Reading Plan 
Daily Bible Reading (daily) August 10
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Isaiah 43:1--45:25

Context
The Lord Will Rescue His People

43:1 Now, this is what the Lord says,

the one who created you, O Jacob,

and formed you, O Israel:

“Don’t be afraid, for I will protect 1  you.

I call you by name, you are mine.

43:2 When you pass through the waters, I am with you;

when you pass 2  through the streams, they will not overwhelm you.

When you walk through the fire, you will not be burned;

the flames will not harm 3  you.

43:3 For I am the Lord your God,

the Holy One of Israel, 4  your deliverer.

I have handed over Egypt as a ransom price,

Ethiopia and Seba 5  in place of you.

43:4 Since you are precious and special in my sight, 6 

and I love you,

I will hand over people in place of you,

nations in place of your life.

43:5 Don’t be afraid, for I am with you.

From the east I will bring your descendants;

from the west I will gather you.

43:6 I will say to the north, ‘Hand them over!’

and to the south, ‘Don’t hold any back!’

Bring my sons from distant lands,

and my daughters from the remote regions of the earth,

43:7 everyone who belongs to me, 7 

whom I created for my glory,

whom I formed – yes, whom I made!

The Lord Declares His Sovereignty

43:8 Bring out the people who are blind, even though they have eyes,

those who are deaf, even though they have ears!

43:9 All nations gather together,

the peoples assemble.

Who among them announced this?

Who predicted earlier events for us? 8 

Let them produce their witnesses to testify they were right;

let them listen and affirm, ‘It is true.’

43:10 You are my witnesses,” says the Lord,

“my servant whom I have chosen,

so that you may consider 9  and believe in me,

and understand that I am he.

No god was formed before me,

and none will outlive me. 10 

43:11 I, I am the Lord,

and there is no deliverer besides me.

43:12 I decreed and delivered and proclaimed,

and there was no other god among you.

You are my witnesses,” says the Lord, “that I am God.

43:13 From this day forward I am he;

no one can deliver from my power; 11 

I will act, and who can prevent it?”

The Lord Will Do Something New

43:14 This is what the Lord says,

your protector, 12  the Holy One of Israel: 13 

“For your sake I send to Babylon

and make them all fugitives, 14 

turning the Babylonians’ joyful shouts into mourning songs. 15 

43:15 I am the Lord, your Holy One, 16 

the one who created Israel, your king.”

43:16 This is what the Lord says,

the one who made a road through the sea,

a pathway through the surging waters,

43:17 the one who led chariots and horses to destruction, 17 

together with a mighty army.

They fell down, 18  never to rise again;

they were extinguished, put out like a burning wick:

43:18 “Don’t remember these earlier events; 19 

don’t recall these former events.

43:19 “Look, I am about to do something new.

Now it begins to happen! 20  Do you not recognize 21  it?

Yes, I will make a road in the desert

and paths 22  in the wilderness.

43:20 The wild animals of the desert honor me,

the jackals and ostriches,

because I put water in the desert

and streams in the wilderness,

to quench the thirst of my chosen people,

43:21 the people whom I formed for myself,

so they might praise me.” 23 

The Lord Rebukes His People

43:22 “But you did not call for me, O Jacob;

you did not long 24  for me, O Israel.

43:23 You did not bring me lambs for your burnt offerings;

you did not honor me with your sacrifices.

I did not burden you with offerings;

I did not make you weary by demanding 25  incense.

43:24 You did not buy me aromatic reeds; 26 

you did not present to me 27  the fat of your sacrifices.

Yet you burdened me with your sins;

you made me weary with your evil deeds. 28 

43:25 I, I am the one who blots out your rebellious deeds for my sake;

your sins I do not remember.

43:26 Remind me of what happened! Let’s debate!

You, prove to me that you are right! 29 

43:27 The father of your nation 30  sinned;

your spokesmen 31  rebelled against me.

43:28 So I defiled your holy princes,

and handed Jacob over to destruction,

and subjected 32  Israel to humiliating abuse.”

The Lord Will Renew Israel

44:1 “Now, listen, Jacob my servant,

Israel whom I have chosen!”

44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –

the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:

“Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,

Jeshurun, 33  whom I have chosen!

44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground 34 

and cause streams to flow 35  on the dry land.

I will pour my spirit on your offspring

and my blessing on your children.

44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass, 36 

like poplars beside channels of water.

44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’

and another will use 37  the name ‘Jacob.’

One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’

and use the name ‘Israel.’” 38 

The Absurdity of Idolatry

44:6 This is what the Lord, Israel’s king, says,

their protector, 39  the Lord who commands armies:

“I am the first and I am the last,

there is no God but me.

44:7 Who is like me? Let him make his claim! 40 

Let him announce it and explain it to me –

since I established an ancient people – 41 

let them announce future events! 42 

44:8 Don’t panic! Don’t be afraid! 43 

Did I not tell you beforehand and decree it?

You are my witnesses! Is there any God but me?

There is no other sheltering rock; 44  I know of none.

44:9 All who form idols are nothing;

the things in which they delight are worthless.

Their witnesses cannot see;

they recognize nothing, so they are put to shame.

44:10 Who forms a god and casts an idol

that will prove worthless? 45 

44:11 Look, all his associates 46  will be put to shame;

the craftsmen are mere humans. 47 

Let them all assemble and take their stand!

They will panic and be put to shame.

44:12 A blacksmith works with his tool 48 

and forges metal over the coals.

He forms it 49  with hammers;

he makes it with his strong arm.

He gets hungry and loses his energy; 50 

he drinks no water and gets tired.

44:13 A carpenter takes measurements; 51 

he marks out an outline of its form; 52 

he scrapes 53  it with chisels,

and marks it with a compass.

He patterns it after the human form, 54 

like a well-built human being,

and puts it in a shrine. 55 

44:14 He cuts down cedars

and acquires a cypress 56  or an oak.

He gets 57  trees from the forest;

he plants a cedar 58  and the rain makes it grow.

44:15 A man uses it to make a fire; 59 

he takes some of it and warms himself.

Yes, he kindles a fire and bakes bread.

Then he makes a god and worships it;

he makes an idol and bows down to it. 60 

44:16 Half of it he burns in the fire –

over that half he cooks 61  meat;

he roasts a meal and fills himself.

Yes, he warms himself and says,

‘Ah! I am warm as I look at the fire.’

44:17 With the rest of it he makes a god, his idol;

he bows down to it and worships it.

He prays to it, saying,

‘Rescue me, for you are my god!’

44:18 They do not comprehend or understand,

for their eyes are blind and cannot see;

their minds do not discern. 62 

44:19 No one thinks to himself,

nor do they comprehend or understand and say to themselves:

‘I burned half of it in the fire –

yes, I baked bread over the coals;

I roasted meat and ate it.

With the rest of it should I make a disgusting idol?

Should I bow down to dry wood?’ 63 

44:20 He feeds on ashes; 64 

his deceived mind misleads him.

He cannot rescue himself,

nor does he say, ‘Is this not a false god I hold in my right hand?’ 65 

44:21 Remember these things, O Jacob,

O Israel, for you are my servant.

I formed you to be my servant;

O Israel, I will not forget you! 66 

44:22 I remove the guilt of your rebellious deeds as if they were a cloud,

the guilt of your sins as if they were a cloud. 67 

Come back to me, for I protect 68  you.”

44:23 Shout for joy, O sky, for the Lord intervenes; 69 

shout out, you subterranean regions 70  of the earth.

O mountains, give a joyful shout;

you too, O forest and all your trees! 71 

For the Lord protects 72  Jacob;

he reveals his splendor through Israel. 73 

The Lord Empowers Cyrus

44:24 This is what the Lord, your protector, 74  says,

the one who formed you in the womb:

“I am the Lord, who made everything,

who alone stretched out the sky,

who fashioned the earth all by myself, 75 

44:25 who frustrates the omens of the empty talkers 76 

and humiliates 77  the omen readers,

who overturns the counsel of the wise men 78 

and makes their advice 79  seem foolish,

44:26 who fulfills the oracles of his prophetic servants 80 

and brings to pass the announcements 81  of his messengers,

who says about Jerusalem, 82  ‘She will be inhabited,’

and about the towns of Judah, ‘They will be rebuilt,

her ruins I will raise up,’

44:27 who says to the deep sea, ‘Be dry!

I will dry up your sea currents,’

44:28 who commissions 83  Cyrus, the one I appointed as shepherd 84 

to carry out all my wishes 85 

and to decree concerning Jerusalem, ‘She will be rebuilt,’

and concerning the temple, ‘It will be reconstructed.’” 86 

45:1 This is what the Lord says to his chosen 87  one,

to Cyrus, whose right hand I hold 88 

in order to subdue nations before him,

and disarm kings, 89 

to open doors before him,

so gates remain unclosed:

45:2 “I will go before you

and level mountains. 90 

Bronze doors I will shatter

and iron bars 91  I will hack through.

45:3 I will give you hidden treasures, 92 

riches stashed away in secret places,

so you may recognize that I am the Lord,

the one who calls you by name, the God of Israel.

45:4 For the sake of my servant Jacob,

Israel, my chosen one,

I call you by name

and give you a title of respect, even though you do not recognize 93  me.

45:5 I am the Lord, I have no peer, 94 

there is no God but me.

I arm you for battle, 95  even though you do not recognize 96  me.

45:6 I do this 97  so people 98  will recognize from east to west

that there is no God but me;

I am the Lord, I have no peer.

45:7 I am 99  the one who forms light

and creates darkness; 100 

the one who brings about peace

and creates calamity. 101 

I am the Lord, who accomplishes all these things.

45:8 O sky, rain down from above!

Let the clouds send down showers 102  of deliverance!

Let the earth absorb it 103  so salvation may grow, 104 

and deliverance may sprout up 105  along with it.

I, the Lord, create it. 106 

The Lord Gives a Warning

45:9 One who argues with his creator is in grave danger, 107 

one who is like a mere 108  shard among the other shards on the ground!

The clay should not say to the potter, 109 

“What in the world 110  are you doing?

Your work lacks skill!” 111 

45:10 Danger awaits one who says 112  to his father,

“What in the world 113  are you fathering?”

and to his mother,

“What in the world are you bringing forth?” 114 

45:11 This is what the Lord says,

the Holy One of Israel, 115  the one who formed him,

concerning things to come: 116 

“How dare you question me 117  about my children!

How dare you tell me what to do with 118  the work of my own hands!

45:12 I made the earth,

I created the people who live 119  on it.

It was me – my hands 120  stretched out the sky, 121 

I give orders to all the heavenly lights. 122 

45:13 It is me – I stir him up and commission him; 123 

I will make all his ways level.

He will rebuild my city;

he will send my exiled people home,

but not for a price or a bribe,”

says the Lord who commands armies.

The Lord is the Nations’ Only Hope

45:14 This is what the Lord says:

“The profit 124  of Egypt and the revenue 125  of Ethiopia,

along with the Sabeans, those tall men,

will be brought to you 126  and become yours.

They will walk behind you, coming along in chains. 127 

They will bow down to you

and pray to you: 128 

‘Truly God is with 129  you; he has no peer; 130 

there is no other God!’”

45:15 Yes, you are a God who keeps hidden,

O God of Israel, deliverer!

45:16 They will all be ashamed and embarrassed;

those who fashion idols will all be humiliated. 131 

45:17 Israel will be delivered once and for all by the Lord; 132 

you will never again be ashamed or humiliated. 133 

45:18 For this is what the Lord says,

the one who created the sky –

he is the true God, 134 

the one who formed the earth and made it;

he established it,

he did not create it without order, 135 

he formed it to be inhabited –

“I am the Lord, I have no peer.

45:19 I have not spoken in secret,

in some hidden place. 136 

I did not tell Jacob’s descendants,

‘Seek me in vain!’ 137 

I am the Lord,

the one who speaks honestly,

who makes reliable announcements. 138 

45:20 Gather together and come!

Approach together, you refugees from the nations!

Those who carry wooden idols know nothing,

those who pray to a god that cannot deliver.

45:21 Tell me! Present the evidence! 139 

Let them consult with one another!

Who predicted this in the past?

Who announced it beforehand?

Was it not I, the Lord?

I have no peer, there is no God but me,

a God who vindicates and delivers; 140 

there is none but me.

45:22 Turn to me so you can be delivered, 141 

all you who live in the earth’s remote regions!

For I am God, and I have no peer.

45:23 I solemnly make this oath 142 

what I say is true and reliable: 143 

‘Surely every knee will bow to me,

every tongue will solemnly affirm; 144 

45:24 they will say about me,

“Yes, the Lord is a powerful deliverer.”’” 145 

All who are angry at him will cower before him. 146 

45:25 All the descendants of Israel will be vindicated by the Lord

and will boast in him. 147 

1 tn Or “redeem.” See the note at 41:14. Cf. NCV “saved you”; CEV “rescued you”; NLT “ransomed you.”

2 tn The verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

3 tn Heb “burn” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV, NLT “consume”; NIV “set you ablaze.”

4 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

5 sn Seba is not the same as Sheba in southern Arabia; cf. Gen 1:10; 1 Chr 1:9.

6 tn Heb “Since you are precious in my eyes and you are honored.”

7 tn Heb “everyone who is called by my name” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

8 tn Heb “and the former things was causing us to hear?”

9 tn Or “know” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

10 tn Heb “and after me, there will not be”; NASB “there will be none after Me.”

11 tn Heb “hand” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “No one can oppose what I do.”

12 tn Or “kinsman redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

13 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

14 tn Heb “and I bring down [as] fugitives all of them.”

15 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “as for the Babylonians, in ships their joyful shout.” This might be paraphrased, “even the Babylonians in the ships [over which] they joyfully shouted.” The point would be that the Lord caused the Babylonians to flee for safety in the ships in which they took such great pride. A slight change in vocalization yields the reading “into mourning songs,” which provides a good contrast with “joyful shout.” The prefixed bet (בְּ) would indicate identity.

16 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

17 tn Heb “led out chariots and horses.” The words “to destruction” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The verse refers to the destruction of the Egyptians at the Red Sea.

18 tn Heb “lay down”; NAB “lie prostrate together”; CEV “lie dead”; NRSV “they lie down.”

19 tn Heb “the former things” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “forget all that.”

20 tn Heb “sprouts up”; NASB “will spring forth.”

21 tn Or “know” (KJV, ASV); NASB “be aware of”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “perceive.”

22 tn The Hebrew texts has “streams,” probably under the influence of v. 20. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has נתיבות (“paths”).

23 tn Heb “[so] they might declare my praise.”

24 tn Or “strive”; KJV, ASV, NRSV “been weary of me.”

25 tn Heb “with.” The words “by demanding” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

26 tn That is, “calamus” (so NIV); NCV, TEV, NLT “incense”; CEV “spices.”

27 tn Heb “you did not saturate me”; NASB “Neither have you filled Me.”

28 sn In vv. 22-24 the Lord appears to be condemning his people for failure to bring the proper sacrifices. However, this is problematic. If this refers to the nation’s behavior while in exile, such cultic service was impossible and could hardly be expected by the Lord. If this refers to the nation’s conduct before the exile, it contradicts other passages that depict Israel as bringing excessive sacrifices (see, e.g., Isa 1:11-14; Jer 6:20; Amos 4:4-5, 5:21-23). Rather than being a condemnation of Israel’s failure to bring sacrifices, these verses are better taken as a highly rhetorical comment on the worthlessness of Israel’s religious ritual. They may have brought sacrifices, but not to the Lord, for he did not accept them or even want them. See C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 127, and R. Whybray, Isaiah 40-66 (NCBC), 91.

29 tn Heb “you, tell in order that you may be right”; NAB “prove your innocence.”

30 tn Heb “your first father.” This could refer to Abraham (see 51:2), but elsewhere in Isaiah he does not appear in a negative light (see 29:22; 41:8; 63:16). A more likely candidate is Jacob/Israel, also referred to as the nation’s “father” elsewhere (see 58:14; 63:16).

31 tn On the meaning of the term לִיץ (lits), see HALOT 590 s.v. מֵלִיץ. This may refer to the nation’s prophets, priests, and/or kings.

32 tn The word “subjected” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

33 sn Jeshurun is a poetic name for Israel; it occurs here and in Deut 32:15; 33:5, 26.

34 tn Heb “the thirsty.” Parallelism suggests that dry ground is in view (see “dry land” in the next line.)

35 tn Heb “and streams”; KJV “floods.” The verb “cause…to flow” is supplied in the second line for clarity and for stylistic reasons.

36 tn The Hebrew term בֵין (ven) is usually taken as a preposition, in which case one might translate, “among the grass.” But בֵין is probably the name of a tree (cf. C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 133). If one alters the preposition bet (בְּ) to kaf (כְּ), one can then read, “like a binu-tree.” (The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa supports this reading.) This forms a nice parallel to “like poplars” in the next line. חָצִיר (khatsir) is functioning as an adverbial accusative of location.

37 tn The Hebrew text has a Qal verb form, “and another will call by the name of Jacob.” With support from Symmachus (an ancient Greek textual witness), some read the Niphal, “and another will be called by the name of Jacob.”

38 tn Heb “and by the name of Israel he will title.” Some, with support from several ancient versions, prefer to change the Piel (active) verb form to a Pual (passive), “and he will be titled by the name of Israel.”

39 tn Heb “his kinsman redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

40 tn Heb “let him call” or “let him proclaim” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “Let him stand up and speak.”

41 tc The Hebrew text reads, “from (the time) I established an ancient people, and the coming things.” Various emendations have been proposed. One of the options assumes the reading מַשְׁמִיעִים מֵעוֹלָם אוֹתִיּוֹת (mashmiim meolamotiyyot); This literally reads “the ones causing to hear from antiquity coming things,” but more idiomatically would read “as for those who predict from antiquity what will happen” (cf. NAB, NEB, REB). The emendation directs the attention of the reader to those who claim to be able to predict the future, challenging them to actually do what they claim they can do. The MT presents Yahweh as an example to whom these alleged “predictors of the future” can compare themselves. Since the ancient versions are unanimous in their support of the MT, the emendations should be set aside.

42 tn Heb and those things which are coming let them declare for themselves.”

43 tn BDB 923 s.v. רָהָה derives this verb from an otherwise unattested root, while HALOT 403 s.v. יָרָה defines it as “be stupefied” on the basis of an Arabic cognate. The form is likely a corruption of תיראו, the reading attested in the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa.

44 tn Heb “rock” or “rocky cliff,” a title that depicts God as a protective refuge in his role as sovereign king; thus the translation “sheltering rock.”

45 tn The rhetorical question is sarcastic. The sense is, “Who is foolish enough…?”

46 tn The pronoun “his” probably refers to the one who forms/casts an idol (v. 10), in which case it refers to the craftsman’s associates in the idol-manufacturing guild.

47 sn The point seems to be this: If the idols are the mere products of human hands, then those who trust in them will be disappointed, for man-made gods are incapable of helping their “creators.”

48 tn The noun מַעֲצָד (maatsad), which refers to some type of tool used for cutting, occurs only here and in Jer 10:3. See HALOT 615 s.v. מַעֲצָד.

49 tn Some English versions take the pronoun “it” to refer to an idol being fashioned by the blacksmith (cf. NIV, NCV, CEV). NLT understands the referent to be “a sharp tool,” which is then used by the carpenter in the following verse to carve an idol from wood.

50 tn Heb “and there is no strength”; NASB “his strength fails.”

51 tn Heb “stretches out a line” (ASV similar); NIV “measures with a line.”

52 tn Heb “he makes an outline with the [?].” The noun שֶׂרֶד (shered) occurs only here; it apparently refers to some type of tool or marker. Cf. KJV “with a line”; ASV “with a pencil”; NAB, NRSV “with a stylus”; NASB “with red chalk”; NIV “with a marker.”

53 tn Heb “works” (so NASB) or “fashions” (so NRSV); NIV “he roughs it out.”

54 tn Heb “he makes it like the pattern of a man”; NAB “like a man in appearance.”

55 tn Heb “like the glory of man to sit [in] a house”; NIV “that it may dwell in a shrine.”

56 tn It is not certain what type of tree this otherwise unattested noun refers to. Cf. ASV “a holm-tree” (NRSV similar).

57 tn Heb “strengthens for himself,” i.e., “secures for himself” (see BDB 55 s.v. אָמֵץ Pi.2).

58 tn Some prefer to emend אֹרֶן (’oren) to אֶרֶז (’erez, “cedar”), but the otherwise unattested noun appears to have an Akkadian cognate, meaning “cedar.” See H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 44-45. HALOT 90 s.v. I אֹרֶן offers the meaning “laurel.”

59 tn Heb “and it becomes burning [i.e., firewood] for a man”; NAB “to serve man for fuel.”

60 tn Or perhaps, “them.”

61 tn Heb “eats” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV “roasts.”

62 tn Heb “for their eyes are smeared over so they cannot see, so their heart cannot be wise.”

63 tn There is no formal interrogative sign here, but the context seems to indicate these are rhetorical questions. See GKC 473 §150.a.

64 tn Or perhaps, “he eats on an ash heap.”

65 tn Heb “Is it not a lie in my right hand?”

66 tc The verb in the Hebrew text is a Niphal imperfect with a pronominal suffix. Although the Niphal ordinarily has the passive sense, it can have a reflexive nuance as well (see above translation). Some have suggested an emendation to a Qal form: “Do not forget me” (all the ancient versions, NEB, REB; see GKC 369 §117.x). “Do not forget me” would make a good parallel with “remember these things” in the first line. Since the MT is the harder reading and fits with Israel’s complaint that God had forgotten her (Isa 40:27), the MT reading should be retained (NASB, NKJV, NRSV, ESV). The passive has been rendered as an active in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style (so also NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT).

67 tn Heb “I blot out like a cloud your rebellious deeds, and like a cloud your sins.” “Rebellious deeds” and “sins” stand by metonymy for the guilt they produce. Both עָב (’av) and עָנָן (’anan) refer to the clouds in the sky. It is tempting for stylistic purposes to translate the second with “fog” or “mist” (cf. NAB, NRSV “cloud…mist”; NIV “cloud…morning mist”; NLT “morning mists…clouds”), but this distinction between the synonyms is unwarranted here. The point of the simile seems to be this: The Lord forgives their sins, causing them to vanish just as clouds disappear from the sky (see Job 7:9; 30:15).

68 tn Heb “redeem.” See the note at 41:14.

69 tn Heb “acts”; NASB, NRSV “has done it”; NLT “has done this wondrous thing.”

70 tn Heb “lower regions.” This refers to Sheol and forms a merism with “sky” in the previous line. See Pss 63:9; 71:20.

71 tn Heb “O forest and all the trees in it”; NASB, NRSV “and every tree in it.”

72 tn Heb “redeems.” See the note at 41:14.

73 tn That is, by delivering Israel. Cf. NCV “showed his glory when he saved Israel”; TEV “has shown his greatness by saving his people Israel.”

74 tn Heb “your redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

75 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) has “Who [was] with me?” The marginal reading (Qere) is “from with me,” i.e., “by myself.” See BDB 87 s.v. II אֵת 4.c.

76 tc The Hebrew text has בַּדִּים (baddim), perhaps meaning “empty talkers” (BDB 95 s.v. III בַּד). In the four other occurrences of this word (Job 11:3; Isa 16:6; Jer 48:30; 50:36) the context does not make the meaning of the term very clear. Its primary point appears to be that the words spoken are meaningless or false. In light of its parallelism with “omen readers,” some have proposed an emendation to בָּרִים (barim, “seers”). The Mesopotamian baru-priests were divination specialists who played an important role in court life. See R. Wilson, Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel, 93-98. Rather than supporting an emendation, J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:189, n. 79) suggests that Isaiah used בַּדִּים purposively as a derisive wordplay on the Akkadian word baru (in light of the close similarity of the d and r consonants).

77 tn Or “makes fools of” (NIV, NRSV); NAB and NASB both similar.

78 tn Heb “who turns back the wise” (so NRSV); NIV “overthrows the learning of the wise”; TEV “The words of the wise I refute.”

79 tn Heb “their knowledge” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).

80 tn Heb “the word of his servant.” The following context indicates that the Lord’s prophets are in view.

81 tn Heb “counsel.” The Hebrew term עֵצָה (’etsah) probably refers here to the divine plan as announced by the prophets. See HALOT 867 s.v. I עֵצָה.

82 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

83 tn Heb “says to.” It is possible that the sentence is not completed, as the description of Cyrus and his God-given role is developed in the rest of the verse. 45:1 picks up where 44:28a leaves off with the Lord’s actual words to Cyrus finally being quoted in 45:2.

84 tn Heb “my shepherd.” The shepherd motif is sometimes applied, as here, to a royal figure who is responsible for the well-being of the people whom he rules.

85 tn Heb “that he might bring to completion all my desire.”

86 tn Heb “and [concerning the] temple, you will be founded.” The preposition -לְ (lÿ) is understood by ellipsis at the beginning of the second line. The verb תִּוָּסֵד (tivvased, “you will be founded”) is second masculine singular and is probably addressed to the personified temple (הֵיכָל [hekhal, “temple”] is masculine).

87 tn Heb “anointed” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “his appointed king.”

88 sn The “right hand” is a symbol of activity and strength; the Lord directs Cyrus’ activities and assures his success.

89 tn Heb “and the belts of kings I will loosen”; NRSV “strip kings of their robes”; NIV “strip kings of their armor.”

90 tc The form הֲדוּרִים (hadurim) makes little, if any, sense here. It is probably a corruption of an original הָרָרִים (hararim, “mountains”), the reduplicated form of הָר (har, “mountain”).

91 tn That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV “break the iron bars on bronze gates.”

92 tn Heb “treasures of darkness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “treasures from dark, secret places.”

93 tn Or “know” (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV “acknowledge.”

94 tn Heb “and there is none besides.” On the use of עוֹד (’od) here, see BDB 729 s.v. 1.c.

95 tn Heb “gird you” (so NASB) or “strengthen you” (so NIV).

96 tn Or “know” (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV “have not acknowledged.”

97 tn The words “I do this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

98 tn Heb “they” (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV “everyone”; NLT “all the world.”

99 tn The words “I am” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the participle at the beginning of v. 7 stands in apposition to “the Lord” in v. 6.

100 tn On the surface v. 7a appears to describe God’s sovereign control over the cycle of day and night, but the following statement suggests that “light” and “darkness” symbolize “deliverance” and “judgment.”

101 sn This verses affirms that God is ultimately sovereign over his world, including mankind and nations. In accordance with his sovereign will, he can cause wars to cease and peace to predominate (as he was about to do for his exiled people through Cyrus), or he can bring disaster and judgment on nations (as he was about to do to Babylon through Cyrus).

102 tn Heb “let the clouds drip with”; KJV “let the skies pour down.”

103 tn Heb “open up” (so NASB); NIV, NLT “open wide.”

104 tc The plural verb should be emended to a singular form. The vav (ו) ending is probably virtually dittographic (note the yod at the beginning of the following word).

105 tc The Hiphil verb form (תַצְמִיחַ, tatsmiakh) should probably be emended to a Qal (תִצְמַח, titsmakh). The יח sequence at the end of the form is probably due to dittography (note the following יַחַד, yakhad).

106 tn The masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers back to יָשַׁע (yasha’, “salvation”).

107 tn Heb “Woe [to] the one who argues with the one who formed him.”

108 tn The words “one who is like a mere” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and clarification.

109 tn Heb “Should the clay say to the one who forms it?” The rhetorical question anticipates a reply, “Of course not!”

110 tn The words “in the world” are supplied in the translation to approximate in English idiom the force of the sarcastic question.

111 tn Heb “your work, there are no hands for it,” i.e., “your work looks like something made by a person who has no hands.”

112 tn Heb “Woe [to] one who says” (NASB and NIV both similar); NCV “How terrible it will be.”

113 tn See the note at v. 9. This phrase occurs a second time later in this verse.

114 sn Verses 9-10 may allude to the exiles’ criticism that the Lord does not appear to know what he is doing.

115 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

116 tc The Hebrew text reads “the one who formed him, the coming things.” Among various suggestions, some have proposed an emendation of יֹצְרוֹ (yotsÿro, “the one who formed him”) to יֹצֵר (yotser, “the one who forms”; the suffixed form in the Hebrew text may be influenced by vv. 9-10, where the same form appears twice) and takes “coming things” as the object of the participle (either objective genitive or accusative): “the one who brings the future into being.”

117 tn Heb “Ask me” The rhetorical command sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his ways.

118 tn Heb “Do you command me about…?” The rhetorical question sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his ways.

119 tn The words “who live” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

120 tn Heb “I, even my hands”; NASB “I stretched out…with My hands”; NRSV “it was my hands that stretched out.” The same construction occurs at the beginning of v. 13.

121 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

122 tn Heb “and to all their host I commanded.” See the notes at 40:26.

123 tn Heb “I stir him up in righteousness”; NASB “I have aroused him.” See the note at 41:2. Cyrus (cf. 44:28) is in view here.

124 tn Heb “labor,” which stands metonymically for the fruits of labor, either “monetary profit,” or “products.”

125 tn Or perhaps, “merchandise” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “the gain of Ethiopia”; CEV “the treasures of Ethiopia.”

126 tn Heb “they will pass over to you”; NASB, NIV “will come over to you”; CEV “will belong to you.”

127 sn Restored Israel is depicted here in typical ancient Near Eastern fashion as an imperial power that receives riches and slaves as tribute.

128 sn Israel’s vassals are portrayed as so intimidated and awed that they treat Israel as an intermediary to God or sub-deity.

129 tn Or perhaps, “among.” Cf. KJV, ASV “Surely God is in thee.”

130 tn Heb “there is no other” (so NIV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs at the end of v. 18, in v. 21, and at the end of v. 22.

131 tn “together they will walk in humiliation, the makers of images.”

132 tn Heb “Israel will be delivered by the Lord [with] a permanent deliverance.”

133 tn Heb “you will not be ashamed and you will not be humiliated for ages of future time.”

134 tn Heb “he [is] the God.” The article here indicates uniqueness.

135 tn Or “unformed.” Gen 1:2 describes the world as “unformed” (תֹהוּ, tohu) prior to God’s creative work, but God then formed the world and made it fit for habitation.

136 tn Heb “in a place of a land of darkness” (ASV similar); NASB “in some dark land.”

137 tn “In vain” translates תֹהוּ (tohu), used here as an adverbial accusative: “for nothing.”

138 tn The translation above assumes that צֶדֶק (tsedeq) and מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim) are adverbial accusatives (see 33:15). If they are taken as direct objects, indicating the content of what is spoken, one might translate, “who proclaims deliverance, who announces justice.”

139 tn Heb “Declare! Bring near!”; NASB “Declare and set forth your case.” See 41:21.

140 tn Or “a righteous God and deliverer”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “a righteous God and a Savior.”

141 tn The Niphal imperative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The Niphal probably has a tolerative sense, “allow yourselves to be delivered, accept help.”

142 tn Heb “I swear by myself”; KJV, NASB “have sworn.”

143 tn Heb “a word goes out from my mouth [in] truth and will not return.”

144 tn Heb “swear” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “confess allegiance.”

145 tn Heb “‘Yes, in the Lord,’ one says about me, ‘is deliverance and strength.’”

146 tn Heb “will come to him and be ashamed.”

147 tn Heb “In the Lord all the offspring of Israel will be vindicated and boast.”



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