1:1 From Paul, 1 an apostle (not from men, nor by human agency, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 1:2 and all the brothers with me, to the churches of Galatia. 1:3 Grace and peace to you 2 from God the Father and our 3 Lord Jesus Christ, 1:4 who gave himself for our sins to rescue us from this present evil age according to the will of our God and Father, 1:5 to whom be glory forever and ever! Amen.
1:6 I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting the one 4 who called you by the grace of Christ 5 and are following 6 a different 7 gospel – 1:7 not that there really is another gospel, 8 but 9 there are some who are disturbing you and wanting 10 to distort the gospel of Christ. 1:8 But even if we (or an angel from heaven) should preach 11 a gospel contrary to the one we preached to you, 12 let him be condemned to hell! 13 1:9 As we have said before, and now I say again, if any one is preaching to you a gospel contrary to what you received, let him be condemned to hell! 14 1:10 Am I now trying to gain the approval of people, 15 or of God? Or am I trying to please people? 16 If I were still trying to please 17 people, 18 I would not be a slave 19 of Christ!
1:11 Now 20 I want you to know, brothers and sisters, 21 that the gospel I preached is not of human origin. 22 1:12 For I did not receive it or learn it from any human source; 23 instead I received it 24 by a revelation of Jesus Christ. 25
1:13 For you have heard of my former way of life 26 in Judaism, how I was savagely persecuting the church of God and trying to destroy it. 1:14 I 27 was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my contemporaries in my nation, 28 and was 29 extremely zealous for the traditions of my ancestors. 30 1:15 But when the one 31 who set me apart from birth 32 and called me by his grace was pleased 1:16 to reveal his Son in 33 me so that I could preach him 34 among the Gentiles, I did not go to ask advice from 35 any human being, 36 1:17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem 37 to see those who were apostles before me, but right away I departed to Arabia, 38 and then returned to Damascus.
1:18 Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem 39 to visit Cephas 40 and get information from him, 41 and I stayed with him fifteen days. 1:19 But I saw none of the other apostles 42 except James the Lord’s brother. 1:20 I assure you 43 that, before God, I am not lying about what I am writing to you! 44 1:21 Afterward I went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 1:22 But I was personally 45 unknown to the churches of Judea that are in Christ. 1:23 They were only hearing, “The one who once persecuted us is now proclaiming the good news 46 of the faith he once tried to destroy.” 1:24 So 47 they glorified God because of me. 48
2:1 Then after fourteen years I went up to Jerusalem 49 again with Barnabas, taking Titus along too. 2:2 I went there 50 because of 51 a revelation and presented 52 to them the gospel that I preach among the Gentiles. But I did so 53 only in a private meeting with the influential people, 54 to make sure that I was not running – or had not run 55 – in vain. 2:3 Yet 56 not even Titus, who was with me, was compelled to be circumcised, although he was a Greek. 2:4 Now this matter arose 57 because of the false brothers with false pretenses 58 who slipped in unnoticed to spy on 59 our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, to make us slaves. 60 2:5 But 61 we did not surrender to them 62 even for a moment, 63 in order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 64
2:6 But from those who were influential 65 (whatever they were makes no difference to me; God shows no favoritism between people 66 ) – those influential leaders 67 added 68 nothing to my message. 69 2:7 On the contrary, when they saw 70 that I was entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised 71 just as Peter was to the circumcised 72 2:8 (for he who empowered 73 Peter for his apostleship 74 to the circumcised 75 also empowered me for my apostleship to the Gentiles) 76 2:9 and when James, Cephas, 77 and John, who had a reputation as 78 pillars, 79 recognized 80 the grace that had been given to me, they gave to Barnabas and me 81 the right hand of fellowship, agreeing 82 that we would go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. 83 2:10 They requested 84 only that we remember the poor, the very thing I also was eager to do.
2:11 But when Cephas 85 came to Antioch, 86 I opposed him to his face, because he had clearly done wrong. 87 2:12 Until 88 certain people came from James, he had been eating with the Gentiles. But when they arrived, he stopped doing this 89 and separated himself 90 because he was afraid of those who were pro-circumcision. 91 2:13 And the rest of the Jews also joined with him in this hypocrisy, so that even Barnabas was led astray with them 92 by their hypocrisy. 2:14 But when I saw that they were not behaving consistently with the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas 93 in front of them all, “If you, although you are a Jew, live like a Gentile and not like a Jew, how can you try to force 94 the Gentiles to live like Jews?”
2:15 We are Jews by birth 95 and not Gentile sinners, 96 2:16 yet we know 97 that no one 98 is justified by the works of the law 99 but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ. 100 And 101 we have come to believe in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by the faithfulness of Christ 102 and not by the works of the law, because by the works of the law no one 103 will be justified. 2:17 But if while seeking to be justified in Christ we ourselves have also been found to be sinners, is Christ then one who encourages 104 sin? Absolutely not! 2:18 But if I build up again those things I once destroyed, 105 I demonstrate that I am one who breaks God’s law. 106 2:19 For through the law I died to the law so that I may live to God. 2:20 I have been crucified with Christ, 107 and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me. So 108 the life I now live in the body, 109 I live because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, 110 who loved me and gave himself for me. 2:21 I do not set aside 111 God’s grace, because if righteousness 112 could come through the law, then Christ died for nothing! 113
3:1 You 114 foolish Galatians! Who has cast a spell 115 on you? Before your eyes Jesus Christ was vividly portrayed 116 as crucified! 3:2 The only thing I want to learn from you is this: Did you receive the Spirit by doing the works of the law 117 or by believing what you heard? 118 3:3 Are you so foolish? Although you began 119 with 120 the Spirit, are you now trying to finish 121 by human effort? 122 3:4 Have you suffered so many things for nothing? – if indeed it was for nothing. 3:5 Does God then give 123 you the Spirit and work miracles among you by your doing the works of the law 124 or by your believing what you heard? 125
3:6 Just as Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness, 126 3:7 so then, understand 127 that those who believe are the sons of Abraham. 128 3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, proclaimed the gospel to Abraham ahead of time, 129 saying, “All the nations 130 will be blessed in you.” 131 3:9 So then those who believe 132 are blessed along with Abraham the believer. 3:10 For all who 133 rely on doing the works of the law are under a curse, because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who does not keep on doing everything written in the book of the law.” 134 3:11 Now it is clear no one is justified before God by the law, because the righteous one will live by faith. 135 3:12 But the law is not based on faith, 136 but the one who does the works of the law 137 will live by them. 138 3:13 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming 139 a curse for us (because it is written, “Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree”) 140 3:14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham would come to the Gentiles, 141 so that we could receive the promise of the Spirit by faith.
3:15 Brothers and sisters, 142 I offer an example from everyday life: 143 When a covenant 144 has been ratified, 145 even though it is only a human contract, no one can set it aside or add anything to it. 3:16 Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his descendant. 146 Scripture 147 does not say, “and to the descendants,” 148 referring to many, but “and to your descendant,” 149 referring to one, who is Christ. 3:17 What I am saying is this: The law that came four hundred thirty years later does not cancel a covenant previously ratified by God, 150 so as to invalidate the promise. 3:18 For if the inheritance is based on the law, it is no longer based on the promise, but God graciously gave 151 it to Abraham through the promise.
3:19 Why then was the law given? 152 It was added 153 because of transgressions, 154 until the arrival of the descendant 155 to whom the promise had been made. It was administered 156 through angels by an intermediary. 157 3:20 Now an intermediary is not for one party alone, but God is one. 158 3:21 Is the law therefore opposed to the promises of God? 159 Absolutely not! For if a law had been given that was able to give life, then righteousness would certainly have come by the law. 160 3:22 But the scripture imprisoned 161 everything and everyone 162 under sin so that the promise could be given – because of the faithfulness 163 of Jesus Christ – to those who believe.
3:23 Now before faith 164 came we were held in custody under the law, being kept as prisoners 165 until the coming faith would be revealed. 3:24 Thus the law had become our guardian 166 until Christ, so that we could be declared righteous 167 by faith. 3:25 But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a guardian. 168 3:26 For in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith. 169 3:27 For all of you who 170 were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 3:28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave 171 nor free, there is neither male nor female 172 – for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. 3:29 And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, 173 heirs according to the promise.
1 tn Grk “Paul.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.
2 tn Grk “Grace to you and peace.”
3 tc ‡ The unusual order καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν (kai kuriou Jhmwn), which produces the reading “our Lord Jesus Christ” instead of “God our Father,” is read by Ì46,51vid B D F G H 1739 1881 Ï sy sa, while the more normal ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου (Jhmwn kai kuriou) is found in א A P Ψ 33 81 326 365 2464 pc. Thus, the reading adopted in the translation is more widespread geographically and is found in the two earliest witnesses, along with several good representatives of the Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine texttypes. Internally, there would be a strong motivation for scribes to change the order: “from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ” is Paul’s normal greeting; here alone is the pronoun attached to “Jesus Christ” (except in the pastorals, though the greeting in these letters is nevertheless unlike the rest of the corpus Paulinum). Intrinsically, the chosen reading is superior as well: Scribes would be prone to emulate Paul’s regular style, while in an early letter such as this one his regular style was yet to be established (for a similar situation, cf. the text-critical discussion at 1 Thess 1:1). Hence, there is a strong probability that the reading in the translation is authentic. Although B. M. Metzger argues that “the apostle’s stereotyped formula was altered by copyists who, apparently in the interest of Christian piety, transferred the possessive pronoun so it would be more closely associated with ‘Lord Jesus Christ’” (TCGNT 520), one might expect to see the same alterations in other Pauline letters. That this is not the case argues for “our Lord Jesus Christ” as the authentic reading here.
5 tc Although the majority of witnesses, including some of the most important ones (Ì51 א A B Fc Ψ 33 1739 1881 Ï f vg syp bo), read “by the grace of Christ” (χάριτι Χριστοῦ, cariti Cristou) here, this reading is not without variables. Besides alternate readings such as χάριτι ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (cariti Ihsou Cristou, “by the grace of Jesus Christ”; D 326 1241s pc syh**) and χάριτι θεοῦ (cariti qeou, “by the grace of God”; 327 pc Thretlem), a few
6 tn Grk “deserting [turning away] to” a different gospel, implying the idea of “following.”
7 tn Grk “another.”
8 tn Grk “which is not another,” but this could be misunderstood to mean “which is not really different.” In fact, as Paul goes on to make clear, there is no other gospel than the one he preaches.
9 tn Grk “except.”
10 tn Or “trying.”
11 tc ‡ Most witnesses have ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”) either after (א2 A [D* ὑμᾶς] 6 33 326 614 945 1881 Ï Tertpt Ambst) or before (Ì51vid B H 0278 630 1175 [1739* ἡμῖν]) εὐαγγελίζηται (euaggelizhtai, “should preach” [or some variation on the form of this verb]). But the fact that it floats suggests its inauthenticity, especially since it appears to be a motivated reading for purposes of clarification. The following witnesses lack the pronoun: א* F G Ψ ar b g Cyp McionT Tertpt Lcf. The external evidence admittedly is not as weighty as evidence for the pronoun, but coupled with strong internal evidence the shorter reading should be considered original. Although it is possible that scribes may have deleted the pronoun to make Paul’s statement seem more universal, the fact that the pronoun floats suggests otherwise. NA27 has the pronoun in brackets, indicating doubt as to its authenticity.
12 tn Or “other than the one we preached to you.”
13 tn Grk “let him be accursed” (ἀνάθεμα, anaqema). The translation gives the outcome which is implied by this dreadful curse.
14 tn See the note on this phrase in the previous verse.
15 tn Grk “of men”; but here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") is used in a generic sense of both men and women.
16 tn Grk “men”; but here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is used in a generic sense of both men and women.
17 tn The imperfect verb has been translated conatively (ExSyn 550).
18 tn Grk “men”; but here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") is used in a generic sense of both men and women.
19 tn Traditionally, “servant” or “bondservant.” Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.
sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s slave or servant is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For a Jew this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”
20 tc ‡ The conjunction δέ (de) is found in Ì46 א*,2 A D1 Ψ 1739 1881 Ï sy bo, while γάρ (gar) is the conjunction of choice in א1 B D*,c F G 33 pc lat sa. There are thus good representatives on each side. Scribes generally tended to prefer γάρ in such instances, most likely because it was more forceful and explicit. γάρ is thus seen as a motivated reading. For this reason, δέ is preferred.
21 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelfoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).
22 tn Grk “is not according to man.”
23 tn Or “I did not receive it from a human source, nor was I taught it.”
24 tn The words “I received it” are not in the Greek text but are implied.
25 tn It is difficult to determine what kind of genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ (Ihsou Cristou) is. If it is a subjective genitive, the meaning is “a revelation from Jesus Christ” but if objective genitive, it is “a revelation about Jesus Christ.” Most likely this is objective since the explanation in vv. 15-16 mentions God revealing the Son to Paul so that he might preach, although the idea of a direct revelation to Paul at some point cannot be ruled out.
26 tn Or “lifestyle,” “behavior.”
27 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
28 tn Or “among my race.”
29 tn Grk “was advancing beyond…nation, being.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) was translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
30 sn The traditions of my ancestors refers to both Pharisaic and popular teachings of this time which eventually were codified in Jewish literature such as the Mishnah, Midrashim, and Targums.
31 tc ‡ Several important witnesses have ὁ θεός (Jo qeos) after εὐδόκησεν (eudokhsen; so א A D Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï co) while the shorter reading is supported by Ì46 B F G 629 1505 pc lat. There is hardly any reason why scribes would omit the words (although the Beatty papyrus and the Western text do at times omit words and phrases), but several reasons why scribes would add the words (especially the need to clarify). The confluence of witnesses for the shorter reading (including a few fathers and versions) adds strong support for its authenticity. It is also in keeping with Paul’s style to refrain from mentioning God by name as a rhetorical device (cf. ExSyn 437 [although this section deals with passive constructions, the principle is the same]). NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating some doubts as to their authenticity.
32 tn Grk “from my mother’s womb.”
33 tn Or “to me”; the Greek preposition ἐν (en) can mean either, depending on the context.
34 tn This pronoun refers to “his Son,” mentioned earlier in the verse.
35 tn Or “I did not consult with.” For the translation “I did not go to ask advice from” see L&N 33.175.
36 tn Grk “from flesh and blood.”
38 sn As a geographical region Arabia included the territory west of Mesopotamia, east and south of Syria and Palestine, extending to the isthmus of Suez. During the Roman occupation, some independent kingdoms arose like that of the Nabateans south of Damascus, and these could be called simply Arabia. In light of the proximity to Damascus, this may well be the territory Paul says he visited here. See also C. W. Briggs, “The Apostle Paul in Arabia,” Biblical World 41 (1913): 255-59.
40 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
41 tn Although often translated “to get acquainted with Cephas,” this could give the impression of merely a social call. L&N 34.52 has “to visit, with the purpose of obtaining information” for the meaning of ἱστορέω (Jistorew), particularly in this verse.
42 tn Grk “But another of the apostles I did not see, except…” with “another” in emphatic position in the Greek text. Paul is determined to make the point that his contacts with the original twelve apostles and other leaders of the Jerusalem church were limited, thus asserting his independence from them.
43 tn Grk “behold.”
44 tn Grk “What things I am writing to you, behold, before God [that] I am not lying.”
45 tn Or “by sight”; Grk “by face.”
46 tn The Greek verb here is εὐαγγελίζεται (euangelizetai).
47 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of the report about Paul’s conversion.
48 tn The prepositional phrase ἐν εμοί (en emoi) has been translated with a causal force.
50 tn Grk “I went up”; one always spoke idiomatically of going “up” to Jerusalem.
51 tn Or “in accordance with.” According to BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.5.a.δ, “Oft. the norm is at the same time the reason, so that in accordance with and because of are merged…Instead of ‘in accordance w.’ κ. can mean simply because of, as a result of, on the basis of…κ. ἀποκάλυψιν Gal 2:2.”
52 tn Or “set before them.”
53 tn Grk “Gentiles, but only privately…to make sure.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started with “But” and the words “I did so,” an implied repetition from the previous clause, were supplied to make a complete English sentence.
54 tn L&N 87.42 has “important persons, influential persons, prominent persons” for οἱ δοκοῦντες and translates this phrase in Gal 2:2 as “in a private meeting with the prominent persons.” The “prominent people” referred to here are the leaders of the Jerusalem church.
55 tn Here the first verb (τρέχω, trecw, “was not running”) is present subjunctive, while the second (ἔδραμον, edramon, “had not run”) is aorist indicative.
58 tn The adjective παρεισάκτους (pareisaktou"), which relates to someone joining a group with false motives or false pretenses, applies to the “false brothers.” Although the expression “false brothers with false pretenses” is somewhat redundant, it captures the emphatic force of Paul’s expression, which labels both these “brothers” as false (ψευδαδέλφους, yeudadelfou") as well as their motives. See L&N 34.29 for more information.
59 tn The verb translated here as “spy on” (κατασκοπέω, kataskopew) can have a neutral nuance, but here the connotation is certainly negative (so F. F. Bruce, Galatians [NIGTC], 112-13, and E. Burton, Galatians [ICC], 83).
60 tn Grk “in order that they might enslave us.” The ἵνα (Jina) clause with the subjunctive verb καταδουλώσουσιν (katadoulwsousin) has been translated as an English infinitival clause.
61 tn Grk “slaves, nor did we…” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, οὐδέ (oude) was translated as “But…even” and a new sentence started in the translation at the beginning of v. 5.
62 tn Or “we did not cave in to their demands.”
63 tn Grk “even for an hour” (an idiom for a very short period of time).
64 sn In order that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. Paul evidently viewed the demands of the so-called “false brothers” as a departure from the truth contained in the gospel he preached. This was a very serious charge (see Gal 1:8).
65 tn Or “influential leaders.” BDAG 255 s.v. δοκέω 2.a.β has “the influential men Gal 2:2, 6b. A fuller expr. w. the same mng., w. inf. added…vss. 6a, 9.” This refers to the leadership of the Jerusalem church.
66 tn Grk “God does not receive the face of man,” an idiom for showing favoritism or partiality (BDAG 887-88 s.v. πρόσωπον 1.b.α; L&N 88.238).
67 tn Or “influential people”; here “leaders” was used rather than “people” for stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy with the word “people” in the previous parenthetical remark. See also the note on the word “influential” at the beginning of this verse.
69 tn Or “added nothing to my authority.” Grk “added nothing to me,” with what was added (“message,” etc.) implied.
70 tn The participle ἰδόντες (idontes) has been taken temporally to retain the structure of the passage. Many modern translations, because of the length of the sentence here, translate this participle as a finite verb and break the Greek sentences into several English sentences (NIV, for example, begins new sentences at the beginning of both vv. 8 and 9).
71 tn Grk “to the uncircumcision,” that is, to the Gentiles.
72 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” a collective reference to the Jewish people.
73 tn Or “worked through”; the same word is also used in relation to Paul later in this verse.
74 tn Or “his ministry as an apostle.”
75 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” i.e., the Jewish people.
76 tn Grk “also empowered me to the Gentiles.”
77 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
79 sn Pillars is figurative here for those like James, Peter, and John who were leaders in the Jerusalem church.
81 tn Grk “me and Barnabas.”
82 tn Grk “so,” with the ἵνα (Jina) indicating the result of the “pillars” extending the “right hand of fellowship,” but the translation “they gave…the right hand of fellowship so that we would go” could be misunderstood as purpose here. The implication of the scene is that an agreement, outlined at the end of v. 10, was reached between Paul and Barnabas on the one hand and the “pillars” of the Jerusalem church on the other.
83 tn Grk “to the circumcision,” a collective reference to the Jewish people.
84 tn Grk “only that we remember the poor”; the words “They requested” have been supplied from the context to make a complete English sentence.
85 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
87 tn Grk “because he stood condemned.”
88 tn The conjunction γάρ has not been translated here.
89 tn Grk “he drew back.” If ἑαυτόν (Jeauton) goes with both ὑπέστελλεν (Jupestellen) and ἀφώριζεν (afwrizen) rather than only the latter, the meaning would be “he drew himself back” (see BDAG 1041 s.v. ὑποστέλλω 1.a).
90 tn Or “and held himself aloof.”
91 tn Grk “the [ones] of the circumcision,” that is, the group of Jewish Christians who insisted on circumcision of Gentiles before they could become Christians.
92 tn The words “with them” are a reflection of the σύν- (sun-) prefix on the verb συναπήχθη (sunaphcqh; see L&N 31.76).
93 sn Cephas. This individual is generally identified with the Apostle Peter (L&N 93.211).
94 tn Here ἀναγκάζεις (anankazei") has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534).
95 tn Grk “by nature.”
96 tn Grk “and not sinners from among the Gentiles.”
97 tn Grk “yet knowing”; the participle εἰδότες (eidotes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
98 tn Grk “no man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women.
99 sn The law is a reference to the law of Moses.
100 tn Or “faith in Jesus Christ.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in v. 20; Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 3:22; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
sn On the phrase translated the faithfulness of Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
101 tn In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.
102 tn Or “by faith in Christ.” See comment above on “the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.”
103 tn Or “no human being”; Grk “flesh.”
104 tn Or “does Christ serve the interests of sin?”; or “is Christ an agent for sin?” See BDAG 230-31 s.v. διάκονος 2.
105 tn Or “once tore down.”
106 tn Traditionally, “that I am a transgressor.”
108 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to bring out the connection of the following clauses with the preceding ones. What Paul says here amounts to a result or inference drawn from his co-crucifixion with Christ and the fact that Christ now lives in him. In Greek this is a continuation of the preceding sentence, but the construction is too long and complex for contemporary English style, so a new sentence was started here in the translation.
109 tn Grk “flesh.”
110 tc A number of important witnesses (Ì46 B D* F G) have θεοῦ καὶ Χριστοῦ (qeou kai Cristou, “of God and Christ”) instead of υἱοῦ τοῦ θεοῦ (Juiou tou qeou, “the Son of God”), found in the majority of
tn Or “I live by faith in the Son of God.” See note on “faithfulness of Jesus Christ” in v. 16 for the rationale behind the translation “the faithfulness of the Son of God.”
sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of the Son of God, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
111 tn Or “I do not declare invalid,” “I do not nullify.”
112 tn Or “justification.”
113 tn Or “without cause,” “for no purpose.”
114 tn Grk “O” (an interjection used both in address and emotion). In context the following section is highly charged emotionally.
115 tn Or “deceived”; the verb βασκαίνω (baskainw) can be understood literally here in the sense of bewitching by black magic, but could also be understood figuratively to refer to an act of deception (see L&N 53.98 and 88.159).
116 tn Or “publicly placarded,” “set forth in a public proclamation” (BDAG 867 s.v. προγράφω 2).
117 tn Grk “by [the] works of [the] law,” a reference to observing the Mosaic law.
118 tn Grk “by [the] hearing of faith.”
119 tn Grk “Having begun”; the participle ἐναρξάμενοι (enarxamenoi) has been translated concessively.
120 tn Or “by the Spirit.”
121 tn The verb ἐπιτελεῖσθε (epiteleisqe) has been translated as a conative present (see ExSyn 534). This is something the Galatians were attempting to do, but could not accomplish successfully.
122 tn Grk “in/by [the] flesh.”
123 tn Or “provide.”
127 tn Grk “know.”
128 tn The phrase “sons of Abraham” is used here in a figurative sense to describe people who are connected to a personality, Abraham, by close nonmaterial ties. It is this personality that has defined the relationship and its characteristics (BDAG 1024-25 s.v. υἱός 2.c.α).
129 tn For the Greek verb προευαγγελίζομαι (proeuangelizomai) translated as “proclaim the gospel ahead of time,” compare L&N 33.216.
130 tn The same plural Greek word, τὰ ἔθνη (ta eqnh), can be translated as “nations” or “Gentiles.”
133 tn Grk “For as many as.”
134 tn Grk “Cursed is everyone who does not continue in all the things written in the book of the law, to do them.”
sn A quotation from Deut 27:26.
136 tn Grk “is not from faith.”
138 sn A quotation from Lev 18:5. The phrase the works of the law is an editorial expansion on the Greek text (see previous note); it has been left as normal typeface to indicate it is not part of the OT text.
139 tn Grk “having become”; the participle γενόμενος (genomenos) has been taken instrumentally.
141 tn Or “so that the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles in Christ Jesus.”
143 tn Grk “I speak according to man,” referring to the illustration that follows.
145 tn Or “has been put into effect.”
146 tn Grk “his seed,” a figurative extension of the meaning of σπέρμα (sperma) to refer to descendants (L&N 10.29).
147 tn Grk “It”; the referent (the scripture) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The understood subject of the verb λέγει (legei) could also be “He” (referring to God) as the one who spoke the promise to Abraham.
148 tn Grk “to seeds.” See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse. Here the term is plural; the use of the singular in the OT text cited later in this verse is crucial to Paul’s argument.
149 tn See the note on “descendant” earlier in this verse.
sn A quotation from Gen 12:7; 13:15; 17:7; 24:7.
150 tc Most
151 tn On the translation “graciously gave” for χαρίζομαι (carizomai) see L&N 57.102.
152 tn Grk “Why then the law?”
153 tc For προσετέθη (proseteqh) several Western
154 tc παραδόσεων (paradosewn; “traditions, commandments”) is read by D*, while the vast majority of witnesses read παραβάσεων (parabasewn, “transgressions”). D’s reading makes little sense in this context. πράξεων (praxewn, “of deeds”) replaces παραβάσεων in Ì46 F G it Irlat Ambst Spec. The wording is best taken as going with νόμος (nomo"; “Why then the law of deeds?”), as is evident by the consistent punctuation in the later witnesses. But such an expression is unpauline and superfluous; it was almost certainly added by some early scribe(s) to soften the blow of Paul’s statement.
156 tn Or “was ordered.” L&N 31.22 has “was put into effect” here.
157 tn Many modern translations (NASB, NIV, NRSV) render this word (μεσίτης, mesith"; here and in v. 20) as “mediator,” but this conveys a wrong impression in contemporary English. If this is referring to Moses, he certainly did not “mediate” between God and Israel but was an intermediary on God’s behalf. Moses was not a mediator, for example, who worked for compromise between opposing parties. He instead was God’s representative to his people who enabled them to have a relationship, but entirely on God’s terms.
158 tn The meaning of this verse is disputed. According to BDAG 634 s.v. μεσίτης, “It prob. means that the activity of an intermediary implies the existence of more than one party, and hence may be unsatisfactory because it must result in a compromise. The presence of an intermediary would prevent attainment, without any impediment, of the purpose of the εἶς θεός in giving the law.” See also A. Oepke, TDNT 4:598-624, esp. 618-19.
159 tc The reading τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou, “of God”) is well attested in א A C D (F G read θεοῦ without the article) Ψ 0278 33 1739 1881 Ï lat sy co. However, Ì46 B d Ambst lack the words. Ì46 and B perhaps should not to be given as much weight as they normally are, since the combination of these two witnesses often produces a secondary shorter reading against all others. In addition, one might expect that if the shorter reading were original other variants would have crept into the textual tradition early on. But 104 (
160 tn Or “have been based on the law.”
161 tn Or “locked up.”
162 tn Grk “imprisoned all things” but τὰ πάντα (ta panta) includes people as part of the created order. Because people are the emphasis of Paul’s argument ( “given to those who believe” at the end of this verse.), “everything and everyone” was used here.
163 tn Or “so that the promise could be given by faith in Jesus Christ to those who believe.” A decision is difficult here. Though traditionally translated “faith in Jesus Christ,” an increasing number of NT scholars are arguing that πίστις Χριστοῦ (pisti" Cristou) and similar phrases in Paul (here and in Rom 3:22, 26; Gal 2:16, 20; Eph 3:12; Phil 3:9) involve a subjective genitive and mean “Christ’s faith” or “Christ’s faithfulness” (cf., e.g., G. Howard, “The ‘Faith of Christ’,” ExpTim 85 : 212-15; R. B. Hays, The Faith of Jesus Christ [SBLDS]; Morna D. Hooker, “Πίστις Χριστοῦ,” NTS 35 : 321-42). Noteworthy among the arguments for the subjective genitive view is that when πίστις takes a personal genitive it is almost never an objective genitive (cf. Matt 9:2, 22, 29; Mark 2:5; 5:34; 10:52; Luke 5:20; 7:50; 8:25, 48; 17:19; 18:42; 22:32; Rom 1:8; 12; 3:3; 4:5, 12, 16; 1 Cor 2:5; 15:14, 17; 2 Cor 10:15; Phil 2:17; Col 1:4; 2:5; 1 Thess 1:8; 3:2, 5, 10; 2 Thess 1:3; Titus 1:1; Phlm 6; 1 Pet 1:9, 21; 2 Pet 1:5). On the other hand, the objective genitive view has its adherents: A. Hultgren, “The Pistis Christou Formulations in Paul,” NovT 22 (1980): 248-63; J. D. G. Dunn, “Once More, ΠΙΣΤΙΣ ΧΡΙΣΤΟΥ,” SBL Seminar Papers, 1991, 730-44. Most commentaries on Romans and Galatians usually side with the objective view.
sn On the phrase because of the faithfulness of Jesus Christ, ExSyn 116, which notes that the grammar is not decisive, nevertheless suggests that “the faith/faithfulness of Christ is not a denial of faith in Christ as a Pauline concept (for the idea is expressed in many of the same contexts, only with the verb πιστεύω rather than the noun), but implies that the object of faith is a worthy object, for he himself is faithful.” Though Paul elsewhere teaches justification by faith, this presupposes that the object of our faith is reliable and worthy of such faith.
164 tn Or “the faithfulness [of Christ] came.”
165 tc Instead of the present participle συγκλειόμενοι (sunkleiomenoi; found in Ì46 א A B D* F G P Ψ 33 1739 al), C D1 0176 0278 Ï have the perfect συγκεκλεισμένοι (sunkekleismenoi). The syntactical implication of the perfect is that the cause or the means of being held in custody was confinement (“we were held in custody [by/because of] being confined”). The present participle of course allows for such options, but also allows for contemporaneous time (“while being confined”) and result (“with the result that we were confined”). Externally, the perfect participle has little to commend it, being restricted for the most part to later and Byzantine witnesses.
tn Grk “being confined.”
166 tn Or “disciplinarian,” “custodian,” or “guide.” According to BDAG 748 s.v. παιδαγωγός, “the man, usu. a slave…whose duty it was to conduct a boy or youth…to and from school and to superintend his conduct gener.; he was not a ‘teacher’ (despite the present mng. of the derivative ‘pedagogue’…When the young man became of age, the π. was no longer needed.” L&N 36.5 gives “guardian, leader, guide” here.
167 tn Or “be justified.”
168 tn See the note on the word “guardian” in v. 24. The punctuation of vv. 25, 26, and 27 is difficult to represent because of the causal connections between each verse. English style would normally require a comma either at the end of v. 25 or v. 26, but in so doing the translation would then link v. 26 almost exclusively with either v. 25 or v. 27; this would be problematic as scholars debate which two verses are to be linked. Because of this, the translation instead places a period at the end of each verse. This preserves some of the ambiguity inherent in the Greek and does not exclude any particular causal connection.
169 tn Or “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.”
170 tn Grk “For as many of you as.”
172 tn Grk “male and female.”