposition עִם (’im, “with) rather than the noun עַם (’am, “people”), thus reading “the city and the sanctuary will be destroyed with the coming prince.”

195 tn The words “will come speedily” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.

196 sn Flood here is a metaphor for sudden destruction.

197 tn Heb “one seven” (also later in this line).

198 tn The referent of the Hebrew word כְּנַף (kÿnaf, “wing”) is unclear here. The LXX and Theodotion have “the temple.” Some English versions (e.g., NAB, NIV) take this to mean “a wing of the temple,” but this is not clear.

199 tn The Hebrew text does not have this verb, but it has been supplied in the translation for clarity.



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