1:1 This is what 1 Moses said to the assembly of Israel 2 in the Transjordanian 3 wastelands, the arid country opposite 4 Suph, 5 between 6 Paran 7 and Tophel, 8 Laban, 9 Hazeroth, 10 and Di Zahab 11 1:2 Now it is ordinarily an eleven-day journey 12 from Horeb 13 to Kadesh Barnea 14 by way of Mount Seir. 15 1:3 However, it was not until 16 the first day of the eleventh month 17 of the fortieth year 18 that Moses addressed the Israelites just as 19 the Lord had instructed him to do. 1:4 This took place after the defeat 20 of King Sihon 21 of the Amorites, whose capital was 22 in Heshbon, 23 and King Og of Bashan, whose capital was 24 in Ashtaroth, 25 specifically in Edrei. 26 1:5 So it was in the Transjordan, in Moab, that Moses began to deliver these words: 27
1:6 The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb and said, “You have stayed 28 in the area of this mountain long enough. 1:7 Get up now, 29 resume your journey, heading for 30 the Amorite hill country, to all its areas 31 including the arid country, 32 the highlands, the Shephelah, 33 the Negev, 34 and the coastal plain – all of Canaan and Lebanon as far as the Great River, that is, the Euphrates. 1:8 Look! I have already given the land to you. 35 Go, occupy the territory that I, 36 the Lord, promised 37 to give to your ancestors 38 Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and to their descendants.” 39 1:9 I also said to you at that time, “I am no longer able to sustain you by myself. 1:10 The Lord your God has increased your population 40 to the point that you are now as numerous as the very stars of the sky. 41 1:11 Indeed, may the Lord, the God of your ancestors, make you a thousand times more numerous than you are now, blessing you 42 just as he said he would! 1:12 But how can I alone bear up under the burden of your hardship and strife? 1:13 Select wise and practical 43 men, those known among your tribes, whom I may appoint as your leaders.” 1:14 You replied to me that what I had said to you was good. 1:15 So I chose 44 as your tribal leaders wise and well-known men, placing them over you as administrators of groups of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and also as other tribal officials. 1:16 I furthermore admonished your judges at that time that they 45 should pay attention to issues among your fellow citizens 46 and judge fairly, 47 whether between one citizen and another 48 or a citizen and a resident foreigner. 49 1:17 They 50 must not discriminate in judgment, but hear the lowly 51 and the great alike. Nor should they be intimidated by human beings, for judgment belongs to God. If the matter being adjudicated is too difficult for them, they should bring it before me for a hearing.
1:18 So I instructed you at that time regarding everything you should do. 1:19 Then we left Horeb and passed through all that immense, forbidding wilderness that you saw on the way to the Amorite hill country as the Lord our God had commanded us to do, finally arriving at Kadesh Barnea. 1:20 Then I said to you, “You have come to the Amorite hill country which the Lord our God is about to give 52 us. 1:21 Look, he 53 has placed the land in front of you! 54 Go up, take possession of it, just as the Lord, the God of your ancestors, said to do. Do not be afraid or discouraged!” 1:22 So all of you approached me and said, “Let’s send some men ahead of us to scout out the land and bring us back word as to how we should attack it and what the cities are like there.” 1:23 I thought this was a good idea, 55 so I sent 56 twelve men from among you, one from each tribe. 1:24 They left and went up to the hill country, coming to the Eshcol Valley, 57 which they scouted out. 1:25 Then they took 58 some of the produce of the land and carried it back down to us. They also brought a report to us, saying, “The land that the Lord our God is about to give us is good.”
1:26 You were not willing to go up, however, but instead rebelled against the Lord your God. 59 1:27 You complained among yourselves privately 60 and said, “Because the Lord hates us he brought us from Egypt to deliver us over to the Amorites so they could destroy us! 1:28 What is going to happen to us? Our brothers have drained away our courage 61 by describing people who are more numerous 62 and taller than we are, and great cities whose defenses appear to be as high as heaven 63 itself! Moreover, they said they saw 64 Anakites 65 there.” 1:29 So I responded to you, “Do not be terrified 66 of them! 1:30 The Lord your God is about to go 67 ahead of you; he will fight for you, just as you saw him do in Egypt 68 1:31 and in the desert, where you saw him 69 carrying you along like a man carries his son. This he did everywhere you went until you came to this very place.” 1:32 However, through all this you did not have confidence in the Lord your God, 1:33 the one who was constantly going before you to find places for you to set up camp. He appeared by fire at night and cloud by day, to show you the way you ought to go.
1:34 When the Lord heard you, he became angry and made this vow: 70 1:35 “Not a single person 71 of this evil generation will see the good land that I promised to give to your ancestors! 1:36 The exception is Caleb son of Jephunneh; 72 he will see it and I will give him and his descendants the territory on which he has walked, because he has wholeheartedly followed me.” 73 1:37 As for me, the Lord was also angry with me on your account. He said, “You also will not be able to go there. 1:38 However, Joshua son of Nun, your assistant, 74 will go. Encourage him, because he will enable Israel to inherit the land. 75 1:39 Also, your infants, who you thought would die on the way, 76 and your children, who as yet do not know good from bad, 77 will go there; I will give them the land and they will possess it. 1:40 But as for you, 78 turn back and head for the desert by the way to the Red Sea.” 79
1:41 Then you responded to me and admitted, “We have sinned against the Lord. We will now go up and fight as the Lord our God has told us to do.” So you each put on your battle gear and prepared to go up to the hill country. 1:42 But the Lord told me: “Tell them this: ‘Do not go up and fight, because I will not be with you and you will be defeated by your enemies.’” 1:43 I spoke to you, but you did not listen. Instead you rebelled against the Lord 80 and recklessly went up to the hill country. 1:44 The Amorite inhabitants of that area 81 confronted 82 you and chased you like a swarm of bees, striking you down from Seir as far as Hormah. 83 1:45 Then you came back and wept before the Lord, but he 84 paid no attention to you whatsoever. 85 1:46 Therefore, you remained at Kadesh for a long time – indeed, for the full time. 86
2:1 Then we turned and set out toward the desert land on the way to the Red Sea 87 just as the Lord told me to do, detouring around Mount Seir for a long time. 2:2 At this point the Lord said to me, 2:3 “You have circled around this mountain long enough; now turn north. 2:4 Instruct 88 these people as follows: ‘You are about to cross the border of your relatives 89 the descendants of Esau, 90 who inhabit Seir. They will be afraid of you, so watch yourselves carefully. 2:5 Do not be hostile toward them, because I am not giving you any of their land, not even a footprint, for I have given Mount Seir 91 as an inheritance for Esau. 2:6 You may purchase 92 food to eat and water to drink from them. 2:7 All along the way I, the Lord your God, 93 have blessed your every effort. 94 I have 95 been attentive to 96 your travels through this great wasteland. These forty years I have 97 been with you; you have lacked for nothing.’”
2:8 So we turned away from our relatives 98 the descendants of Esau, the inhabitants of Seir, turning from the desert route, 99 from Elat 100 and Ezion Geber, 101 and traveling the way of the Moab wastelands. 2:9 Then the Lord said to me, “Do not harass Moab and provoke them to war, for I will not give you any of their land as your territory. This is because I have given Ar 102 to the descendants of Lot 103 as their possession. 2:10 (The Emites 104 used to live there, a people as powerful, numerous, and tall as the Anakites. 2:11 These people, as well as the Anakites, are also considered Rephaites; 105 the Moabites call them Emites. 2:12 Previously the Horites 106 lived in Seir but the descendants of Esau dispossessed and destroyed them and settled in their place, just as Israel did to the land it came to possess, the land the Lord gave them.) 107 2:13 Now, get up and cross the Wadi Zered.” 108 So we did so. 109 2:14 Now the length of time it took for us to go from Kadesh Barnea to the crossing of Wadi Zered was thirty-eight years, time for all the military men of that generation to die, just as the Lord had vowed to them. 2:15 Indeed, it was the very hand of the Lord that eliminated them from within 110 the camp until they were all gone.
2:16 So it was that after all the military men had been eliminated from the community, 111 2:17 the Lord said to me, 2:18 “Today you are going to cross the border of Moab, that is, of Ar. 112 2:19 But when you come close to the Ammonites, do not harass or provoke them because I am not giving you any of the Ammonites’ land as your possession; I have already given it to Lot’s descendants 113 as their possession.
2:20 (That also is considered to be a land of the Rephaites. 114 The Rephaites lived there originally; the Ammonites call them Zamzummites. 115 2:21 They are a people as powerful, numerous, and tall as the Anakites. But the Lord destroyed the Rephaites 116 in advance of the Ammonites, 117 so they dispossessed them and settled down in their place. 2:22 This is exactly what he did for the descendants of Esau who lived in Seir when he destroyed the Horites before them so that they could dispossess them and settle in their area to this very day. 2:23 As for the Avvites 118 who lived in settlements as far west as Gaza, Caphtorites 119 who came from Crete 120 destroyed them and settled down in their place.)
2:24 Get up, make your way across Wadi Arnon. Look! I have already delivered over to you Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, 121 and his land. Go ahead! Take it! Engage him in war! 2:25 This very day I will begin to fill all the people of the earth 122 with dread and to terrify them when they hear about you. They will shiver and shake in anticipation of your approach.” 123
2:26 Then I sent messengers from the Kedemoth 124 Desert to King Sihon of Heshbon with an offer of peace: 2:27 “Let me pass through your land; I will keep strictly to the roadway. 125 I will not turn aside to the right or the left. 2:28 Sell me food for cash 126 so that I can eat and sell me water to drink. 127 Just allow me to go through on foot, 2:29 just as the descendants of Esau who live at Seir and the Moabites who live in Ar did for me, until I cross the Jordan to the land the Lord our God is giving us.” 2:30 But King Sihon of Heshbon was unwilling to allow us to pass near him because the Lord our 128 God had made him obstinate 129 and stubborn 130 so that he might deliver him over to you 131 this very day. 2:31 The Lord said to me, “Look! I have already begun to give over Sihon and his land to you. Start right now to take his land as your possession.” 2:32 When Sihon and all his troops 132 emerged to encounter us in battle at Jahaz, 133 2:33 the Lord our God delivered him over to us and we struck him down, along with his sons 134 and everyone else. 135 2:34 At that time we seized all his cities and put every one of them 136 under divine judgment, 137 including even the women and children; we left no survivors. 2:35 We kept only the livestock and plunder from the cities for ourselves. 2:36 From Aroer, 138 which is at the edge of Wadi Arnon (it is the city in the wadi), 139 all the way to Gilead there was not a town able to resist us – the Lord our God gave them all to us. 2:37 However, you did not approach the land of the Ammonites, the Wadi Jabbok, 140 the cities of the hill country, or any place else forbidden by the Lord our God.
3:1 Next we set out on 141 the route to Bashan, 142 but King Og of Bashan and his whole army 143 came out to meet us in battle at Edrei. 144 3:2 The Lord, however, said to me, “Don’t be afraid of him because I have already given him, his whole army, 145 and his land to you. You will do to him exactly what you did to King Sihon of the Amorites who lived in Heshbon.” 3:3 So the Lord our God did indeed give over to us King Og of Bashan and his whole army and we struck them down until not a single survivor was left. 146 3:4 We captured all his cities at that time – there was not a town we did not take from them – sixty cities, all the region of Argob, 147 the dominion of Og in Bashan. 3:5 All of these cities were fortified by high walls, gates, and locking bars; 148 in addition there were a great many open villages. 149 3:6 We put all of these under divine judgment 150 just as we had done to King Sihon of Heshbon – every occupied city, 151 including women and children. 3:7 But all the livestock and plunder from the cities we kept for ourselves. 3:8 So at that time we took the land of the two Amorite kings in the Transjordan from Wadi Arnon to Mount Hermon 152 3:9 (the Sidonians 153 call Hermon Sirion 154 and the Amorites call it Senir), 155 3:10 all the cities of the plateau, all of Gilead and Bashan as far as Salecah 156 and Edrei, 157 cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 3:11 Only King Og of Bashan was left of the remaining Rephaites. (It is noteworthy 158 that his sarcophagus 159 was made of iron. 160 Does it not, indeed, still remain in Rabbath 161 of the Ammonites? It is thirteen and a half feet 162 long and six feet 163 wide according to standard measure.) 164
3:12 This is the land we brought under our control at that time: The territory extending from Aroer 165 by the Wadi Arnon and half the Gilead hill country with its cities I gave to the Reubenites and Gadites. 166 3:13 The rest of Gilead and all of Bashan, the kingdom of Og, I gave to half the tribe of Manasseh. 167 (All the region of Argob, 168 that is, all Bashan, is called the land of Rephaim. 3:14 Jair, son of Manasseh, took all the Argob region as far as the border with the Geshurites 169 and Maacathites 170 (namely Bashan) and called it by his name, Havvoth-Jair, 171 which it retains to this very day.) 3:15 I gave Gilead to Machir. 172 3:16 To the Reubenites and Gadites I allocated the territory extending from Gilead as far as Wadi Arnon (the exact middle of the wadi was a boundary) all the way to the Wadi Jabbok, the Ammonite border. 3:17 The Arabah and the Jordan River 173 were also a border, from the sea of Chinnereth 174 to the sea of the Arabah (that is, the Salt Sea), 175 beneath the watershed 176 of Pisgah 177 to the east.
3:18 At that time I instructed you as follows: “The Lord your God has given you this land for your possession. You warriors are to cross over before your fellow Israelites 178 equipped for battle. 3:19 But your wives, children, and livestock (of which I know you have many) may remain in the cities I have given you. 3:20 You must fight 179 until the Lord gives your countrymen victory 180 as he did you and they take possession of the land that the Lord your God is giving them on the other side of the Jordan River. Then each of you may return to his own territory that I have given you.” 3:21 I also commanded Joshua at the same time, “You have seen everything the Lord your God did to these two kings; he 181 will do the same to all the kingdoms where you are going. 182 3:22 Do not be afraid of them, for the Lord your God will personally fight for you.”
3:23 Moreover, at that time I pleaded with the Lord, 3:24 “O, Lord God, 183 you have begun to show me 184 your greatness and strength. 185 (What god in heaven or earth can rival your works and mighty deeds?) 3:25 Let me please cross over to see the good land on the other side of the Jordan River – this good hill country and the Lebanon!” 186 3:26 But the Lord was angry at me because of you and would not listen to me. Instead, he 187 said to me, “Enough of that! 188 Do not speak to me anymore about this matter. 3:27 Go up to the top of Pisgah and take a good look to the west, north, south, and east, 189 for you will not be allowed to cross the Jordan. 3:28 Commission 190 Joshua, and encourage and strengthen him, because he will lead these people over and will enable them to inherit the land you will see.” 3:29 So we settled down in the valley opposite Beth Peor. 191
1 tn Heb “These are the words.”
2 tn Heb “to all Israel.”
3 tn Heb “on the other side of the Jordan.” This would appear to favor authorship by someone living on the west side of the Jordan, that is, in Canaan, whereas the biblical tradition locates Moses on the east side (cf. v. 5). However the Hebrew phrase בְּעֵבֶר הַיּרְדֵּן (bÿ’ever hayyrÿden) is a frozen form meaning “Transjordan,” a name appropriate from any geographical vantage point. To this day, one standing east of the Jordan can describe himself as being in Transjordan.
4 tn The Hebrew term מוֹל (mol) may also mean “in front of” or “near” (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).
5 sn This place is otherwise unattested and its location is unknown. Perhaps it is Khirbet Sufah, 4 mi (6 km) SSE of Madaba, Jordan.
6 tn The Hebrew term בֵּין (ben) may suggest “in the area of.”
10 sn Hazeroth. This probably refers to àAin Khadra. See Y. Aharoni, The Land of the Bible, 199-200.
11 sn Di Zahab. Perhaps this refers to Mina al-Dhahab on the eastern Sinai coast.
12 sn An eleven-day journey was about 140 mi (233 km).
14 sn Kadesh Barnea. Possibly this refers to àAin Qudeis, about 50 mi (80 km) southwest of Beer Sheba, but more likely to àAin Qudeirat, 5 mi (8 km) NW of àAin Qudeis. See R. Cohen, “Did I Excavate Kadesh-Barnea?” BAR 7 (1981): 20-33.
15 sn Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom. “By way of Mount Seir” refers to the route from Horeb that ended up in Edom Cf. CEV “by way of the Mount Seir Road”; TEV “by way of the hill country of Edom.”
17 sn The eleventh month is Shebat in the Hebrew calendar, January/February in the modern (Gregorian) calendar.
18 sn The fortieth year would be 1406
19 tn Heb “according to all which.”
20 tn Heb “when he struck [or “smote”].”
22 tn Heb “who lived.”
23 sn Heshbon is probably modern Tell Hesban, about 7.5 mi (12 km) south southwest of Amman, Jordan.
24 tn Heb “who lived.”
25 sn Ashtaroth is probably Tell àAshtarah, about 22 mi (35 km) due east of the Sea of Galilee.
27 tn Heb “this instruction”; KJV, NIV, NRSV “this law”; TEV “God’s laws and teachings.” The Hebrew noun תוֹרָה (torah) is derived from the verb יָרָה (yarah, “to teach”) and here it refers to the Book of Deuteronomy, not the Pentateuch as a whole.
28 tn Heb “lived”; “dwelled.”
29 tn Heb “turn”; NAB “Leave here”; NIV, TEV “Break camp.”
30 tn Heb “go (to).”
31 tn Heb “its dwelling places.”
32 tn Heb “the Arabah” (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).
33 tn Heb “lowlands” (so TEV) or “steppes”; NIV, CEV, NLT “the western foothills.”
sn The Shephelah is the geographical region between the Mediterranean coastal plain and the Judean hill country.
34 sn The Hebrew term Negev means literally “desert” or “south” (so KJV, ASV). It refers to the area south of Beer Sheba and generally west of the Arabah Valley between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba.
35 tn Heb “I have placed before you the land.”
36 tn Heb “the
37 tn Heb “swore” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). This refers to God’s promise, made by solemn oath, to give the patriarchs the land.
39 tn Heb “their seed after them.”
40 tn Heb “multiplied you.”
41 tn Or “heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
42 tn Heb “may he bless you.”
43 tn The Hebrew verb נְבֹנִים (nÿvonim, from בִּין [bin]) is a Niphal referring to skill or intelligence (see T. Fretheim, NIDOTTE 1:652-53).
44 tn Or “selected”; Heb “took.”
46 tn Heb “brothers.” The term “brothers” could, in English, be understood to refer to siblings, so “fellow citizens” has been used in the translation.
47 tn The Hebrew word צֶדֶק (tsedeq, “fairly”) carries the basic idea of conformity to a norm of expected behavior or character, one established by God himself. Fair judgment adheres strictly to that norm or standard (see D. Reimer, NIDOTTE 3:750).
48 tn Heb “between a man and his brother.”
49 tn Heb “his stranger” or “his sojourner”; NAB, NIV “an alien”; NRSV “resident alien.” The Hebrew word גֵּר (ger) commonly means “foreigner.”
50 tn Heb “you,” and throughout the verse (cf. NASB, NRSV).
51 tn Heb “the small,” but referring to social status, not physical stature.
52 tn The Hebrew participle has an imminent future sense here, although many English versions treat it as a present tense (“is giving us,” NAB, NIV, NRSV) or a predictive future (“will give us,” NCV).
53 tn Heb “the
54 tn Or “has given you the land” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV).
55 tn Heb “the thing was good in my eyes.”
56 tn Or “selected” (so NIV, NRSV, TEV); Heb “took.”
57 tn Or “the Wadi Eshcol” (so NAB).
sn The Eshcol Valley is a verdant valley near Hebron, still famous for its viticulture (cf. Num 13:22-23). The Hebrew name “Eshcol” means “trestle,” that is, the frame on which grape vines grow.
58 tn The Hebrew text includes “in their hand,” which is unnecessary and somewhat redundant in English style.
59 tn Heb “the mouth of the
60 tn Heb “in your tents,” that is, privately.
61 tn Heb “have caused our hearts to melt.”
62 tn Heb “greater.” Many English versions understand this to refer to physical size or strength rather than numbers (cf. “stronger,” NAB, NIV, NRSV; “bigger,” NASB).
63 tn Or “as the sky.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
64 tn Heb “we have seen.”
65 tn Heb “the sons of the Anakim.”
66 tn Heb “do not tremble and do not be afraid.” Two synonymous commands are combined for emphasis.
67 tn The Hebrew participle indicates imminent future action here, though some English versions treat it as a predictive future (“will go ahead of you,” NCV; cf. also TEV, CEV).
68 tn Heb “according to all which he did for you in Egypt before your eyes.”
69 tn Heb “the
70 tn Heb “and swore,” i.e., made an oath or vow.
71 tn Heb “Not a man among these men.”
73 tn Heb “the
74 tn Heb “the one who stands before you”; NAB “your aide”; TEV “your helper.”
75 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
76 tn Heb “would be a prey.”
77 sn Do not know good from bad. This is a figure of speech called a merism (suggesting a whole by referring to its extreme opposites). Other examples are the tree of “the knowledge of good and evil” (Gen 2:9), the boy who knows enough “to reject the wrong and choose the right” (Isa 7:16; 8:4), and those who “cannot tell their right hand from their left” (Jonah 4:11). A young child is characterized by lack of knowledge.
79 tn Heb “the Reed Sea.” “Reed” is a better translation of the Hebrew סוּף (suf), traditionally rendered “red.” The name “Red Sea” is based on the LXX which referred to it as ἐρυθρᾶς θαλάσσης (eruqra" qalassh", “red sea”). Nevertheless, because the body of water in question is known in modern times as the Red Sea, this term was used in the translation. The part of the Red Sea in view here is not the one crossed in the exodus but its eastern arm, now known as the Gulf of Eilat or Gulf of Aqaba.
82 tn Heb “came out to meet.”
83 sn Hormah is probably Khirbet el-Meshash, 5.5 mi (9 km) west of Arad and 7.5 mi (12 km) SE of Beer Sheba. Its name is a derivative of the verb חָרָם (kharam, “to ban; to exterminate”). See Num 21:3.
84 tn Heb “the
85 tn Heb “did not hear your voice and did not turn an ear to you.”
86 tn Heb “like the days which you lived.” This refers to the rest of the forty-year period in the desert before Israel arrived in Moab.
88 tn Heb “command” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “charge the people as follows.”
89 tn Heb “brothers”; NAB “your kinsmen.”
90 sn The descendants of Esau (Heb “sons of Esau”; the phrase also occurs in 2:8, 12, 22, 29). These are the inhabitants of the land otherwise known as Edom, south and east of the Dead Sea. Jacob’s brother Esau had settled there after his bitter strife with Jacob (Gen 36:1-8). “Edom” means “reddish,” probably because of the red sandstone of the region, but also by popular etymology because Esau, at birth, was reddish (Gen 25:25).
91 sn Mount Seir is synonymous with Edom.
92 tn Heb includes “with silver.”
93 tn The Hebrew text does not have the first person pronoun; it has been supplied for purposes of English style (the Lord is speaking here).
94 tn Heb “all the work of your hands.”
95 tn Heb “he has.” This has been converted to first person in the translation in keeping with English style.
96 tn Heb “known” (so ASV, NASB); NAB “been concerned about.”
97 tn Heb “the
98 tn Or “brothers”; NRSV “our kin.”
99 tn Heb “the way of the Arabah” (so ASV); NASB, NIV “the Arabah road.”
100 sn Elat was a port city at the head of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, that is, the Gulf of Aqaba (or Gulf of Eilat). Solomon (1 Kgs 9:28), Uzziah (2 Kgs 14:22), and Ahaz (2 Kgs 16:5-6) used it as a port but eventually it became permanently part of Edom. It may be what is known today as Tell el-Kheleifeh. Modern Eilat is located further west along the northern coast. See G. Pratico, “Nelson Glueck’s 1938-1940 Excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh: A Reappraisal,” BASOR 259 (1985): 1-32.
101 sn Ezion Geber. A place near the Gulf of Aqaba, Ezion-geber must be distinguished from Elat (cf. 1 Kgs 9:26-28; 2 Chr 8:17-18). It was, however, also a port city (1 Kgs 22:48-49). It may be the same as the modern site Gezirat al-Fauran, 15 mi (24 km) south-southwest from Tell el-Kheleifah.
102 sn Ar was a Moabite city on the Arnon River east of the Dead Sea. It is mentioned elsewhere in the “Book of the Wars of Yahweh” (Num 21:15; cf. 21:28; Isa 15:1). Here it is synonymous with the whole land of Moab.
103 sn The descendants of Lot. Following the destruction of the cities of the plain, Sodom and Gomorrah, as God’s judgment, Lot fathered two sons by his two daughters, namely, Moab and Ammon (Gen 19:30-38). Thus, these descendants of Lot in and around Ar were the Moabites.
104 sn Emites. These giant people, like the Anakites (Deut 1:28), were also known as Rephaites (v. 11). They appear elsewhere in the narrative of the invasion of the kings of the east where they are said to have lived around Shaveh Kiriathaim, perhaps 9 to 11 mi (15 to 18 km) east of the north end of the Dead Sea (Gen 14:5).
105 sn Rephaites. The earliest reference to this infamous giant race is, again, in the story of the invasion of the eastern kings (Gen 14:5). They lived around Ashteroth Karnaim, probably modern Tell Ashtarah (cf. Deut 1:4), in the Bashan plateau east of the Sea of Galilee. Og, king of Bashan, was a Rephaite (Deut 3:11; Josh 12:4; 13:12). Other texts speak of them or their kinfolk in both Transjordan (Deut 2:20; 3:13) and Canaan (Josh 11:21-22; 14:12, 15; 15:13-14; Judg 1:20; 1 Sam 17:4; 1 Chr 20:4-8). They also appear in extra-biblical literature, especially in connection with the city state of Ugarit. See C. L’Heureux, “Ugaritic and Biblical Rephaim,” HTR 67 (1974): 265-74.
106 sn Horites. Most likely these are the same as the well-known people of ancient Near Eastern texts described as Hurrians. They were geographically widespread and probably non-Semitic. Genesis speaks of them as the indigenous peoples of Edom that Esau expelled (Gen 36:8-19, 31-43) and also as among those who confronted the kings of the east (Gen 14:6).
108 sn Wadi Zered. Now known as Wadi el-H£esa, this valley marked the boundary between Moab to the north and Edom to the south.
109 tn Heb “we crossed the Wadi Zered.” This has been translated as “we did so” for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy.
110 tn Heb “from the middle of.” Although many recent English versions leave this expression untranslated, the point seems to be that these soldiers did not die in battle but “within the camp.”
111 tn Heb “and it was when they were eliminated, all the men of war, to die from the midst of the people.”
116 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Rephaites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
117 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Ammonites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
118 sn Avvites. Otherwise unknown, these people were probably also Anakite (or Rephaite) giants who lived in the lower Mediterranean coastal plain until they were expelled by the Caphtorites.
119 sn Caphtorites. These peoples are familiar from both the OT (Gen 10:14; 1 Chr 1:12; Jer 47:4; Amos 9:7) and ancient Near Eastern texts (Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2:37-38; ANET 138). They originated in Crete (OT “Caphtor”) and are identified as the ancestors of the Philistines (Gen 10:14; Jer 47:4).
120 tn Heb “Caphtor”; the modern name of the island of Crete is used in the translation for clarity (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).
121 sn Heshbon is the name of a prominent site (now Tell Hesba„n, about 7.5 mi [12 km] south southwest of Amman, Jordan). Sihon made it his capital after having driven Moab from the area and forced them south to the Arnon (Num 21:26-30). Heshbon is also mentioned in Deut 1:4.
122 tn Heb “under heaven” (so NIV, NRSV).
123 tn Heb “from before you.”
124 sn Kedemoth. This is probably Aleiyan, about 8 mi (13 km) north of the Arnon and between Dibon and Mattanah.
125 tn Heb “in the way in the way” (בַּדֶּרֶךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ, baderekh baderekh). The repetition lays great stress on the idea of resolute determination to stick to the path. IBHS 116 §7.2.3c.
126 tn Heb “silver.”
127 tn Heb “and water for silver give to me so that I may drink.”
128 tc The translation follows the LXX in reading the first person pronoun. The MT, followed by many English versions, has a second person masculine singular pronoun, “your.”
129 tn Heb “hardened his spirit” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “made his spirit stubborn.”
130 tn Heb “made his heart obstinate” (so KJV, NASB); NRSV “made his heart defiant.”
131 tn Heb “into your hand.”
132 tn Heb “people.”
133 sn Jahaz. This is probably Khirbet el-Medeiyineh. See J. Dearman, “The Levitical Cities of Reuben and Moabite Toponymy,” BASOR 276 (1984): 55-57.
134 tc The translation follows the Qere or marginal reading; the Kethib (consonantal text) has the singular, “his son.”
135 tn Heb “all his people.”
136 tn Heb “every city of men.” This apparently identifies the cities as inhabited.
137 tn Heb “under the ban” (נַחֲרֵם, nakharem). The verb employed is חָרַם (kharam, usually in the Hiphil) and the associated noun is חֵרֶם (kherem). See J. Naudé, NIDOTTE, 2:276-77, and, for a more thorough discussion, Susan Niditch, War in the Hebrew Bible, 28-77.
sn Divine judgment refers to God’s designation of certain persons, places, and things as objects of his special wrath and judgment because, in his omniscience, he knows them to be impure and hopelessly unrepentant.
139 tn Heb “the city in the wadi.” This enigmatic reference may refer to Ar or, more likely, to Aroer itself. Epexegetically the text might read, “From Aroer…, that is, the city in the wadi.” See D. L. Christensen, Deuteronomy 1–11 (WBC), 49.
141 tn Heb “turned and went up.”
143 tn Heb “people.”
145 tn Heb “people.”
146 tn Heb “was left to him.” The final phrase “to him” is redundant in English and has been left untranslated.
147 sn Argob. This is a subdistrict of Bashan, perhaps north of the Yarmuk River. See Y. Aharoni, Land of the Bible, 314.
148 tn Or “high walls and barred gates” (NLT); Heb “high walls, gates, and bars.” Since “bars” could be understood to mean “saloons,” the qualifying adjective “locking” has been supplied in the translation.
149 tn The Hebrew term פְּרָזִי (pÿraziy) refers to rural areas, at the most “unwalled villages” (KJV, NASB “unwalled towns”).
sn The divine curse. See note on this phrase in Deut 2:34.
151 tn Heb “city of men.”
152 sn Mount Hermon. This is the famous peak at the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range known today as Jebel es-Sheik.
153 sn Sidonians were Phoenician inhabitants of the city of Sidon (now in Lebanon), about 47 mi (75 km) north of Mount Carmel.
154 sn Sirion. This name is attested in the Ugaritic texts as sryn. See UT 495.
155 sn Senir. Probably this was actually one of the peaks of Hermon and not the main mountain (Song of Songs 4:8; 1 Chr 5:23). It is mentioned in a royal inscription of Shalmaneser III of Assyria (saniru; see ANET 280).
156 sn Salecah. Today this is known as Salkhad, in Jordan, about 31 mi (50 km) east of the Jordan River in the Hauran Desert.
158 tn Heb “Behold” (הִנֵּה, hinneh).
159 tn The Hebrew term עֶרֶשׂ (’eres), traditionally translated “bed” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) is likely a basaltic (volcanic) stone sarcophagus of suitable size to contain the coffin of the giant Rephaite king. Its iron-like color and texture caused it to be described as an iron container. See A. Millard, “King Og’s Iron Bed: Fact or Fancy?” BR 6 (1990): 16-21, 44; cf. also NEB “his sarcophagus of basalt”; TEV, CEV “his coffin.”
160 tn Or “of iron-colored basalt.” See note on the word “sarcophagus” earlier in this verse.
161 sn Rabbath. This place name (usually occurring as Rabbah; 2 Sam 11:11; 12:27; Jer 49:3) refers to the ancient capital of the Ammonite kingdom, now the modern city of Amman, Jordan. The word means “great [one],” probably because of its political importance. The fact that the sarcophagus “still remain[ed]” there suggests this part of the verse is post-Mosaic, having been added as a matter of explanation for the existence of the artifact and also to verify the claim as to its size.
162 tn Heb “nine cubits.” Assuming a length of 18 in (45 cm) for the standard cubit, this would be 13.5 ft (4.1 m) long.
163 tn Heb “four cubits.” This would be 6 ft (1.8 m) wide.
164 tn Heb “by the cubit of man.” This probably refers to the “short” or “regular” cubit of approximately 18 in (45 cm).
165 tn The words “the territory extending” are not in the Hebrew text; they are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
sn Aroer. See note on this term in Deut 2:36.
166 sn Reubenites and Gadites. By the time of Moses’ address the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh had already been granted permission to settle in the Transjordan, provided they helped the other tribes subdue the occupants of Canaan (cf. Num 32:28-42).
169 sn Geshurites. Geshur was a city and its surrounding area somewhere northeast of Bashan (cf. Josh 12:5 ; 13:11, 13). One of David’s wives was Maacah, the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur and mother of Absalom (cf. 2 Sam 13:37; 15:8; 1 Chr 3:2).
170 sn Maacathites. These were the people of a territory southwest of Mount Hermon on the Jordan River. The name probably has nothing to do with David’s wife from Geshur (see note on “Geshurites” earlier in this verse).
171 sn Havvoth-Jair. The Hebrew name means “villages of Jair,” the latter being named after a son (i.e., descendant) of Manasseh who took the area by conquest.
174 tn Heb “from Chinnereth.” The words “the sea of” have been supplied in the translation as a clarification.
sn Chinnereth. This is another name for the Sea of Galilee, so called because its shape is that of a harp (the Hebrew term for “harp” is כִּנּוֹר, kinnor).
176 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term אַשְׁדֹּת (’ashdot) is unclear. It is usually translated either “slopes” (ASV, NAB, NIV) or “watershed” (NEB).
178 tn Heb “your brothers, the sons of Israel.”
179 tn The words “you must fight” are not present in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for clarity.
180 tn Heb “gives your brothers rest.”
181 tn Heb “the
182 tn Heb “which you are crossing over there.”
183 tn Heb “Lord
184 tn Heb “your servant.” The pronoun is used in the translation to clarify that Moses is speaking of himself, since in contemporary English one does not usually refer to oneself in third person.
185 tn Heb “your strong hand” (so NIV), a symbol of God’s activity.
186 tn The article is retained in the translation (“the Lebanon,” cf. also NAB, NRSV) to indicate that a region (rather than the modern country of Lebanon) is referred to here. Other recent English versions accomplish this by supplying “mountains” after “Lebanon” (TEV, CEV, NLT).
187 tn Heb “the
188 tn Heb “much to you” (an idiom).
189 tn Heb “lift your eyes to the west, north, south, and east and see with your eyes.” The translation omits the repetition of “your eyes” for stylistic reasons.
190 tn Heb “command”; KJV, NASB, NRSV “charge Joshua.”
191 sn Beth Peor. This is probably the spot near Pisgah where Balaam attempted to curse the nation Israel (Num 23:28). The Moabites also worshiped Baal there by the name “Baal [of] Peor” (Num 25:1-5).