Reading Plan 
Daily Bible Reading (daily) August 3
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Isaiah 22:1--24:23

Context
The Lord Will Judge Jerusalem

22:1 Here is a message about the Valley of Vision: 1 

What is the reason 2 

that all of you go up to the rooftops?

22:2 The noisy city is full of raucous sounds;

the town is filled with revelry. 3 

Your slain were not cut down by the sword;

they did not die in battle. 4 

22:3 5 All your leaders ran away together –

they fled to a distant place;

all your refugees 6  were captured together –

they were captured without a single arrow being shot. 7 

22:4 So I say:

“Don’t look at me! 8 

I am weeping bitterly.

Don’t try 9  to console me

concerning the destruction of my defenseless people.” 10 

22:5 For the sovereign master, 11  the Lord who commands armies,

has planned a day of panic, defeat, and confusion. 12 

In the Valley of Vision 13  people shout 14 

and cry out to the hill. 15 

22:6 The Elamites picked up the quiver,

and came with chariots and horsemen; 16 

the men of Kir 17  prepared 18  the shield. 19 

22:7 Your very best valleys were full of chariots; 20 

horsemen confidently took their positions 21  at the gate.

22:8 They 22  removed the defenses 23  of Judah.

At that time 24  you looked

for the weapons in the House of the Forest. 25 

22:9 You saw the many breaks

in the walls of the city of David; 26 

you stored up water in the lower pool.

22:10 You counted the houses in Jerusalem, 27 

and demolished houses so you could have material to reinforce the wall. 28 

22:11 You made a reservoir between the two walls

for the water of the old pool –

but you did not trust in 29  the one who made it; 30 

you did not depend on 31  the one who formed it long ago!

22:12 At that time the sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies, called for weeping and mourning,

for shaved heads and sackcloth. 32 

22:13 But look, there is outright celebration! 33 

You say, “Kill the ox and slaughter the sheep,

eat meat and drink wine.

Eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!” 34 

22:14 The Lord who commands armies told me this: 35  “Certainly this sin will not be forgiven as long as you live,” 36  says the sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies.

22:15 This is what the sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies, says:

“Go visit this administrator, Shebna, who supervises the palace, 37  and tell him: 38 

22:16 ‘What right do you have to be here? What relatives do you have buried here? 39 

Why 40  do you chisel out a tomb for yourself here?

He chisels out his burial site in an elevated place,

he carves out his tomb on a cliff.

22:17 Look, the Lord will throw you far away, 41  you mere man! 42 

He will wrap you up tightly. 43 

22:18 He will wind you up tightly into a ball

and throw you into a wide, open land. 44 

There you will die,

and there with you will be your impressive chariots, 45 

which bring disgrace to the house of your master. 46 

22:19 I will remove you from 47  your office;

you will be thrown down 48  from your position.

22:20 “At that time 49  I will summon my servant Eliakim, son of Hilkiah. 22:21 I will put your robe on him, tie your belt around him, and transfer your authority to him. 50  He will become a protector of 51  the residents of Jerusalem and of the people 52  of Judah. 22:22 I will place the key 53  to the house of David on his shoulder. When he opens the door, no one can close it; when he closes the door, no one can open it. 22:23 I will fasten him like a peg into a solid place; 54  he will bring honor and respect to his father’s family. 55  22:24 His father’s family will gain increasing prominence because of him, 56  including the offspring and the offshoots. 57  All the small containers, including the bowls and all the jars will hang from this peg.’ 58 

22:25 “At that time,” 59  says the Lord who commands armies, “the peg fastened into a solid place will come loose. It will be cut off and fall, and the load hanging on it will be cut off.” 60  Indeed, 61  the Lord has spoken.

The Lord Will Judge Tyre

23:1 Here is a message about Tyre:

Wail, you large ships, 62 

for the port is too devastated to enter! 63 

From the land of Cyprus 64  this news is announced to them.

23:2 Lament, 65  you residents of the coast,

you merchants of Sidon 66  who travel over the sea,

whose agents sail over 23:3 the deep waters! 67 

Grain from the Shihor region, 68 

crops grown near the Nile 69  she receives; 70 

she is the trade center 71  of the nations.

23:4 Be ashamed, O Sidon,

for the sea 72  says this, O fortress of the sea:

“I have not gone into labor

or given birth;

I have not raised young men

or brought up young women.” 73 

23:5 When the news reaches Egypt,

they will be shaken by what has happened to Tyre. 74 

23:6 Travel to Tarshish!

Wail, you residents of the coast!

23:7 Is this really your boisterous city 75 

whose origins are in the distant past, 76 

and whose feet led her to a distant land to reside?

23:8 Who planned this for royal Tyre, 77 

whose merchants are princes,

whose traders are the dignitaries 78  of the earth?

23:9 The Lord who commands armies planned it –

to dishonor the pride that comes from all her beauty, 79 

to humiliate all the dignitaries of the earth.

23:10 Daughter Tarshish, travel back to your land, as one crosses the Nile;

there is no longer any marketplace in Tyre. 80 

23:11 The Lord stretched out his hand over the sea, 81 

he shook kingdoms;

he 82  gave the order

to destroy Canaan’s fortresses. 83 

23:12 He said,

“You will no longer celebrate,

oppressed 84  virgin daughter Sidon!

Get up, travel to Cyprus,

but you will find no relief there.” 85 

23:13 Look at the land of the Chaldeans,

these people who have lost their identity! 86 

The Assyrians have made it a home for wild animals.

They erected their siege towers, 87 

demolished 88  its fortresses,

and turned it into a heap of ruins. 89 

23:14 Wail, you large ships, 90 

for your fortress is destroyed!

23:15 At that time 91  Tyre will be forgotten for seventy years, 92  the typical life span of a king. 93  At the end of seventy years Tyre will try to attract attention again, like the prostitute in the popular song: 94 

23:16 “Take the harp,

go through the city,

forgotten prostitute!

Play it well,

play lots of songs,

so you’ll be noticed!” 95 

23:17 At the end of seventy years 96  the Lord will revive 97  Tyre. She will start making money again by selling her services to all the earth’s kingdoms. 98  23:18 Her profits and earnings will be set apart for the Lord. They will not be stored up or accumulated, for her profits will be given to those who live in the Lord’s presence and will be used to purchase large quantities of food and beautiful clothes. 99 

The Lord Will Judge the Earth

24:1 Look, the Lord is ready to devastate the earth

and leave it in ruins;

he will mar its surface

and scatter its inhabitants.

24:2 Everyone will suffer – the priest as well as the people, 100 

the master as well as the servant, 101 

the elegant lady as well as the female attendant, 102 

the seller as well as the buyer, 103 

the borrower as well as the lender, 104 

the creditor as well as the debtor. 105 

24:3 The earth will be completely devastated

and thoroughly ransacked.

For the Lord has decreed this judgment. 106 

24:4 The earth 107  dries up 108  and withers,

the world shrivels up and withers;

the prominent people of the earth 109  fade away.

24:5 The earth is defiled by 110  its inhabitants, 111 

for they have violated laws,

disregarded the regulation, 112 

and broken the permanent treaty. 113 

24:6 So a treaty curse 114  devours the earth;

its inhabitants pay for their guilt. 115 

This is why the inhabitants of the earth disappear, 116 

and are reduced to just a handful of people. 117 

24:7 The new wine dries up,

the vines shrivel up,

all those who like to celebrate 118  groan.

24:8 The happy sound 119  of the tambourines stops,

the revelry of those who celebrate comes to a halt,

the happy sound of the harp ceases.

24:9 They no longer sing and drink wine; 120 

the beer tastes bitter to those who drink it.

24:10 The ruined town 121  is shattered;

all of the houses are shut up tight. 122 

24:11 They howl in the streets because of what happened to the wine; 123 

all joy turns to sorrow; 124 

celebrations disappear from the earth. 125 

24:12 The city is left in ruins; 126 

the gate is reduced to rubble. 127 

24:13 This is what will happen throughout 128  the earth,

among the nations.

It will be like when they beat an olive tree,

and just a few olives are left at the end of the harvest. 129 

24:14 They 130  lift their voices and shout joyfully;

they praise 131  the majesty of the Lord in the west.

24:15 So in the east 132  extol the Lord,

along the seacoasts extol 133  the fame 134  of the Lord God of Israel.

24:16 From the ends of the earth we 135  hear songs –

the Just One is majestic. 136 

But I 137  say, “I’m wasting away! I’m wasting away! I’m doomed!

Deceivers deceive, deceivers thoroughly deceive!” 138 

24:17 Terror, pit, and snare

are ready to overtake you inhabitants of the earth! 139 

24:18 The one who runs away from the sound of the terror

will fall into the pit; 140 

the one who climbs out of the pit,

will be trapped by the snare.

For the floodgates of the heavens 141  are opened up 142 

and the foundations of the earth shake.

24:19 The earth is broken in pieces,

the earth is ripped to shreds,

the earth shakes violently. 143 

24:20 The earth will stagger around 144  like a drunk;

it will sway back and forth like a hut in a windstorm. 145 

Its sin will weigh it down,

and it will fall and never get up again.

The Lord Will Become King

24:21 At that time 146  the Lord will punish 147 

the heavenly forces in the heavens 148 

and the earthly kings on the earth.

24:22 They will be imprisoned in a pit, 149 

locked up in a prison,

and after staying there for a long time, 150  they will be punished. 151 

24:23 The full moon will be covered up, 152 

the bright sun 153  will be darkened; 154 

for the Lord who commands armies will rule 155 

on Mount Zion in Jerusalem 156 

in the presence of his assembly, in majestic splendor. 157 

1 sn The following message pertains to Jerusalem. The significance of referring to the city as the Valley of Vision is uncertain. Perhaps the Hinnom Valley is in view, but why it is associated with a prophetic revelatory “vision” is not entirely clear. Maybe the Hinnom Valley is called this because the destruction that will take place there is the focal point of this prophetic message (see v. 5).

2 tn Heb “What to you, then?”

3 tn Heb “the boisterous town.” The phrase is parallel to “the noisy city” in the preceding line.

4 sn Apparently they died from starvation during the siege that preceded the final conquest of the city. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:409.

5 tn Verse 3 reads literally, “All your leaders ran away, apart from a bow they were captured, all your found ones were captured together, to a distant place they fled.” J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 1:403, n. 3) suggests that the lines of the verse are arranged chiastically; lines 1 and 4 go together, while lines 2 and 3 are parallel. To translate the lines in the order they appear in the Hebrew text is misleading to the English reader, who is likely unfamiliar with, or at least insensitive to, chiastic parallelism. Consequently, the translation above arranges the lines as follows: line 1 (Hebrew) = line 1 (in translation); line 2 (Hebrew) = line 4 (in translation); line 3 (Hebrew) = line 3 (in translation); line 4 (Hebrew) = line 2 (in translation).

6 tn Heb “all your found ones.” To achieve tighter parallelism (see “your leaders”) some prefer to emend the form to אַמִּיצַיִךְ (’ammitsayikh, “your strong ones”) or to נֶאֱמָצַיִךְ (neematsayikh, “your strengthened ones”).

7 tn Heb “apart from [i.e., without] a bow they were captured”; cf. NAB, NRSV “without the use of a bow.”

8 tn Heb “look away from me” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV).

9 tn Heb “don’t hurry” (so NCV).

10 tn Heb “the daughter of my people.” “Daughter” is here used metaphorically to express the speaker’s emotional attachment to his people, as well as their vulnerability and weakness.

11 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here and in vv. 12, 14, 15 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

12 tn Heb “For [there is] a day of panic, and trampling, and confusion for the master, the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].”

13 tn The traditional accentuation of the Hebrew text suggests that this phrase goes with what precedes.

14 tn The precise meaning of this statement is unclear. Some take קִר (qir) as “wall” and interpret the verb to mean “tear down.” However, tighter parallelism (note the reference to crying for help in the next line) is achieved if one takes both the verb and noun from a root, attested in Ugaritic and Arabic, meaning “make a sound.” See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:404, n. 5.

15 sn Perhaps “the hill” refers to the temple mount.

16 tn Heb “[with] the chariots of men, horsemen.”

17 sn A distant region in the direction of Mesopotamia; see Amos 1:5; 9:7.

18 tn Heb “Kir uncovers” (so NAB, NIV).

19 sn The Elamites and men of Kir may here symbolize a fierce army from a distant land. If this oracle anticipates a Babylonian conquest of the city (see 39:5-7), then the Elamites and men of Kir are perhaps viewed here as mercenaries in the Babylonian army. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:410.

20 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

21 tn Heb “taking a stand, take their stand.” The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following finite verb. The translation attempts to bring out this emphasis with the adverb “confidently.”

22 tn Heb “he,” i.e., the enemy invader. NASB, by its capitalization of the pronoun, takes this to refer to the Lord.

23 tn Heb “covering.”

24 tn Heb “in that day” (so KJV), likewise at the beginning of v. 12.

25 sn Perhaps this refers to a royal armory, or to Solomon’s “House of the Forest of Lebanon,” where weapons may have been kept (see 1 Kgs 10:16-17).

26 tn Heb “the breaks of the city of David, you saw that they were many.”

27 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

28 tn Heb “you demolished the houses to fortify the wall.”

29 tn Heb “look at”; NAB, NRSV “did not look to.”

30 tn The antecedent of the third feminine singular suffix here and in the next line is unclear. The closest feminine noun is “pool” in the first half of the verse. Perhaps this “old pool” symbolizes the entire city, which had prospered because of God’s provision and protection through the years.

31 tn Heb “did not see.”

32 tn Heb “for baldness and the wearing of sackcloth.” See the note at 15:2.

33 tn Heb “happiness and joy.”

34 tn The prophet here quotes what the fatalistic people are saying. The introductory “you say” is supplied in the translation for clarification; the concluding verb “we die” makes it clear the people are speaking. The six verbs translated as imperatives are actually infinitives absolute, functioning here as finite verbs.

35 tn Heb “it was revealed in my ears [by?] the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts].”

36 tn Heb “Certainly this sin will not be atoned for until you die.” This does not imply that their death will bring atonement; rather it emphasizes that their sin is unpardonable. The statement has the form of an oath.

37 tn Heb “who is over the house” (so ASV); NASB “who is in charge of the royal household.”

38 tn The words “and tell him” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

39 tn Heb “What to you here? And who to you here?” The point of the second question is not entirely clear. The interpretation reflected in the translation is based on the following context, which suggests that Shebna has no right to think of himself so highly and arrange such an extravagant burial place for himself.

40 tn Heb “that you chisel out.”

41 tn Heb “will throw you with a throwing.”

42 tn Heb “O man” (so NASB); NAB “mortal man”; NRSV “my fellow.”

43 tn Heb “and the one who wraps you [will] wrap.”

44 tn Heb “and he will tightly [or “surely”] wind you [with] winding like a ball, to a land broad of hands [i.e., “sides”].”

45 tn Heb “and there the chariots of your splendor.”

46 sn Apparently the reference to chariots alludes to Shebna’s excessive pride, which in turn brings disgrace to the royal family.

47 tn Heb “I will push you away from.”

48 tn Heb “he will throw you down.” The shift from the first to third person is peculiar and abrupt, but certainly not unprecedented in Hebrew poetry. See GKC 462 §144.p. The third person may be indefinite (“one will throw you down”), in which case the passive translation is justified.

49 tn Or “in that day.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

50 tn Heb “and your dominion I will place in his hand.”

51 tn Heb “a father to.” The Hebrew term אָב (’av, “father”) is here used metaphorically of one who protects and supports those under his care and authority, like a father does his family. For another example of this metaphorical use of the word, see Job 29:16.

52 tn Heb “house.”

53 sn This may refer to a literal insignia worn by the chief administrator. Even so, it would still symbolize the administrator’s authority to grant or exclude access to the king. See J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah (NICOT), 1:422.

54 sn The metaphor depicts how secure his position will be.

55 tn Heb “and he will become a glorious throne for the house of his father.”

56 tn Heb “and all the glory of the house of his father they will hang on him.” The Lord returns to the peg metaphor of v. 23a. Eliakim’s secure position of honor will bring benefits and jobs to many others in the family.

57 tn The precise meaning and derivation of this word are uncertain. Cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV “the issue”; CEV “relatives.”

58 tn Heb “all the small vessels, from the vessels that are bowls to all the vessels that are jars.” The picture is that of a single peg holding the weight of all kinds of containers hung from it.

59 tn Or “In that day” (KJV).

60 sn Eliakim’s authority, though seemingly secure, will eventually be removed, and with it his family’s prominence.

61 tn Or “for” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).

62 tn Heb “ships of Tarshish.” This probably refers to large ships either made in or capable of traveling to the distant western port of Tarshish.

63 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “for it is destroyed, from a house, from entering.” The translation assumes that the mem (מ) on בַּיִת (bayit) was originally an enclitic mem suffixed to the preceding verb. This assumption allows one to take בַּיִת as the subject of the preceding verb. It is used in a metaphorical sense for the port city of Tyre. The preposition min (מִן) prefixed to בּוֹא (bo’) indicates negative consequence: “so that no one can enter.” See BDB 583 s.v. מִן 7.b.

64 tn Heb “the Kittim,” a designation for the people of Cyprus. See HALOT 504-05 s.v. כִּתִּיִּים.

65 tn Or “keep quiet”; NAB “Silence!”

66 map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

67 tc The Hebrew text (23:2b-3a) reads literally, “merchant of Sidon, the one who crosses the sea, they filled you, and on the deep waters.” Instead of מִלְאוּךְ (milukh, “they filled you”) the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads מלאכיך (“your messengers”). The translation assumes an emendation of מִלְאוּךְ to מַלְאָכָו (malakhav, “his messengers”), taking the vav (ו) on וּבְמַיִם (uvÿmayim) as improperly placed; instead it should be the final letter of the preceding word.

68 tn Heb “seed of Shihor.” “Shihor” probably refers to the east branch of the Nile. See Jer 2:18 and BDB 1009 s.v. שִׁיחוֹר.

69 tn Heb “the harvest of the Nile.”

70 tn Heb “[is] her revenue.”

71 tn Heb “merchandise”; KJV, ASV “a mart of nations”; NLT “the merchandise mart of the world.”

72 tn J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 1:430-31) sees here a reference to Yam, the Canaanite god of the sea. He interprets the phrase מָעוֹז הַיָּם (maoz hayyam, “fortress of the sea”) as a title of Yam, translating “Mighty One of the Sea.” A more traditional view is that the phrase refers to Sidon.

73 tn Or “virgins” (KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB).

sn The sea is personified here as a lamenting childless woman. The foreboding language anticipates the following announcement of Tyre’s demise, viewed here as a child of the sea, as it were.

74 tn Heb “they will be in pain at the report of Tyre.”

75 tn Heb “Is this to you, boisterous one?” The pronoun “you” is masculine plural, like the imperatives in v. 6, so it is likely addressed to the Egyptians and residents of the coast. “Boisterous one” is a feminine singular form, probably referring to the personified city of Tyre.

76 tn Heb “in the days of antiquity [is] her beginning.”

77 tn The precise meaning of הַמַּעֲטִירָה (hammaatirah) is uncertain. The form is a Hiphil participle from עָטַר (’atar), a denominative verb derived from עֲטָרָה (’atarah, “crown, wreath”). The participle may mean “one who wears a crown” or “one who distributes crowns.” In either case, Tyre’s prominence in the international political arena is in view.

78 tn Heb “the honored” (so NASB, NRSV); NIV “renowned.”

79 tn Heb “the pride of all the beauty.”

80 tc This meaning of this verse is unclear. The Hebrew text reads literally, “Cross over your land, like the Nile, daughter of Tarshish, there is no more waistband.” The translation assumes an emendation of מֵזַח (mezakh, “waistband”) to מָחֹז (makhoz, “harbor, marketplace”; see Ps 107:30). The term עָבַר (’avar, “cross over”) is probably used here of traveling over the water (as in v. 6). The command is addressed to personified Tarshish, who here represents her merchants. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has עבדי (“work, cultivate”) instead of עִבְרִי (’ivri, “cross over”). In this case one might translate “Cultivate your land, like they do the Nile region” (cf. NIV, CEV). The point would be that the people of Tarshish should turn to agriculture because they will no longer be able to get what they need through the marketplace in Tyre.

81 tn Heb “his hand he stretched out over the sea.”

82 tn Heb “the Lord.” For stylistic reasons the pronoun (“he”) has been used in the translation here.

83 tn Heb “concerning Canaan, to destroy her fortresses.” NIV, NLT translate “Canaan” as “Phoenicia” here.

84 tn Or “violated, raped,” the point being that Daughter Sidon has lost her virginity in the most brutal manner possible.

85 tn Heb “[to the] Kittim, get up, cross over; even there there will be no rest for you.” On “Kittim” see the note on “Cyprus” at v. 1.

86 tn Heb “this people [that] is not.”

87 tn For the meaning of this word, see HALOT 118 s.v. *בַּחוּן.

88 tn Or “laid bare.” For the meaning of this word, see HALOT 889 s.v. ערר.

89 sn This verse probably refers to the Assyrian destruction of Babylon.

90 tn Heb “ships of Tarshish.” See the note at v. 1.

91 tn Or “in that day” (KJV). The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

92 sn The number seventy is probably used in a stereotypical, nonliteral sense here to indicate a long period of time that satisfies completely the demands of God’s judgment.

93 tn Heb “like the days of a king.”

94 tn Heb “At the end of seventy years it will be for Tyre like the song of the prostitute.”

95 tn Heb “so you will be remembered.”

96 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

97 tn Heb “visit [with favor]” (cf. KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV); NIV “will deal with.”

98 tn Heb “and she will return to her [prostitute’s] wages and engage in prostitution with all the kingdoms of the earth on the face of the earth.”

99 tn Heb “for eating to fullness and for beautiful covering[s].”

sn The point of this verse, which in its blatant nationalism comes precariously close to comparing the Lord to one who controls or manages a prostitute, is that Tyre will become a subject of Israel and her God. Tyre’s commercial profits will be used to enrich the Lord’s people.

100 tn Heb “and it will be like the people, like the priest.”

101 tn Heb “like the servant, like his master.”

102 tn Heb “like the female servant, like her mistress.”

103 tn Heb “like the buyer, like the seller.”

104 tn Heb “like the lender, like the borrower.”

105 tn Heb “like the creditor, just as the one to whom he lends.”

106 tn Heb “for the Lord has spoken this word.”

107 tn Some prefer to read “land” here, but the word pair אֶרֶץ/תֵּבֵל (erets/tevel [see the corresponding term in the parallel line]) elsewhere clearly designates the earth/world (see 1 Sam 2:8; 1 Chr 16:30; Job 37;12; Pss 19:4; 24:1; 33:8; 89:11; 90:2; 96:13; 98:9; Prov 8:26, 31; Isa 14:16-17; 34:1; Jer 10:12; 51:15; Lam 4:12). According to L. Stadelmann, תבל designates “the habitable part of the world” (The Hebrew Conception of the World [AnBib], 130).

108 tn Or “mourns” (BDB 5 s.v. אָבַל). HALOT 6-7 lists the homonyms I אבל (“mourn”) and II אבל (“dry up”). They propose the second here on the basis of parallelism.

109 tn Heb “the height of the people of the earth.” The translation assumes an emendation of the singular form מְרוֹם (mÿrom, “height of”) to the plural construct מְרֹמֵי (mÿrome, “high ones of”; note the plural verb at the beginning of the line), and understands the latter as referring to the prominent people of human society.

110 tn Heb “beneath”; cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV “under”; NAB “because of.”

111 sn Isa 26:21 suggests that the earth’s inhabitants defiled the earth by shedding the blood of their fellow human beings. See also Num 35:33-34, which assumes that bloodshed defiles a land.

112 tn Heb “moved past [the?] regulation.”

113 tn Or “everlasting covenant” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the ancient covenant”; CEV “their agreement that was to last forever.”

sn For a lengthy discussion of the identity of this covenant/treaty, see R. Chisholm, “The ‘Everlasting Covenant’ and the ‘City of Chaos’: Intentional Ambiguity and Irony in Isaiah 24,” CTR 6 (1993): 237-53. In this context, where judgment comes upon both the pagan nations and God’s covenant community, the phrase “permanent treaty” is intentionally ambiguous. For the nations this treaty is the Noahic mandate of Gen 9:1-7 with its specific stipulations and central regulation (Gen 9:7). By shedding blood, the warlike nations violated this treaty, which promotes population growth and prohibits murder. For Israel, which was also guilty of bloodshed (see Isa 1:15, 21; 4:4), this “permanent treaty” would refer more specifically to the Mosaic Law and its regulations prohibiting murder (Exod 20:13; Num 35:6-34), which are an extension of the Noahic mandate.

114 sn Ancient Near Eastern treaties often had “curses,” or threatened judgments, attached to them. (See Deut 28 for a biblical example of such curses.) The party or parties taking an oath of allegiance acknowledged that disobedience would activate these curses, which typically threatened loss of agricultural fertility as depicted in the following verses.

115 tn The verb אָשַׁם (’asham, “be guilty”) is here used metonymically to mean “pay, suffer for one’s guilt” (see HALOT 95 s.v. אשׁם).

116 tn BDB 359 s.v. חָרַר derives the verb חָרוּ (kharu) from חָרַר (kharar, “burn”), but HALOT 351 s.v. II חרה understands a hapax legomenon חָרָה (kharah, “to diminish in number,” a homonym of חָרָה) here, relating it to an alleged Arabic cognate meaning “to decrease.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has חורו, perhaps understanding the root as חָוַר (khavar, “grow pale”; see Isa 29:22 and HALOT 299 s.v. I חור).

117 tn Heb “and mankind is left small [in number].”

118 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “all the joyful in heart,” but the context specifies the context as parties and drinking bouts.

119 tn Heb “the joy” (again later in this verse).

120 tn Heb “with a song they do not drink wine.”

121 tn Heb “the city of chaos” (so NAB, NASB, NRSV). Isaiah uses the term תֹּהוּ (tohu) rather frequently of things (like idols) that are empty and worthless (see BDB 1062 s.v.), so the word might characterize the city as rebellious or morally worthless. However, in this context, which focuses on the effects of divine judgment, it probably refers to the ruined or worthless condition in which the city is left (note the use of the word in Isa 34:11). For a discussion of the identity of this city, see R. Chisholm, “The ‘Everlasting Covenant’ and the ‘City of Chaos’: Intentional Ambiguity and Irony in Isaiah 24,” CTR 6 (1993): 237-53. In the context of universal judgment depicted in Isa 24, this city represents all the nations and cities of the world which, like Babylon of old and the powers/cities mentioned in chapters 13-23, rebel against God’s authority. Behind the stereotypical language one can detect various specific manifestations of this symbolic and paradigmatic city, including Babylon, Moab, and Jerusalem, all of which are alluded or referred to in chapters 24-27.

122 tn Heb “every house is closed up from entering.”

123 tn Heb “[there is] an outcry over the wine in the streets.”

124 tn Heb “all joy turns to evening,” the darkness of evening symbolizing distress and sorrow.

125 tn Heb “the joy of the earth disappears.”

126 tn Heb “and there is left in the city desolation.”

127 tn Heb “and [into] rubble the gate is crushed.”

128 tn Heb “in the midst of” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).

129 sn The judgment will severely reduce the earth’s population. See v. 6.

130 sn The remnant of the nations (see v. 13) may be the unspecified subject. If so, then those who have survived the judgment begin to praise God.

131 tn Heb “they yell out concerning.”

132 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “in the lights,” interpreted by some to mean “in the region of light,” referring to the east. Some scholars have suggested the emendation of בָּאֻרִים (baurim) to בְּאִיֵּי הַיָּם (bÿiyyey hayyam, “along the seacoasts”), a phrase that is repeated in the next line. In this case, the two lines form synonymous parallelism. If one retains the MT reading (as above), “in the east” and “along the seacoasts” depict the two ends of the earth to refer to all the earth (as a merism).

133 tn The word “extol” is supplied in the translation; the verb in the first line does double duty in the parallelism.

134 tn Heb “name,” which here stands for God’s reputation achieved by his mighty deeds.

135 sn The identity of the subject is unclear. Apparently in vv. 15-16a an unidentified group responds to the praise they hear in the west by exhorting others to participate.

136 tn Heb “Beauty belongs to the just one.” These words may summarize the main theme of the songs mentioned in the preceding line.

137 sn The prophet seems to contradict what he hears the group saying. Their words are premature because more destruction is coming.

138 tn Heb “and [with] deception deceivers deceive.”

tn Verse 16b is a classic example of Hebrew wordplay. In the first line (“I’m wasting away…”) four consecutive words end with hireq yod ( ִי); in the second line all forms are derived from the root בָּגַד (bagad). The repetition of sound draws attention to the prophet’s lament.

139 tn Heb “[are] upon you, O inhabitant of the earth.” The first line of v. 17 provides another classic example of Hebrew wordplay. The names of the three instruments of judgment (פָח,פַחַת,פַּחַד [pakhad, fakhat, fakh]) all begin with the letters פח (peh-khet) and the first two end in dental consonants (ת/ד, tet/dalet). Once again the repetition of sound draws attention to the statement and contributes to the theme of the inescapability of judgment. As their similar-sounding names suggest, terror, pit, and snare are allies in destroying the objects of divine wrath.

140 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

141 tn Heb “from the height”; KJV “from on high.”

142 sn The language reflects the account of the Noahic Flood (see Gen 7:11).

143 tn Once more repetition is used to draw attention to a statement. In the Hebrew text each lines ends with אֶרֶץ (’erets, “earth”). Each line also uses a Hitpolel verb form from a geminate root preceded by an emphatic infinitive absolute.

144 tn Heb “staggering, staggers.” The Hebrew text uses the infinitive absolute before the finite verb for emphasis and sound play.

145 tn The words “in a windstorm” are supplied in the translation to clarify the metaphor.

146 tn Or “in that day” (so KJV). The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

147 tn Heb “visit [in judgment].”

148 tn Heb “the host of the height in the height.” The “host of the height/heaven” refers to the heavenly luminaries (stars and planets, see, among others, Deut 4:19; 17:3; 2 Kgs 17:16; 21:3, 5; 23:4-5; 2 Chr 33:3, 5) that populate the divine/heavenly assembly in mythological and prescientific Israelite thought (see Job 38:7; Isa 14:13).

149 tn Heb “they will be gathered [in] a gathering [as] a prisoner in a cistern.” It is tempting to eliminate אֲסֵפָה (’asefah, “a gathering”) as dittographic or as a gloss, but sound repetition is one of the main characteristics of the style of this section of the chapter.

150 tn Heb “and after a multitude of days.”

151 tn Heb “visited” (so KJV, ASV). This verse can mean to visit for good or for evil. The translation assumes the latter, based on v. 21a. However, BDB 823 s.v. פָּקַד B.Niph.2 suggests the meaning “visit graciously” here, in which case one might translate “they will be released.”

152 tn Heb “will be ashamed.”

153 tn Or “glow of the sun.”

154 tn Heb “will be ashamed” (so NCV).

155 tn Or “take his throne,” “become king.”

156 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

157 tn Heb “and before his elders [in] splendor.”



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