Reading Plan 
Daily Bible Reading (daily) August 12
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Isaiah 49:1--51:23

Context
Ideal Israel Delivers the Exiles

49:1 Listen to me, you coastlands! 1 

Pay attention, you people who live far away!

The Lord summoned me from birth; 2 

he commissioned me when my mother brought me into the world. 3 

49:2 He made my mouth like a sharp sword,

he hid me in the hollow of his hand;

he made me like a sharpened 4  arrow,

he hid me in his quiver. 5 

49:3 He said to me, “You are my servant,

Israel, through whom I will reveal my splendor.” 6 

49:4 But I thought, 7  “I have worked in vain;

I have expended my energy for absolutely nothing.” 8 

But the Lord will vindicate me;

my God will reward me. 9 

49:5 So now the Lord says,

the one who formed me from birth 10  to be his servant –

he did this 11  to restore Jacob to himself,

so that Israel might be gathered to him;

and I will be honored 12  in the Lord’s sight,

for my God is my source of strength 13 

49:6 he says, “Is it too insignificant a task for you to be my servant,

to reestablish the tribes of Jacob,

and restore the remnant 14  of Israel? 15 

I will make you a light to the nations, 16 

so you can bring 17  my deliverance to the remote regions of the earth.”

49:7 This is what the Lord,

the protector 18  of Israel, their Holy One, 19  says

to the one who is despised 20  and rejected 21  by nations, 22 

a servant of rulers:

“Kings will see and rise in respect, 23 

princes will bow down,

because of the faithful Lord,

the Holy One of Israel who has chosen you.”

49:8 This is what the Lord says:

“At the time I decide to show my favor, I will respond to you;

in the day of deliverance I will help you;

I will protect you 24  and make you a covenant mediator for people, 25 

to rebuild 26  the land 27 

and to reassign the desolate property.

49:9 You will say 28  to the prisoners, ‘Come out,’

and to those who are in dark dungeons, 29  ‘Emerge.’ 30 

They will graze beside the roads;

on all the slopes they will find pasture.

49:10 They will not be hungry or thirsty;

the sun’s oppressive heat will not beat down on them, 31 

for one who has compassion on them will guide them;

he will lead them to springs of water.

49:11 I will make all my mountains into a road;

I will construct my roadways.”

49:12 Look, they come from far away!

Look, some come from the north and west,

and others from the land of Sinim! 32 

49:13 Shout for joy, O sky! 33 

Rejoice, O earth!

Let the mountains give a joyful shout!

For the Lord consoles his people

and shows compassion to the 34  oppressed.

The Lord Remembers Zion

49:14 “Zion said, ‘The Lord has abandoned me,

the sovereign master 35  has forgotten me.’

49:15 Can a woman forget her baby who nurses at her breast? 36 

Can she withhold compassion from the child she has borne? 37 

Even if mothers 38  were to forget,

I could never forget you! 39 

49:16 Look, I have inscribed your name 40  on my palms;

your walls are constantly before me.

49:17 Your children hurry back,

while those who destroyed and devastated you depart.

49:18 Look all around you! 41 

All of them gather to you.

As surely as I live,” says the Lord,

“you will certainly wear all of them like jewelry;

you will put them on as if you were a bride.

49:19 Yes, your land lies in ruins;

it is desolate and devastated. 42 

But now you will be too small to hold your residents,

and those who devoured you will be far away.

49:20 Yet the children born during your time of bereavement

will say within your hearing,

‘This place is too cramped for us, 43 

make room for us so we can live here.’ 44 

49:21 Then you will think to yourself, 45 

‘Who bore these children for me?

I was bereaved and barren,

dismissed and divorced. 46 

Who raised these children?

Look, I was left all alone;

where did these children come from?’”

49:22 This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“Look I will raise my hand to the nations;

I will raise my signal flag to the peoples.

They will bring your sons in their arms

and carry your daughters on their shoulders.

49:23 Kings will be your children’s 47  guardians;

their princesses will nurse your children. 48 

With their faces to the ground they will bow down to you

and they will lick the dirt on 49  your feet.

Then you will recognize that I am the Lord;

those who wait patiently for me are not put to shame.

49:24 Can spoils be taken from a warrior,

or captives be rescued from a conqueror? 50 

49:25 Indeed,” says the Lord,

“captives will be taken from a warrior;

spoils will be rescued from a conqueror.

I will oppose your adversary

and I will rescue your children.

49:26 I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh;

they will get drunk on their own blood, as if it were wine. 51 

Then all humankind 52  will recognize that

I am the Lord, your deliverer,

your protector, 53  the powerful ruler of Jacob.” 54 

50:1 This is what the Lord says:

“Where is your mother’s divorce certificate

by which I divorced her?

Or to which of my creditors did I sell you? 55 

Look, you were sold because of your sins; 56 

because of your rebellious acts I divorced your mother. 57 

50:2 Why does no one challenge me when I come?

Why does no one respond when I call? 58 

Is my hand too weak 59  to deliver 60  you?

Do I lack the power to rescue you?

Look, with a mere shout 61  I can dry up the sea;

I can turn streams into a desert,

so the fish rot away and die

from lack of water. 62 

50:3 I can clothe the sky in darkness;

I can cover it with sackcloth.”

The Servant Perseveres

50:4 The sovereign Lord has given me the capacity to be his spokesman, 63 

so that I know how to help the weary. 64 

He wakes me up every morning;

he makes me alert so I can listen attentively as disciples do. 65 

50:5 The sovereign Lord has spoken to me clearly; 66 

I have not rebelled,

I have not turned back.

50:6 I offered my back to those who attacked, 67 

my jaws to those who tore out my beard;

I did not hide my face

from insults and spitting.

50:7 But the sovereign Lord helps me,

so I am not humiliated.

For that reason I am steadfastly resolved; 68 

I know I will not be put to shame.

50:8 The one who vindicates me is close by.

Who dares to argue with me? Let us confront each other! 69 

Who is my accuser? 70  Let him challenge me! 71 

50:9 Look, the sovereign Lord helps me.

Who dares to condemn me?

Look, all of them will wear out like clothes;

a moth will eat away at them.

50:10 Who among you fears the Lord?

Who obeys 72  his servant?

Whoever walks in deep darkness, 73 

without light,

should trust in the name of the Lord

and rely on his God.

50:11 Look, all of you who start a fire

and who equip yourselves with 74  flaming arrows, 75 

walk 76  in the light 77  of the fire you started

and among the flaming arrows you ignited! 78 

This is what you will receive from me: 79 

you will lie down in a place of pain. 80 

There is Hope for the Future

51:1 “Listen to me, you who pursue godliness, 81 

who seek the Lord!

Look at the rock from which you were chiseled,

at the quarry 82  from which you were dug! 83 

51:2 Look at Abraham, your father,

and Sarah, who gave you birth. 84 

When I summoned him, he was a lone individual, 85 

but I blessed him 86  and gave him numerous descendants. 87 

51:3 Certainly the Lord will console Zion;

he will console all her ruins.

He will make her wilderness like Eden,

her desert like the Garden of the Lord.

Happiness and joy will be restored to 88  her,

thanksgiving and the sound of music.

51:4 Pay attention to me, my people!

Listen to me, my people!

For 89  I will issue a decree, 90 

I will make my justice a light to the nations. 91 

51:5 I am ready to vindicate, 92 

I am ready to deliver, 93 

I will establish justice among the nations. 94 

The coastlands 95  wait patiently for me;

they wait in anticipation for the revelation of my power. 96 

51:6 Look up at the sky!

Look at the earth below!

For the sky will dissipate 97  like smoke,

and the earth will wear out like clothes;

its residents will die like gnats.

But the deliverance I give 98  is permanent;

the vindication I provide 99  will not disappear. 100 

51:7 Listen to me, you who know what is right,

you people who are aware of my law! 101 

Don’t be afraid of the insults of men;

don’t be discouraged because of their abuse!

51:8 For a moth will eat away at them like clothes;

a clothes moth will devour them like wool.

But the vindication I provide 102  will be permanent;

the deliverance I give will last.”

51:9 Wake up! Wake up!

Clothe yourself with strength, O arm of the Lord! 103 

Wake up as in former times, as in antiquity!

Did you not smash 104  the Proud One? 105 

Did you not 106  wound the sea monster? 107 

51:10 Did you not dry up the sea,

the waters of the great deep?

Did you not make 108  a path through the depths of the sea,

so those delivered from bondage 109  could cross over?

51:11 Those whom the Lord has ransomed will return;

they will enter Zion with a happy shout.

Unending joy will crown them, 110 

happiness and joy will overwhelm 111  them;

grief and suffering will disappear. 112 

51:12 “I, I am the one who consoles you. 113 

Why are you afraid of mortal men,

of mere human beings who are as short-lived as grass? 114 

51:13 Why do you forget 115  the Lord, who made you,

who stretched out the sky 116 

and founded the earth?

Why do you constantly tremble all day long 117 

at the anger of the oppressor,

when he makes plans to destroy?

Where is the anger of the oppressor? 118 

51:14 The one who suffers 119  will soon be released;

he will not die in prison, 120 

he will not go hungry. 121 

51:15 I am the Lord your God,

who churns up the sea so that its waves surge.

The Lord who commands armies is his name!

Zion’s Time to Celebrate

51:16 I commission you 122  as my spokesman; 123 

I cover you with the palm of my hand, 124 

to establish 125  the sky and to found the earth,

to say to Zion, ‘You are my people.’” 126 

51:17 Wake up! Wake up!

Get up, O Jerusalem!

You drank from the cup the Lord passed to you,

which was full of his anger! 127 

You drained dry

the goblet full of intoxicating wine. 128 

51:18 There was no one to lead her

among all the children she bore;

there was no one to take her by the hand

among all the children she raised.

51:19 These double disasters confronted you.

But who feels sorry for you?

Destruction and devastation,

famine and sword.

But who consoles you? 129 

51:20 Your children faint;

they lie at the head of every street

like an antelope in a snare.

They are left in a stupor by the Lord’s anger,

by the battle cry of your God. 130 

51:21 So listen to this, oppressed one,

who is drunk, but not from wine!

51:22 This is what your sovereign master, 131  the Lord your God, says:

“Look, I have removed from your hand

the cup of intoxicating wine, 132 

the goblet full of my anger. 133 

You will no longer have to drink it.

51:23 I will put it into the hand of your tormentors 134 

who said to you, ‘Lie down, so we can walk over you.’

You made your back like the ground,

and like the street for those who walked over you.”

1 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV); NLT “in far-off lands.”

sn The Lord’s special servant, introduced in chap. 42, speaks here of his commission.

2 tn Heb “called me from the womb.”

3 tn Heb “from the inner parts of my mother he mentioned my name.”

4 tn Or perhaps, “polished” (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NASB “a select arrow.”

5 sn The figurative language emphasizes the servant’s importance as the Lord’s effective instrument. The servant’s mouth, which stands metonymically for his words, is compared to a sharp sword because he will be an effective spokesman on God’s behalf (see 50:4). The Lord holds his hand on the servant, ready to draw and use him at the appropriate time. The servant is like a sharpened arrow reserved in a quiver for just the right moment.

6 sn This verse identifies the servant as Israel. This seems to refer to the exiled nation (cf. 41:8-9; 44:1-2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), but in vv. 5-6 this servant says he has been commissioned to reconcile Israel to God, so he must be distinct from the exiled nation. This servant is an ideal “Israel” who, like Moses of old, mediates a covenant for the nation (see v. 8), leads them out of bondage (v. 9a), and carries out God’s original plan for Israel by positively impacting the pagan nations (see v. 6b). By living according to God’s law, Israel was to be a model of God’s standards of justice to the surrounding nations (Deut 4:6-8). The sinful nation failed, but the servant, the ideal “Israel,” will succeed by establishing justice throughout the earth.

7 tn Or “said” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “I replied.”

8 tn Heb “for nothing and emptiness.” Synonyms are combined to emphasize the common idea.

9 tn Heb “But my justice is with the Lord, and my reward [or “wage”] with my God.”

10 tn Heb “from the womb” (so KJV, NASB).

11 tn The words “he did this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the infinitive construct of purpose is subordinated to the previous statement.

12 tn The vav (ו) + imperfect is translated here as a result clause; one might interpret it as indicating purpose, “and so I might be honored.”

13 tn Heb “and my God is [perhaps, “having been”] my strength.” The disjunctive structure (vav [ו] + subject + verb) is interpreted here as indicating a causal circumstantial clause.

14 tn Heb “the protected [or “preserved”] ones.”

15 sn The question is purely rhetorical; it does not imply that the servant was dissatisfied with his commission or that he minimized the restoration of Israel.

16 tn See the note at 42:6.

17 tn Heb “be” (so KJV, ASV); CEV “you must take.”

18 tn Heb “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

19 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

20 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “to [one who] despises life.” It is preferable to read with the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa לבזוי, which should be vocalized as a passive participle, לִבְזוּי (livzuy, “to the one despised with respect to life” [נֶפֶשׁ is a genitive of specification]). The consonantal sequence וי was probably misread as ה in the MT tradition. The contextual argument favors the 1QIsaa reading. As J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:294) points out, the three terse phrases “convey a picture of lowliness, worthlessness, and helplessness.”

21 tn MT’s Piel participle (“to the one who rejects”) does not fit contextually. The form should be revocalized as a Pual, “to the one rejected.”

22 tn Parallelism (see “rulers,” “kings,” “princes”) suggests that the singular גּוֹי (goy) be emended to a plural or understood in a collective sense (see 55:5).

23 tn For this sense of קוּם (qum), see Gen 19:1; 23:7; 33:10; Lev 19:32; 1 Sam 20:41; 25:41; 1 Kgs 2:19; Job 29:8.

24 tn The translation assumes the verb is derived from the root נָצָר (natsar, “protect”). Some prefer to derive it from the root יָצָר (yatsar, “form”).

25 tn Heb “a covenant of people.” A person cannot literally be a covenant; בְּרִית (bÿrit) is probably metonymic here, indicating a covenant mediator. Here עָם (’am, “people”) appears to refer to Israel. See the note at 42:6.

26 tn The Hiphil of קוּם (qum, “arise”) is probably used here in the sense of “rebuild.”

27 tn The “land” probably stands by metonymy for the ruins within it.

28 tn Heb “to say.” In the Hebrew text the infinitive construct is subordinated to what precedes.

29 tn Heb “in darkness” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “the prisoners of darkness.”

30 tn Heb “show yourselves” (so ASV, NAB, NASB).

31 tn Heb “and the heat and the sun will not strike them.” In Isa 35:7, its only other occurrence in the OT, שָׁרָב (sharav) stands parallel to “parched ground” and in contrast to “pool.” In later Hebrew and Aramaic it refers to “dry heat, heat of the sun” (Jastrow 1627 s.v.). Here it likely has this nuance and forms a hendiadys with “sun.”

32 tc The MT reads “Sinim” here; the Dead Sea Scrolls read “Syene,” a location in Egypt associated with modern Aswan. A number of recent translations adopt this reading: “Syene” (NAB, NRSV); “Aswan” (NIV); “Egypt” (NLT).

sn The precise location of the land of Sinim is uncertain, but since the north and west are mentioned in the previous line, it was a probably located in the distant east or south.

33 tn Or “O heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

34 tn Heb “his” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

35 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

36 tn Heb “her suckling”; NASB “her nursing child.”

37 tn Heb “so as not to have compassion on the son of her womb?”

38 tn Heb “these” (so ASV, NASB).

39 sn The argument of v. 15 seems to develop as follows: The Lord has an innate attachment to Zion, just like a mother does for her infant child. But even if mothers were to suddenly abandon their children, the Lord would never forsake Zion. In other words, the Lord’s attachment to Zion is like a mother’s attachment to her infant child, but even stronger.

40 tn Heb “you.” Here the pronoun is put by metonymy for the person’s name.

41 tn Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see.”

42 tn Heb “Indeed your ruins and your desolate places, and the land of your destruction.” This statement is abruptly terminated in the Hebrew text and left incomplete.

43 tn Heb “me.” The singular is collective.

44 tn Heb “draw near to me so I can dwell.”

45 tn Heb “and you will say in your heart.”

46 tn Or “exiled and thrust away”; NIV “exiled and rejected.”

47 tn Heb “your,” but Zion here stands by metonymy for her children (see v. 22b).

48 tn Heb “you.” See the preceding note.

49 tn Or “at your feet” (NAB, NIV); NLT “from your feet.”

50 tc The Hebrew text has צָדִיק (tsadiq, “a righteous [one]”), but this makes no sense in the parallelism. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly עריץ (“violent [one], tyrant”; see v. 25).

51 sn Verse 26a depicts siege warfare and bloody defeat. The besieged enemy will be so starved they will their own flesh. The bloodstained bodies lying on the blood-soaked battle site will look as if they collapsed in drunkenness.

52 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB).

53 tn Heb “your redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

54 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.” See 1:24.

55 sn The Lord challenges the exiles (Zion’s children) to bring incriminating evidence against him. The rhetorical questions imply that Israel accused the Lord of divorcing his wife (Zion) and selling his children (the Israelites) into slavery to pay off a debt.

56 sn The Lord admits that he did sell the Israelites, but it was because of their sins, not because of some debt he owed. If he had sold them to a creditor, they ought to be able to point him out, but the preceding rhetorical question implies they would not be able to do so.

57 sn The Lord admits he did divorce Zion, but that too was the result of the nation’s sins. The force of the earlier rhetorical question comes into clearer focus now. The question does not imply that a certificate does not exist and that no divorce occurred. Rather, the question asks for the certificate to be produced so the accuser can see the reason for the divorce in black and white. The Lord did not put Zion away arbitrarily.

58 sn The present tense translation of the verbs assumes that the Lord is questioning why Israel does not attempt to counter his arguments. Another possibility is to take the verbs as referring to past events: “Why did no one meet me when I came? Why did no one answer when I called?” In this case the Lord might be asking why Israel rejected his calls to repent and his offer to deliver them.

59 tn Heb “short” (so NAB, NASB, NIV).

60 tn Or “ransom” (NAB, NASB, NIV).

61 tn Heb “with my rebuke.”

62 tn Heb “the fish stink from lack of water and die from thirst.”

63 tn Heb “has given to me a tongue of disciples.”

sn Verses 4-11 contain the third of the so-called servant songs, which depict the career of the Lord’s special servant, envisioned as an ideal Israel (49:3) who rescues the exiles and fulfills God’s purposes for the world. Here the servant alludes to opposition (something hinted at in 49:4), but also expresses his determination to persevere with the Lord’s help.

64 tc Heb “to know [?] the weary with a word.” Comparing it with Arabic and Aramaic cognates yields the meaning of “help, sustain.” Nevertheless, the meaning of עוּת (’ut) is uncertain. The word occurs only here in the OT (see BDB 736 s.v.). Various scholars have suggested an emendation to עָנוֹת (’anot) from עָנָה (’anah, “answer”): “so that I know how to respond kindly to the weary.” Since the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and the Vulgate support the MT reading, that reading is retained.

65 tn Heb “he arouses for me an ear, to hear like disciples.”

66 tn Or perhaps, “makes me obedient.” The text reads literally, “has opened for me an ear.”

67 tn Or perhaps, “who beat [me].”

68 tn Heb “Therefore I set my face like flint.”

69 tn Heb “Let us stand together!”

70 tn Heb “Who is the master of my judgment?”

71 tn Heb “let him approach me”; NAB, NIV “Let him confront me.”

72 tn Heb “[who] listens to the voice of his servant?” The interrogative is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

73 tn The plural indicates degree. Darkness may refer to exile and/or moral evil.

74 tc Several more recent commentators have proposed an emendation of מְאַזְּרֵי (mÿazzÿre, “who put on”) to מְאִירִי (mÿiri, “who light”). However, both Qumran scrolls of Isaiah and the Vulgate support the MT reading (cf. NIV, ESV).

75 tn On the meaning of זִיקוֹת (ziqot, “flaming arrows”), see HALOT 268 s.v. זִיקוֹת.

76 tn The imperative is probably rhetorical and has a predictive force.

77 tn Or perhaps, “flame” (so ASV).

78 sn Perhaps the servant here speaks to his enemies and warns them that they will self-destruct.

79 tn Heb “from my hand” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

80 sn The imagery may be that of a person who becomes ill and is forced to lie down in pain on a sickbed. Some see this as an allusion to a fiery place of damnation because of the imagery employed earlier in the verse.

81 tn Or “righteousness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “justice”; NLT “hope for deliverance.”

82 tn Heb “the excavation of the hole.”

83 sn The “rock” and “quarry” refer here to Abraham and Sarah, the progenitors of the nation.

84 sn Although Abraham and Sarah are distant ancestors of the people the prophet is addressing, they are spoken of as the immediate parents.

85 tn Heb “one”; NLT “was alone”; TEV “was childless.”

86 tn “Bless” may here carry the sense of “endue with potency, reproductive power.” See Gen 1:28.

87 tn Heb “and I made him numerous.”

88 tn Heb “found in” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

89 tn Or “certainly.”

90 tn Heb “instruction [or “a law”] will go out from me.”

91 tn Heb “and my justice for a light to the nations I will cause to rest.”

92 tn Heb “my righteousness [or “vindication”] is near.”

93 tn Heb “my deliverance goes forth.”

94 tn Heb “and my arms will judge [on behalf of] nations.”

95 tn Or “islands” (NIV); TEV “Distant lands.”

96 tn Heb “for my arm” (so NIV, NRSV).

97 tn Heb “will be torn in pieces.” The perfect indicates the certitude of the event, from the Lord’s rhetorical perspective.

98 tn Heb “my deliverance.” The same Hebrew word can also be translated “salvation” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); cf. CEV “victory.”

99 tn Heb “my righteousness [or “vindication”].”

100 tn Heb “will not be shattered [or “dismayed”].”

101 tn Heb “people (who have) my law in their heart.”

102 tn Heb “my vindication”; many English versions “my righteousness”; NRSV, TEV “my deliverance”; CEV “my victory.”

103 tn The arm of the Lord is a symbol of divine military power. Here it is personified and told to arouse itself from sleep and prepare for action.

104 tn Heb “Are you not the one who smashed?” The feminine singular forms agree grammatically with the feminine noun “arm.” The Hebrew text has ַהמַּחְצֶבֶת (hammakhtsevet), from the verbal root חָצַב (khatsav, “hew, chop”). The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has, probably correctly, המחצת, from the verbal root מָחַץ (makhats, “smash”) which is used in Job 26:12 to describe God’s victory over “the Proud One.”

105 tn This title (רַהַב, rahav, “proud one”) is sometimes translated as a proper name: “Rahab” (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). It is used here of a symbolic sea monster, known elsewhere in the Bible and in Ugaritic myth as Leviathan. This sea creature symbolizes the forces of chaos that seek to destroy the created order. In the Bible “the Proud One” opposes God’s creative work, but is defeated (see Job 26:12; Ps 89:10). Here the title refers to Pharaoh’s Egyptian army that opposed Israel at the Red Sea (see v. 10, and note also Isa 30:7 and Ps 87:4, where the title is used of Egypt).

106 tn The words “did you not” are understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line). The rhetorical questions here and in v. 10 expect the answer, “Yes, you certainly did!”

107 tn Hebrew תַּנִּין (tannin) is another name for the symbolic sea monster. See the note at 27:1. In this context the sea creature represents Egypt. See the note on the title “Proud One” earlier in this verse.

108 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “Are you not the one who dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, who made…?”

109 tn Heb “the redeemed” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); KJV “the ransomed.”

110 tn Heb “[will be] on their head[s].” “Joy” may be likened here to a crown (cf. 2 Sam 1:10). The statement may also be an ironic twist on the idiom “earth/dust on the head” (cf. 2 Sam 1:2; 13:19; 15:32; Job 2:12), referring to a mourning practice.

111 tn Heb “overtake” (so NIV); NASB “they will obtain.”

112 tn Heb “grief and groaning will flee.”

113 tc The plural suffix should probably be emended to the second masculine singular (which is used in v. 13). The final mem (ם) is probably dittographic; note the mem at the beginning of the next word.

114 tn Heb “Who are you that you are afraid of man who dies, and of the son of man who [as] grass is given up?” The feminine singular forms should probably be emended to the masculine singular (see v. 13). They have probably been influenced by the construction אַתְּ־הִיא (’at-hi’) in vv. 9-10.

115 tn Heb “and that you forget.”

116 tn Or “the heavens” (also in v. 16). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

117 tn Heb “and that you tremble constantly all the day.”

118 tn The question anticipates the answer, “Ready to disappear!” See v. 14.

119 tn Heb “who is stooped over” (under a burden).

120 tn Heb “the pit” (so KJV); ASV, NAB “die and go down into the pit”; NASB, NIV “dungeon”; NCV “prison.”

121 tn Heb “he will not lack his bread.”

122 tn The addressee (second masculine singular, as in vv. 13, 15) in this verse is unclear. The exiles are addressed in the immediately preceding verses (note the critical tone of vv. 12-13 and the reference to the exiles in v. 14). However, it seems unlikely that they are addressed in v. 16, for the addressee appears to be commissioned to tell Zion, who here represents the restored exiles, “you are my people.” The addressee is distinct from the exiles. The language of v. 16a is reminiscent of 49:2 and 50:4, where the Lord’s special servant says he is God’s spokesman and effective instrument. Perhaps the Lord, having spoken to the exiles in vv. 1-15, now responds to this servant, who spoke just prior to this in 50:4-11.

123 tn Heb “I place my words in your mouth.”

124 tn Heb “with the shadow of my hand.”

125 tc The Hebrew text has לִנְטֹעַ (lintoa’, “to plant”). Several scholars prefer to emend this form to לִנְטֹת (lintot) from נָטָה (natah, “to stretch out”); see v. 13, as well as 40:22; 42:5; 44:24; 45:12; cf. NAB, NCV, NRSV. However, since the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, LXX (and Aquila and Symmachus), and Vulgate support the MT reading, there is no need to emend the form. The interpretation is clear enough: Yahweh fixed the sky in its place.

126 tn The infinitives in v. 16b are most naturally understood as indicating the purpose of the divine actions described in v. 16a. The relationship of the third infinitive to the commission is clear enough – the Lord has made the addressee (his special servant?) his spokesman so that the latter might speak encouraging words to those in Zion. But how do the first two infinitives relate? The text seems to indicate that the Lord has commissioned the addressee so that the latter might create the universe! Perhaps creation imagery is employed metaphorically here to refer to the transformation that Jerusalem will experience (see 65:17-18).

127 tn Heb “[you] who have drunk from the hand of the Lord the cup of his anger.”

128 tn Heb “the goblet, the cup [that causes] staggering, you drank, you drained.”

129 tc The Hebrew text has אֲנַחֲמֵךְ (’anakhamekh), a first person form, but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly יִנַחֲמֵךְ (yinakhamekh), a third person form.

130 tn Heb “those who are full of the anger of the Lord, the shout [or “rebuke”] of your God.”

131 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

132 tn Heb “the cup of [= that causes] staggering” (so ASV, NAB, NRSV); NASB “the cup of reeling.”

133 tn Heb “the goblet of the cup of my anger.”

134 tn That is, to make them drink it.



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