16:1 Now Sarai, 1 Abram’s wife, had not given birth to any children, 2 but she had an Egyptian servant 3 named Hagar. 4 16:2 So Sarai said to Abram, “Since 5 the Lord has prevented me from having children, have sexual relations with 6 my servant. Perhaps I can have a family by her.” 7 Abram did what 8 Sarai told him.
16:3 So after Abram had lived 9 in Canaan for ten years, Sarai, Abram’s wife, gave Hagar, her Egyptian servant, 10 to her husband to be his wife. 11 16:4 He had sexual relations with 12 Hagar, and she became pregnant. 13 Once Hagar realized she was pregnant, she despised Sarai. 14 16:5 Then Sarai said to Abram, “You have brought this wrong on me! 15 I allowed my servant to have sexual relations with you, 16 but when she realized 17 that she was pregnant, she despised me. 18 May the Lord judge between you and me!” 19
16:7 The Lord’s angel 26 found Hagar near a spring of water in the desert – the spring that is along the road to Shur. 27 16:8 He said, “Hagar, servant of Sarai, where have you come from, and where are you going?” She replied, “I’m running away from 28 my mistress, Sarai.”
16:9 Then the Lord’s angel said to her, “Return to your mistress and submit 29 to her authority. 16:10 I will greatly multiply your descendants,” the Lord’s angel added, 30 “so that they will be too numerous to count.” 31 16:11 Then the Lord’s angel said to her,
“You are now 32 pregnant
and are about to give birth 33 to a son.
You are to name him Ishmael, 34
for the Lord has heard your painful groans. 35
He will be hostile to everyone, 37
and everyone will be hostile to him. 38
He will live away from 39 his brothers.”
16:13 So Hagar named the Lord who spoke to her, “You are the God who sees me,” 40 for she said, “Here I have seen one who sees me!” 41 16:14 That is why the well was called 42 Beer Lahai Roi. 43 (It is located 44 between Kadesh and Bered.)
17:1 When Abram was 99 years old, 49 the Lord appeared to him and said, 50 “I am the sovereign God. 51 Walk 52 before me 53 and be blameless. 54 17:2 Then I will confirm my covenant 55 between me and you, and I will give you a multitude of descendants.” 56
17:3 Abram bowed down with his face to the ground, 57 and God said to him, 58 17:4 “As for me, 59 this 60 is my covenant with you: You will be the father of a multitude of nations. 17:5 No longer will your name be 61 Abram. Instead, your name will be Abraham 62 because I will make you 63 the father of a multitude of nations. 17:6 I will make you 64 extremely 65 fruitful. I will make nations of you, and kings will descend from you. 66 17:7 I will confirm 67 my covenant as a perpetual 68 covenant between me and you. It will extend to your descendants after you throughout their generations. I will be your God and the God of your descendants after you. 69 17:8 I will give the whole land of Canaan – the land where you are now residing 70 – to you and your descendants after you as a permanent 71 possession. I will be their God.”
17:9 Then God said to Abraham, “As for you, you must keep 72 the covenantal requirement 73 I am imposing on you and your descendants after you throughout their generations. 17:10 This is my requirement that you and your descendants after you must keep: 74 Every male among you must be circumcised. 75 17:11 You must circumcise the flesh of your foreskins. This will be a reminder 76 of the covenant between me and you. 17:12 Throughout your generations every male among you who is eight days old 77 must be circumcised, whether born in your house or bought with money from any foreigner who is not one of your descendants. 17:13 They must indeed be circumcised, 78 whether born in your house or bought with money. The sign of my covenant 79 will be visible in your flesh as a permanent 80 reminder. 17:14 Any uncircumcised male 81 who has not been circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin will be cut off 82 from his people – he has failed to carry out my requirement.” 83
17:15 Then God said to Abraham, “As for your wife, you must no longer call her Sarai; 84 Sarah 85 will be her name. 17:16 I will bless her and will give you a son through her. I will bless her and she will become a mother of nations. 86 Kings of countries 87 will come from her!”
17:17 Then Abraham bowed down with his face to the ground and laughed 88 as he said to himself, 89 “Can 90 a son be born to a man who is a hundred years old? 91 Can Sarah 92 bear a child at the age of ninety?” 93 17:18 Abraham said to God, “O that 94 Ishmael might live before you!” 95
17:19 God said, “No, Sarah your wife is going to bear you a son, and you will name him Isaac. 96 I will confirm my covenant with him as a perpetual 97 covenant for his descendants after him. 17:20 As for Ishmael, I have heard you. 98 I will indeed bless him, make him fruitful, and give him a multitude of descendants. 99 He will become the father of twelve princes; 100 I will make him into a great nation. 17:21 But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this set time next year.” 17:22 When he finished speaking with Abraham, God went up from him. 101
17:23 Abraham took his son Ishmael and every male in his household (whether born in his house or bought with money) 102 and circumcised them 103 on that very same day, just as God had told him to do. 17:24 Now Abraham was 99 years old 104 when he was circumcised; 105 17:25 his son Ishmael was thirteen years old 106 when he was circumcised. 17:26 Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised on the very same day. 17:27 All the men of his household, whether born in his household or bought with money from a foreigner, were circumcised with him.
18:1 The Lord appeared to Abraham 107 by the oaks 108 of Mamre while 109 he was sitting at the entrance 110 to his tent during the hottest time of the day. 18:2 Abraham 111 looked up 112 and saw 113 three men standing across 114 from him. When he saw them 115 he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them and bowed low 116 to the ground. 117
18:3 He said, “My lord, 118 if I have found favor in your sight, do not pass by and leave your servant. 119 18:4 Let a little water be brought so that 120 you may all 121 wash your feet and rest under the tree. 18:5 And let me get 122 a bit of food 123 so that you may refresh yourselves 124 since you have passed by your servant’s home. After that you may be on your way.” 125 “All right,” they replied, “you may do as you say.”
18:6 So Abraham hurried into the tent and said to Sarah, “Quick! Take 126 three measures 127 of fine flour, knead it, and make bread.” 128 18:7 Then Abraham ran to the herd and chose a fine, tender calf, and gave it to a servant, 129 who quickly prepared it. 130 18:8 Abraham 131 then took some curds and milk, along with the calf that had been prepared, and placed the food 132 before them. They ate while 133 he was standing near them under a tree.
18:9 Then they asked him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” He replied, “There, 134 in the tent.” 18:10 One of them 135 said, “I will surely return 136 to you when the season comes round again, 137 and your wife Sarah will have a son!” 138 (Now Sarah was listening at the entrance to the tent, not far behind him. 139 18:11 Abraham and Sarah were old and advancing in years; 140 Sarah had long since passed menopause.) 141 18:12 So Sarah laughed to herself, thinking, 142 “After I am worn out will I have pleasure, 143 especially when my husband is old too?” 144
18:13 The Lord said to Abraham, “Why 145 did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Will I really 146 have a child when I am old?’ 18:14 Is anything impossible 147 for the Lord? I will return to you when the season comes round again and Sarah will have a son.” 148 18:15 Then Sarah lied, saying, “I did not laugh,” because she was afraid. But the Lord said, “No! You did laugh.” 149
18:16 When the men got up to leave, 150 they looked out over 151 Sodom. (Now 152 Abraham was walking with them to see them on their way.) 153 18:17 Then the Lord said, “Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do? 154 18:18 After all, Abraham 155 will surely become 156 a great and powerful nation, and all the nations on the earth will pronounce blessings on one another 157 using his name. 18:19 I have chosen him 158 so that he may command his children and his household after him to keep 159 the way of the Lord by doing 160 what is right and just. Then the Lord will give 161 to Abraham what he promised 162 him.”
18:20 So the Lord said, “The outcry against 163 Sodom and Gomorrah is so great and their sin so blatant 164 18:21 that I must go down 165 and see if they are as wicked as the outcry suggests. 166 If not, 167 I want to know.”
18:22 The two men turned 168 and headed 169 toward Sodom, but Abraham was still standing before the Lord. 170 18:23 Abraham approached and said, “Will you sweep away the godly along with the wicked? 18:24 What if there are fifty godly people in the city? Will you really wipe it out and not spare 171 the place for the sake of the fifty godly people who are in it? 18:25 Far be it from you to do such a thing – to kill the godly with the wicked, treating the godly and the wicked alike! Far be it from you! Will not the judge 172 of the whole earth do what is right?” 173
18:26 So the Lord replied, “If I find in the city of Sodom fifty godly people, I will spare the whole place for their sake.”
18:27 Then Abraham asked, “Since I have undertaken to speak to the Lord 174 (although I am but dust and ashes), 175 18:28 what if there are five less than the fifty godly people? Will you destroy 176 the whole city because five are lacking?” 177 He replied, “I will not destroy it if I find forty-five there.”
19:2 He said, “Here, my lords, please turn aside to your servant’s house. Stay the night 190 and wash your feet. Then you can be on your way early in the morning.” 191 “No,” they replied, “we’ll spend the night in the town square.” 192
19:3 But he urged 193 them persistently, so they turned aside with him and entered his house. He prepared a feast for them, including bread baked without yeast, and they ate. 19:4 Before they could lie down to sleep, 194 all the men – both young and old, from every part of the city of Sodom – surrounded the house. 195 19:5 They shouted to Lot, 196 “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so we can have sex 197 with them!”
19:6 Lot went outside to them, shutting the door behind him. 19:7 He said, “No, my brothers! Don’t act so wickedly! 198 19:8 Look, I have two daughters who have never had sexual relations with 199 a man. Let me bring them out to you, and you can do to them whatever you please. 200 Only don’t do anything to these men, for they have come under the protection 201 of my roof.” 202
19:9 “Out of our way!” 203 they cried, and “This man came to live here as a foreigner, 204 and now he dares to judge us! 205 We’ll do more harm 206 to you than to them!” They kept 207 pressing in on Lot until they were close enough 208 to break down the door.
19:10 So the men inside 209 reached out 210 and pulled Lot back into the house 211 as they shut the door. 19:11 Then they struck the men who were at the door of the house, from the youngest to the oldest, 212 with blindness. The men outside 213 wore themselves out trying to find the door. 19:12 Then the two visitors 214 said to Lot, “Who else do you have here? 215 Do you have 216 any sons-in-law, sons, daughters, or other relatives in the city? 217 Get them out of this 218 place 19:13 because we are about to destroy 219 it. The outcry against this place 220 is so great before the Lord that he 221 has sent us to destroy it.”
19:14 Then Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law who were going to marry his daughters. 222 He said, “Quick, get out of this place because the Lord is about to destroy 223 the city!” But his sons-in-law thought he was ridiculing them. 224
19:15 At dawn 225 the angels hurried Lot along, saying, “Get going! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here, 226 or else you will be destroyed when the city is judged!” 227 19:16 When Lot 228 hesitated, the men grabbed his hand and the hands of his wife and two daughters because the Lord had compassion on them. 229 They led them away and placed them 230 outside the city. 19:17 When they had brought them outside, they 231 said, “Run 232 for your lives! Don’t look 233 behind you or stop anywhere in the valley! 234 Escape to the mountains or you will be destroyed!”
19:18 But Lot said to them, “No, please, Lord! 235 19:19 Your 236 servant has found favor with you, 237 and you have shown me great 238 kindness 239 by sparing 240 my life. But I am not able to escape to the mountains because 241 this disaster will overtake 242 me and I’ll die. 243 19:20 Look, this town 244 over here is close enough to escape to, and it’s just a little one. 245 Let me go there. 246 It’s just a little place, isn’t it? 247 Then I’ll survive.” 248
19:21 “Very well,” he replied, 249 “I will grant this request too 250 and will not overthrow 251 the town you mentioned. 19:22 Run there quickly, 252 for I cannot do anything until you arrive there.” (This incident explains why the town was called Zoar.) 253
19:23 The sun had just risen 254 over the land as Lot reached Zoar. 255 19:24 Then the Lord rained down 256 sulfur and fire 257 on Sodom and Gomorrah. It was sent down from the sky by the Lord. 258 19:25 So he overthrew those cities and all that region, 259 including all the inhabitants of the cities and the vegetation that grew 260 from the ground. 19:26 But Lot’s 261 wife looked back longingly 262 and was turned into a pillar of salt.
19:27 Abraham got up early in the morning and went 263 to the place where he had stood before the Lord. 19:28 He looked out toward 264 Sodom and Gomorrah and all the land of that region. 265 As he did so, he saw the smoke rising up from the land like smoke from a furnace. 266
19:29 So when God destroyed 267 the cities of the region, 268 God honored 269 Abraham’s request. He removed Lot 270 from the midst of the destruction when he destroyed 271 the cities Lot had lived in.
19:30 Lot went up from Zoar with his two daughters and settled in the mountains because he was afraid to live in Zoar. So he lived in a cave with his two daughters. 19:31 Later the older daughter said 272 to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is no man anywhere nearby 273 to have sexual relations with us, 274 according to the way of all the world. 19:32 Come, let’s make our father drunk with wine 275 so we can have sexual relations 276 with him and preserve 277 our family line through our father.” 278
19:33 So that night they made their father drunk with wine, 279 and the older daughter 280 came and had sexual relations with her father. 281 But he was not aware that she had sexual relations with him and then got up. 282 19:34 So in the morning the older daughter 283 said to the younger, “Since I had sexual relations with my father last night, let’s make him drunk again tonight. 284 Then you go and have sexual relations with him so we can preserve our family line through our father.” 285 19:35 So they made their father drunk 286 that night as well, and the younger one came and had sexual relations with him. 287 But he was not aware that she had sexual relations with him and then got up. 288
19:36 In this way both of Lot’s daughters became pregnant by their father. 19:37 The older daughter 289 gave birth to a son and named him Moab. 290 He is the ancestor of the Moabites of today. 19:38 The younger daughter also gave birth to a son and named him Ben-Ammi. 291 He is the ancestor of the Ammonites of today.
1 tn The disjunctive clause signals the beginning of a new episode in the story.
2 sn On the cultural background of the story of Sarai’s childlessness see J. Van Seters, “The Problem of Childlessness in Near Eastern Law and the Patriarchs of Israel,” JBL 87 (1968): 401-8.
4 sn The passage records the birth of Ishmael to Abram through an Egyptian woman. The story illustrates the limits of Abram’s faith as he tries to obtain a son through social custom. The barrenness of Sarai poses a challenge to Abram’s faith, just as the famine did in chap. 12. As in chap. 12, an Egyptian figures prominently. (Perhaps Hagar was obtained as a slave during Abram’s stay in Egypt.)
5 tn Heb “look.” The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) introduces the foundational clause for the imperative to follow.
sn The Hebrew expression translated have sexual relations with does not convey the intimacy of other expressions, such as “so and so knew his wife.” Sarai simply sees this as the social custom of having a child through a surrogate. For further discussion see C. F. Fensham, “The Son of a Handmaid in Northwest Semitic,” VT 19 (1969): 312-21.
7 tn Heb “perhaps I will be built from her.” Sarai hopes to have a family established through this surrogate mother.
8 tn Heb “listened to the voice of,” which is an idiom meaning “obeyed.”
sn Abram did what Sarai told him. This expression was first used in Gen 3:17 of Adam’s obeying his wife. In both cases the text highlights weak faith and how it jeopardized the plan of God.
9 tn Heb “at the end of ten years, to live, Abram.” The prepositional phrase introduces the temporal clause, the infinitive construct serves as the verb, and the name “Abram” is the subject.
10 tn Heb “the Egyptian, her female servant.”
11 sn To be his wife. Hagar became a slave wife, not on equal standing with Sarai. However, if Hagar produced the heir, she would be the primary wife in the eyes of society. When this eventually happened, Hagar become insolent, prompting Sarai’s anger.
14 tn Heb “and she saw that she was pregnant and her mistress was despised in her eyes.” The Hebrew verb קָלַל (qalal) means “to despise, to treat lightly, to treat with contempt.” In Hagar’s opinion Sarai had been demoted.
15 tn Heb “my wrong is because of you.”
16 tn Heb “I placed my female servant in your bosom.”
17 tn Heb “saw.”
18 tn Heb “I was despised in her eyes.” The passive verb has been translated as active for stylistic reasons. Sarai was made to feel supplanted and worthless by Hagar the servant girl.
19 tn Heb “me and you.”
sn May the
20 tn The clause is introduced with the particle הִנֵּה (hinneh), introducing a foundational clause for the coming imperative: “since…do.”
21 tn Heb “in your hand.”
22 tn Heb “what is good in your eyes.”
23 tn Heb “her”; the referent (Hagar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
24 tn In the Piel stem the verb עָנָה (’anah) means “to afflict, to oppress, to treat harshly, to mistreat.”
25 tn Heb “and she fled from her presence.” The referent of “her” (Sarai) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
26 tn Heb “the messenger of the
27 tn Heb “And the angel of the
28 tn Heb “from the presence of.”
29 tn The imperative וְהִתְעַנִּי (vÿhit’anni) is the Hitpael of עָנָה (’anah, here translated “submit”), the same word used for Sarai’s harsh treatment of her. Hagar is instructed not only to submit to Sarai’s authority, but to whatever mistreatment that involves. God calls for Hagar to humble herself.
30 tn Heb “The
31 tn Heb “cannot be numbered because of abundance.”
32 tn The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) focuses on her immediate situation: “Here you are pregnant.”
33 tn The active participle refers here to something that is about to happen.
34 sn The name Ishmael consists of the imperfect or jussive form of the Hebrew verb with the theophoric element added as the subject. It means “God hears” or “may God hear.”
35 tn Heb “affliction,” which must refer here to Hagar’s painful groans of anguish.
sn This clause gives the explanation of the name Ishmael, using a wordplay. Ishmael’s name will be a reminder that “God hears” Hagar’s painful cries.
36 sn A wild donkey of a man. The prophecy is not an insult. The wild donkey lived a solitary existence in the desert away from society. Ishmael would be free-roaming, strong, and like a bedouin; he would enjoy the freedom his mother sought.
37 tn Heb “His hand will be against everyone.” The “hand” by metonymy represents strength. His free-roaming life style would put him in conflict with those who follow social conventions. There would not be open warfare, only friction because of his antagonism to their way of life.
38 tn Heb “And the hand of everyone will be against him.”
39 tn Heb “opposite, across from.” Ishmael would live on the edge of society (cf. NASB “to the east of”). Some take this as an idiom meaning “be at odds with” (cf. NRSV, NLT) or “live in hostility toward” (cf. NIV).
40 tn Heb “God of my seeing.” The pronominal suffix may be understood either as objective (“who sees me,” as in the translation) or subjective (“whom I see”).
41 tn Heb “after one who sees me.”
sn For a discussion of Hagar’s exclamation, see T. Booij, “Hagar’s Words in Genesis 16:13b,” VT 30 (1980): 1-7.
42 tn The verb does not have an expressed subject and so is rendered as passive in the translation.
43 sn The Hebrew name Beer Lahai Roi (בְּאֵר לַחַי רֹאִי, bÿ’er lakhay ro’i) means “The well of the Living One who sees me.” The text suggests that God takes up the cause of those who are oppressed.
44 tn Heb “look.” The words “it is located” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
45 tn Heb “and Abram called the name of his son whom Hagar bore, Ishmael.”
sn Whom Abram named Ishmael. Hagar must have informed Abram of what the angel had told her. See the note on the name “Ishmael” in 16:11.
46 tn The disjunctive clause gives information that is parenthetical to the narrative.
47 tn Heb “the son of eighty-six years.”
48 tn The Hebrew text adds, “for Abram.” This has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons; it is somewhat redundant given the three occurrences of Abram’s name in this and the previous verse.
49 tn Heb “the son of ninety-nine years.”
50 tn Heb “appeared to Abram and said to him.” The proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“him”) and the final phrase “to him” has been left untranslated for stylistic reasons.
51 tn The name אֵל שַׁדַּי (’el shadday, “El Shaddai”) has often been translated “God Almighty,” primarily because Jerome translated it omnipotens (“all powerful”) in the Latin Vulgate. There has been much debate over the meaning of the name. For discussion see W. F. Albright, “The Names Shaddai and Abram,” JBL 54 (1935): 173-210; R. Gordis, “The Biblical Root sdy-sd,” JTS 41 (1940): 34-43; and especially T. N. D. Mettinger, In Search of God, 69-72. Shaddai/El Shaddai is the sovereign king of the world who grants, blesses, and judges. In the Book of Genesis he blesses the patriarchs with fertility and promises numerous descendants. Outside Genesis he both blesses/protects and takes away life/happiness. The patriarchs knew God primarily as El Shaddai (Exod 6:3). While the origin and meaning of this name are uncertain (see discussion below) its significance is clear. The name is used in contexts where God appears as the source of fertility and life. In Gen 17:1-8 he appeared to Abram, introduced himself as El Shaddai, and announced his intention to make the patriarch fruitful. In the role of El Shaddai God repeated these words (now elevated to the status of a decree) to Jacob (35:11). Earlier Isaac had pronounced a blessing on Jacob in which he asked El Shaddai to make Jacob fruitful (28:3). Jacob later prayed that his sons would be treated with mercy when they returned to Egypt with Benjamin (43:14). The fertility theme is not as apparent here, though one must remember that Jacob viewed Benjamin as the sole remaining son of the favored and once-barren Rachel (see 29:31; 30:22-24; 35:16-18). It is quite natural that he would appeal to El Shaddai to preserve Benjamin’s life, for it was El Shaddai’s miraculous power which made it possible for Rachel to give him sons in the first place. In 48:3 Jacob, prior to blessing Joseph’s sons, told him how El Shaddai appeared to him at Bethel (see Gen 28) and promised to make him fruitful. When blessing Joseph on his deathbed Jacob referred to Shaddai (we should probably read “El Shaddai,” along with a few Hebrew
52 tn Or “Live out your life.” The Hebrew verb translated “walk” is the Hitpael; it means “to walk back and forth; to walk about; to live out one’s life.”
53 tn Or “in my presence.”
54 tn There are two imperatives here: “walk…and be blameless [or “perfect”].” The second imperative may be purely sequential (see the translation) or consequential: “walk before me and then you will be blameless.” How one interprets the sequence depends on the meaning of “walk before”: (1) If it simply refers in a neutral way to serving the
55 tn Following the imperative, the cohortative indicates consequence. If Abram is blameless, then the
56 tn Heb “I will multiply you exceedingly, exceedingly.” The repetition is emphatic.
57 tn Heb “And Abram fell on his face.” This expression probably means that Abram sank to his knees and put his forehead to the ground, although it is possible that he completely prostrated himself. In either case the posture indicates humility and reverence.
58 tn Heb “God spoke to him, saying.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation for stylistic reasons.
59 tn Heb “I.”
60 tn Heb “is” (הִנֵּה, hinneh).
61 tn Heb “will your name be called.”
62 sn Your name will be Abraham. The renaming of Abram was a sign of confirmation to the patriarch. Every time the name was used it would be a reminder of God’s promise. “Abram” means “exalted father,” probably referring to Abram’s father Terah. The name looks to the past; Abram came from noble lineage. The name “Abraham” is a dialectical variant of the name Abram. But its significance is in the wordplay with אַב־הֲמוֹן (’av-hamon, “the father of a multitude,” which sounds like אַבְרָהָם, ’avraham, “Abraham”). The new name would be a reminder of God’s intention to make Abraham the father of a multitude. For a general discussion of renaming, see O. Eissfeldt, “Renaming in the Old Testament,” Words and Meanings, 70-83.
63 tn The perfect verbal form is used here in a rhetorical manner to emphasize God’s intention.
64 tn This verb starts a series of perfect verbal forms with vav (ו) consecutive to express God’s intentions.
65 tn Heb “exceedingly, exceedingly.” The repetition is emphatic.
66 tn Heb “and I will make you into nations, and kings will come out from you.”
67 tn The verb קוּם (qum, “to arise, to stand up”) in the Hiphil verbal stem means “to confirm, to give effect to, to carry out” (i.e., a covenant or oath; see BDB 878-79 s.v. קוּם).
68 tn Or “as an eternal.”
69 tn Heb “to be to you for God and to your descendants after you.”
70 tn The verbal root is גּוּר (gur, “to sojourn, to reside temporarily,” i.e., as a resident alien). It is the land in which Abram resides, but does not yet possess as his very own.
71 tn Or “as an eternal.”
72 tn The imperfect tense could be translated “you shall keep” as a binding command; but the obligatory nuance (“must”) captures the binding sense better.
73 tn Heb “my covenant.” The Hebrew word בְּרִית (bÿrit) can refer to (1) the agreement itself between two parties (see v. 7), (2) the promise made by one party to another (see vv. 2-3, 7), (3) an obligation placed by one party on another, or (4) a reminder of the agreement. In vv. 9-10 the word refers to a covenantal obligation which God gives to Abraham and his descendants.
74 tn Heb “This is my covenant that you must keep between me and you and your descendants after you.”
75 sn For a discussion of male circumcision as the sign of the covenant in this passage see M. V. Fox, “The Sign of the Covenant: Circumcision in the Light of the Priestly ‘ot Etiologies,” RB 81 (1974): 557-96.
76 tn Or “sign.”
77 tn Heb “the son of eight days.”
78 tn The emphatic construction employs the Niphal imperfect tense (collective singular) and the Niphal infinitive.
79 tn Heb “my covenant.” Here in v. 13 the Hebrew word בְּרִית (bÿrit) refers to the outward, visible sign, or reminder, of the covenant. For the range of meaning of the term, see the note on the word “requirement” in v. 9.
80 tn Or “an eternal.”
81 tn The disjunctive clause calls attention to the “uncircumcised male” and what will happen to him.
82 tn Heb “that person will be cut off.” The words “that person” have not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.
sn The meaning of “cut off” has been discussed at great length. An entire tractate in the Mishnah is devoted to this subject (tractate Keritot). Being ostracized from the community is involved at the least, but it is not certain whether this refers to the death penalty.
83 tn Heb “he has broken my covenant.” The noun בְּרִית (bÿrit) here refers to the obligation required by God in conjunction with the covenantal agreement. For the range of meaning of the term, see the note on the word “requirement” in v. 9.
84 tn Heb “[As for] Sarai your wife, you must not call her name Sarai, for Sarah [will be] her name.”
85 sn Sarah. The name change seems to be a dialectical variation, both spellings meaning “princess” or “queen.” Like the name Abram, the name Sarai symbolized the past. The new name Sarah, like the name Abraham, would be a reminder of what God intended to do for Sarah in the future.
86 tn Heb “she will become nations.”
87 tn Heb “peoples.”
88 sn Laughed. The Hebrew verb used here provides the basis for the naming of Isaac: “And he laughed” is וַיִּצְחָק (vayyitskhaq); the name “Isaac” is יִצְחָק (yitskhaq), “he laughs.” Abraham’s (and Sarah’s, see 18:12) laughter signals disbelief, but when the boy is born, the laughter signals surprise and joy.
89 tn Heb “And he fell on his face and laughed and said in his heart.”
90 tn The imperfect verbal form here carries a potential nuance, as it expresses the disbelief of Abraham.
91 tn Heb “to the son of a hundred years.”
92 sn It is important to note that even though Abraham staggers at the announcement of the birth of a son, finding it almost too incredible, he nonetheless calls his wife Sarah, the new name given to remind him of the promise of God (v. 15).
93 tn Heb “the daughter of ninety years.”
94 tn The wish is introduced with the Hebrew particle לוּ (lu), “O that.”
95 tn Or “live with your blessing.”
97 tn Or “as an eternal.”
99 tn Heb “And I will multiply him exceedingly, exceedingly.” The repetition is emphatic.
100 tn For a discussion of the Hebrew word translated “princes,” see E. A. Speiser, “Background and Function of the Biblical Nasi’,” CBQ 25 (1963): 111-17.
101 tn Heb “And when he finished speaking with him, God went up from Abraham.” The sequence of pronouns and proper names has been modified in the translation for stylistic reasons.
sn God went up from him. The text draws attention to God’s dramatic exit and in so doing brings full closure to the scene.
102 tn Heb “Ishmael his son and all born in his house and all bought with money, every male among the men of the house of Abraham.”
103 tn Heb “circumcised the flesh of their foreskin.” The Hebrew expression is somewhat pleonastic and has been simplified in the translation.
104 tn Heb “the son of ninety-nine years.”
106 tn Heb “the son of thirteen years.”
107 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
108 tn Or “terebinths.”
109 tn The disjunctive clause here is circumstantial to the main clause.
110 tn The Hebrew noun translated “entrance” is an adverbial accusative of place.
111 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
112 tn Heb “lifted up his eyes.”
113 tn Heb “and saw, and look.” The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) draws attention to what he saw. The drawn-out description focuses the reader’s attention on Abraham’s deliberate, fixed gaze and indicates that what he is seeing is significant.
114 tn The Hebrew preposition עַל (’al) indicates the three men were nearby, but not close by, for Abraham had to run to meet them.
115 tn The pronoun “them” has been supplied in the translation for clarification. In the Hebrew text the verb has no stated object.
116 tn The form וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ (vayyishtakhu, “and bowed low”) is from the verb הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה (hishtakhavah, “to worship, bow low to the ground”). It is probably from a root חָוָה (khavah), though some derive it from שָׁחָה (shakhah).
117 sn The reader knows this is a theophany. The three visitors are probably the
118 tc The MT has the form אֲדֹנָי (’adonay, “Master”) which is reserved for God. This may reflect later scribal activity. The scribes, knowing it was the
119 tn Heb “do not pass by from upon your servant.”
120 tn The imperative after the jussive indicates purpose here.
121 tn The word “all” has been supplied in the translation because the Hebrew verb translated “wash” and the pronominal suffix on the word “feet” are plural, referring to all three of the visitors.
122 tn The Qal cohortative here probably has the nuance of polite request.
123 tn Heb “a piece of bread.” The Hebrew word לֶחֶם (lekhem) can refer either to bread specifically or to food in general. Based on Abraham’s directions to Sarah in v. 6, bread was certainly involved, but v. 7 indicates that Abraham had a more elaborate meal in mind.
124 tn Heb “strengthen your heart.” The imperative after the cohortative indicates purpose here.
125 tn Heb “so that you may refresh yourselves, after [which] you may be on your way – for therefore you passed by near your servant.”
126 tn The word “take” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the sentence lacks a verb other than the imperative “hurry.” The elliptical structure of the language reflects Abraham’s haste to get things ready quickly.
127 sn Three measures (Heb “three seahs”) was equivalent to about twenty quarts (twenty-two liters) of flour, which would make a lot of bread. The animal prepared for the meal was far more than the three visitors needed. This was a banquet for royalty. Either it had been a lonely time for Abraham and the presence of visitors made him very happy, or he sensed this was a momentous visit.
128 sn The bread was the simple, round bread made by bedouins that is normally prepared quickly for visitors.
129 tn Heb “the young man.”
130 tn The construction uses the Piel preterite, “he hurried,” followed by the infinitive construct; the two probably form a verbal hendiadys: “he quickly prepared.”
131 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
132 tn The words “the food” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the verb has no stated object.
133 tn The disjunctive clause is a temporal circumstantial clause subordinate to the main verb.
134 tn The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) often accompanies a gesture of pointing or a focused gaze.
135 tn Heb “he”; the referent (one of the three men introduced in v. 2) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Some English translations have specified the referent as the
136 tn The Hebrew construction is emphatic, using the infinitive absolute with the imperfect tense.
sn I will surely return. If Abraham had not yet figured out who this was, this interchange would have made it clear. Otherwise, how would a return visit from this man mean Sarah would have a son?
137 tn Heb “as/when the time lives” or “revives,” possibly referring to the springtime.
138 tn Heb “and there will be (הִנֵּה, hinneh) a son for Sarah.”
140 tn Heb “days.”
141 tn Heb “it had ceased to be for Sarah [after] a way like women.”
142 tn Heb “saying.”
143 tn It has been suggested that this word should be translated “conception,” not “pleasure.” See A. A. McIntosh, “A Third Root ‘adah in Biblical Hebrew,” VT 24 (1974): 454-73.
144 tn The word “too” has been added in the translation for stylistic reasons.
145 tn Heb “Why, this?” The demonstrative pronoun following the interrogative pronoun is enclitic, emphasizing the
146 tn The Hebrew construction uses both הַאַף (ha’af) and אֻמְנָם (’umnam): “Indeed, truly, will I have a child?”
147 tn The Hebrew verb פָּלָא (pala’) means “to be wonderful, to be extraordinary, to be surpassing, to be amazing.”
148 sn Sarah will have a son. The passage brings God’s promise into clear focus. As long as it was a promise for the future, it really could be believed without much involvement. But now, when it seemed so impossible from the human standpoint, when the
149 tn Heb “And he said, ‘No, but you did laugh.’” The referent (the
150 tn Heb “And the men arose from there.”
151 tn Heb “toward the face of.”
152 tn The disjunctive parenthetical clause sets the stage for the following speech.
153 tn The Piel of שָׁלַח (shalakh) means “to lead out, to send out, to expel”; here it is used in the friendly sense of seeing the visitors on their way.
154 tn The active participle here refers to an action that is imminent.
155 tn Heb “And Abraham.” The disjunctive clause is probably causal, giving a reason why God should not hide his intentions from Abraham. One could translate, “Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, seeing that Abraham will surely become a great and powerful nation?”
156 tn The infinitive absolute lends emphasis to the finite verb that follows.
157 tn Theoretically the Niphal can be translated either as passive or reflexive/reciprocal. (The Niphal of “bless” is only used in formulations of the Abrahamic covenant. See Gen 12:2; 18:18; 28:14.) Traditionally the verb is taken as passive here, as if Abram were going to be a channel or source of blessing. But in later formulations of the Abrahamic covenant (see Gen 22:18; 26:4) the Hitpael replaces this Niphal form, suggesting a translation “will bless [i.e., “pronounce blessings upon”] themselves [or “one another”].” The Hitpael of “bless” is used with a reflexive/reciprocal sense in Deut 29:18; Ps 72:17; Isa 65:16; Jer 4:2. Gen 18:18 (like 12:2) predicts that Abraham will be held up as a paradigm of divine blessing and that people will use his name in their blessing formulae. For examples of blessing formulae utilizing an individual as an example of blessing see Gen 48:20 and Ruth 4:11.
158 tn Heb “For I have known him.” The verb יָדַע (yada’) here means “to recognize and treat in a special manner, to choose” (see Amos 3:2). It indicates that Abraham stood in a special covenantal relationship with the
159 tn Heb “and they will keep.” The perfect verbal form with vav consecutive carries on the subjective nuance of the preceding imperfect verbal form (translated “so that he may command”).
160 tn The infinitive construct here indicates manner, explaining how Abraham’s children and his household will keep the way of the
161 tn Heb “bring on.” The infinitive after לְמַעַן (lÿma’an) indicates result here.
162 tn Heb “spoke to.”
163 tn Heb “the outcry of Sodom,” which apparently refers to the outcry for divine justice from those (unidentified persons) who observe its sinful ways.
164 tn Heb “heavy.”
165 tn The cohortative indicates the
sn I must go down. The descent to “see” Sodom is a bold anthropomorphism, stressing the careful judgment of God. The language is reminiscent of the
166 tn Heb “[if] according to the outcry that has come to me they have done completely.” Even the
167 sn The short phrase if not provides a ray of hope and inspires Abraham’s intercession.
168 tn Heb “And the men turned from there.” The word “two” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied here for clarity. Gen 19:1 mentions only two individuals (described as “angels”), while Abraham had entertained three visitors (18:2). The implication is that the
169 tn Heb “went.”
170 tc An ancient Hebrew scribal tradition reads “but the
171 tn Heb “lift up,” perhaps in the sense of “bear with” (cf. NRSV “forgive”).
172 tn Or “ruler.”
173 sn Will not the judge of the whole earth do what is right? For discussion of this text see J. L. Crenshaw, “Popular Questioning of the Justice of God in Ancient Israel,” ZAW 82 (1970): 380-95, and C. S. Rodd, “Shall Not the Judge of All the Earth Do What Is Just?” ExpTim 83 (1972): 137-39.
175 tn The disjunctive clause is a concessive clause here, drawing out the humility as a contrast to the
176 tn The Hebrew verb שָׁחַת (shakhat, “to destroy”) was used earlier to describe the effect of the flood.
177 tn Heb “because of five.”
178 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
179 tn The construction is a verbal hendiadys – the preterite (“he added”) is combined with an adverb “yet” and an infinitive “to speak.”
180 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
181 tn Heb “let it not be hot to the
182 tn After the jussive, the cohortative indicates purpose/result.
183 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
184 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
185 tn Heb “And the
186 tn The infinitive construct (“speaking”) serves as the direct object of the verb “finished.”
187 tn Heb “to his place.”
188 tn The disjunctive clause is temporal here, indicating what Lot was doing at the time of their arrival.
189 tn Heb “sitting in the gate of Sodom.” The phrase “the gate of Sodom” has been translated “the city’s gateway” for stylistic reasons.
190 tn The imperatives have the force of invitation.
191 tn These two verbs form a verbal hendiadys: “you can rise up early and go” means “you can go early.”
192 sn The town square refers to the wide street area at the gate complex of the city.
193 tn The Hebrew verb פָּצַר (patsar, “to press, to insist”) ironically foreshadows the hostile actions of the men of the city (see v. 9, where the verb also appears). The repetition of the word serves to contrast Lot to his world.
194 tn The verb שָׁכַב (shakhav) means “to lie down, to recline,” that is, “to go to bed.” Here what appears to be an imperfect is a preterite after the adverb טֶרֶם (terem). The nuance of potential (perfect) fits well.
195 tn Heb “and the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, from the young to the old, all the people from the end [of the city].” The repetition of the phrase “men of” stresses all kinds of men.
196 tn The Hebrew text adds “and said to him.” This is redundant in English and has not been translated for stylistic reasons.
197 tn The Hebrew verb יָדַע (yada’, “to know”) is used here in the sense of “to lie with” or “to have sex with” (as in Gen 4:1). That this is indeed the meaning is clear from Lot’s warning that they not do so wickedly, and his willingness to give them his daughters instead.
sn The sin of the men of Sodom is debated. The fact that the sin involved a sexual act (see note on the phrase “have sex” in 19:5) precludes an association of the sin with inhospitality as is sometimes asserted (see W. Roth, “What of Sodom and Gomorrah? Homosexual Acts in the Old Testament,” Explor 1 : 7-14). The text at a minimum condemns forced sexual intercourse, i.e., rape. Other considerations, though, point to a condemnation of homosexual acts more generally. The narrator emphasizes the fact that the men of Sodom wanted to have sex with men: They demand that Lot release the angelic messengers (seen as men) to them for sex, and when Lot offers his daughters as a substitute they refuse them and attempt to take the angelic messengers by force. In addition the wider context of the Pentateuch condemns homosexual acts as sin (see, e.g., Lev 18:22). Thus a reading of this text within its narrative context, both immediate and broad, condemns not only the attempted rape but also the attempted homosexual act.
198 tn Heb “may my brothers not act wickedly.”
199 tn Heb “who have not known.” Here this expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
200 tn Heb “according to what is good in your eyes.”
201 tn Heb “shadow.”
202 sn This chapter portrays Lot as a hypocrite. He is well aware of the way the men live in his city and is apparently comfortable in the midst of it. But when confronted by the angels, he finally draws the line. But he is nevertheless willing to sacrifice his daughters’ virginity to protect his guests. His opposition to the crowds leads to his rejection as a foreigner by those with whom he had chosen to live. The one who attempted to rescue his visitors ends up having to be rescued by them.
203 tn Heb “approach out there” which could be rendered “Get out of the way, stand back!”
204 tn Heb “to live as a resident alien.”
205 tn Heb “and he has judged, judging.” The infinitive absolute follows the finite verbal form for emphasis. This emphasis is reflected in the translation by the phrase “dares to judge.”
206 tn The verb “to do wickedly” is repeated here (see v. 7). It appears that whatever “wickedness” the men of Sodom had intended to do to Lot’s visitors – probably nothing short of homosexual rape – they were now ready to inflict on Lot.
207 tn Heb “and they pressed against the man, against Lot, exceedingly.”
208 tn Heb “and they drew near.”
209 tn Heb “the men,” referring to the angels inside Lot’s house. The word “inside” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
210 tn The Hebrew text adds “their hand.” These words have not been translated for stylistic reasons.
211 tn Heb “to them into the house.”
212 tn Heb “from the least to the greatest.”
213 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the men of Sodom outside the door) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
214 tn Heb “the men,” referring to the angels inside Lot’s house. The word “visitors” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
215 tn Heb “Yet who [is there] to you here?”
216 tn The words “Do you have” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
217 tn Heb “a son-in-law and your sons and your daughters and anyone who (is) to you in the city.”
218 tn Heb “the place.” The Hebrew article serves here as a demonstrative.
219 tn The Hebrew participle expresses an imminent action here.
220 tn Heb “for their outcry.” The words “about this place” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
221 tn Heb “the
222 sn The language has to be interpreted in the light of the context and the social customs. The men are called “sons-in-law” (literally “the takers of his daughters”), but the daughters had not yet had sex with a man. It is better to translate the phrase “who were going to marry his daughters.” Since formal marriage contracts were binding, the husbands-to-be could already be called sons-in-law.
223 tn The Hebrew active participle expresses an imminent action.
224 tn Heb “and he was like one taunting in the eyes of his sons-in-law.” These men mistakenly thought Lot was ridiculing them and their lifestyle. Their response illustrates how morally insensitive they had become.
225 tn Heb “When dawn came up.”
226 tn Heb “who are found.” The wording might imply he had other daughters living in the city, but the text does not explicitly state this.
227 tn Or “with the iniquity [i.e., punishment] of the city” (cf. NASB, NRSV).
228 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Lot) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
229 tn Heb “in the compassion of the
230 tn Heb “brought him out and placed him.” The third masculine singular suffixes refer specifically to Lot, though his wife and daughters accompanied him (see v. 17). For stylistic reasons these have been translated as plural pronouns (“them”).
232 tn Heb “escape.”
234 tn Or “in the plain”; Heb “in the circle,” referring to the “circle” or oval area of the Jordan Valley.
235 tn Or “my lords.” See the following note on the problem of identifying the addressee here. The Hebrew term is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).
236 tn The second person pronominal suffixes are singular in this verse (note “your eyes,” “you have made great,” and “you have acted”). Verse 18a seems to indicate that Lot is addressing the angels, but the use of the singular and the appearance of the divine title “Lord” (אֲדֹנָי, ’adonay) in v. 18b suggests he is speaking to God.
237 tn Heb “in your eyes.”
238 tn Heb “you made great your kindness.”
239 sn The Hebrew word חֶסֶד (khesed) can refer to “faithful love” or to “kindness,” depending on the context. The precise nuance here is uncertain.
240 tn The infinitive construct explains how God has shown Lot kindness.
241 tn Heb “lest.”
242 tn The Hebrew verb דָּבַק (davaq) normally means “to stick to, to cleave, to join.” Lot is afraid he cannot outrun the coming calamity.
243 tn The perfect verb form with vav consecutive carries the nuance of the imperfect verbal form before it.
244 tn The Hebrew word עִיר (’ir) can refer to either a city or a town, depending on the size of the place. Given that this place was described by Lot later in this verse as a “little place,” the translation uses “town.”
245 tn Heb “Look, this town is near to flee to there. And it is little.”
246 tn Heb “Let me escape to there.” The cohortative here expresses Lot’s request.
247 tn Heb “Is it not little?”
248 tn Heb “my soul will live.” After the cohortative the jussive with vav conjunctive here indicates purpose/result.
249 tn Heb “And he said, ‘Look, I will grant.’” The order of the clauses has been rearranged for stylistic reasons. The referent of the speaker (“he”) is somewhat ambiguous: It could be taken as the angel to whom Lot has been speaking (so NLT; note the singular references in vv. 18-19), or it could be that Lot is speaking directly to the
250 tn Heb “I have lifted up your face [i.e., shown you favor] also concerning this matter.”
251 tn The negated infinitive construct indicates either the consequence of God’s granting the request (“I have granted this request, so that I will not”) or the manner in which he will grant it (“I have granted your request by not destroying”).
252 tn Heb “Be quick! Escape to there!” The two imperatives form a verbal hendiadys, the first becoming adverbial.
253 tn Heb “Therefore the name of the city is called Zoar.” The name of the place, צוֹעַר (tso’ar) apparently means “Little Place,” in light of the wordplay with the term “little” (מִצְעָר, mits’ar) used twice by Lot to describe the town (v. 20).
255 tn The juxtaposition of the two disjunctive clauses indicates synchronic action. The first action (the sun’s rising) occurred as the second (Lot’s entering Zoar) took place. The disjunctive clauses also signal closure for the preceding scene.
256 tn The disjunctive clause signals the beginning of the next scene and highlights God’s action.
257 tn Or “burning sulfur” (the traditional “fire and brimstone”).
258 tn Heb “from the
sn The text explicitly states that the sulfur and fire that fell on Sodom and Gomorrah was sent down from the sky by the
259 tn Or “and all the plain”; Heb “and all the circle,” referring to the “circle” or oval area of the Jordan Valley.
260 tn Heb “and the vegetation of the ground.”
261 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Lot) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
sn Longingly. Lot’s wife apparently identified with the doomed city and thereby showed lack of respect for God’s provision of salvation. She, like her daughters later, had allowed her thinking to be influenced by the culture of Sodom.
263 tn The words “and went” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
264 tn Heb “upon the face of.”
265 tn Or “all the land of the plain”; Heb “and all the face of the land of the circle,” referring to the “circle” or oval area of the Jordan Valley.
266 tn Heb “And he saw, and look, the smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace.”
sn It is hard to imagine what was going on in Abraham’s mind, but this brief section in the narrative enables the reader to think about the human response to the judgment. Abraham had family in that area. He had rescued those people from the invasion. That was why he interceded. Yet he surely knew how wicked they were. That was why he got the number down to ten when he negotiated with God to save the city. But now he must have wondered, “What was the point?”
267 tn The construction is a temporal clause comprised of the temporal indicator, an infinitive construct with a preposition, and the subjective genitive.
268 tn Or “of the plain”; Heb “of the circle,” referring to the “circle” or oval area of the Jordan Valley.
269 tn Heb “remembered,” but this means more than mental recollection here. Abraham’s request (Gen 18:23-32) was that the
sn God showed Abraham special consideration because of the covenantal relationship he had established with the patriarch. Yet the reader knows that God delivered the “righteous” (Lot’s designation in 2 Pet 2:7) before destroying their world – which is what he will do again at the end of the age.
270 sn God’s removal of Lot before the judgment is paradigmatic. He typically delivers the godly before destroying their world.
271 tn Heb “the overthrow when [he] overthrew.”
272 tn Heb “and the firstborn said.”
273 tn Or perhaps “on earth,” in which case the statement would be hyperbolic; presumably there had been some men living in the town of Zoar to which Lot and his daughters had initially fled.
274 tn Heb “to enter upon us.” This is a euphemism for sexual relations.
275 tn Heb “drink wine.”
276 tn Heb “and we will lie down.” The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive is subordinated to the preceding cohortative and indicates purpose/result.
277 tn Or “that we may preserve.” Here the cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates their ultimate goal.
278 tn Heb “and we will keep alive from our father descendants.”
sn For a discussion of the cultural background of the daughters’ desire to preserve our family line see F. C. Fensham, “The Obliteration of the Family as Motif in the Near Eastern Literature,” AION 10 (1969): 191-99.
279 tn Heb “drink wine.”
280 tn Heb “the firstborn.”
281 tn Heb “and the firstborn came and lied down with her father.” The expression “lied down with” here and in the following verses is a euphemism for sexual relations.
282 tn Heb “and he did not know when she lay down and when she arose.”
283 tn Heb “the firstborn.”
284 tn Heb “Look, I lied down with my father. Let’s make him drink wine again tonight.”
285 tn Heb “And go, lie down with him and we will keep alive from our father descendants.”
286 tn Heb “drink wine.”
287 tn Heb “lied down with him.”
288 tn Heb “And he did not know when she lied down and when she arose.”
289 tn Heb “the firstborn.”
290 sn The meaning of the name Moab is not certain. The name sounds like the Hebrew phrase “from our father” (מֵאָבִינוּ, me’avinu) which the daughters used twice (vv. 32, 34). This account is probably included in the narrative in order to portray the Moabites, who later became enemies of God’s people, in a negative light.
291 sn The name Ben-Ammi means “son of my people.” Like the account of Moab’s birth, this story is probably included in the narrative to portray the Ammonites, another perennial enemy of Israel, in a negative light.