11:1 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying to them, 11:2 “Tell the Israelites: ‘This is the kind of creature you may eat from among all the animals 1 that are on the land. 11:3 You may eat any among the animals that has a divided hoof (the hooves are completely split in two 2 ) and that also chews the cud. 3 11:4 However, you must not eat these 4 from among those that chew the cud and have divided hooves: The camel is unclean to you 5 because it chews the cud 6 even though its hoof is not divided. 7 11:5 The rock badger 8 is unclean to you because it chews the cud even though its hoof is not divided. 11:6 The hare is unclean to you because it chews the cud even though its hoof is not divided. 11:7 The pig is unclean to you because its hoof is divided (the hoof is completely split in two 9 ), even though it does not chew the cud. 10 11:8 You must not eat from their meat and you must not touch their carcasses; 11 they are unclean to you.
11:9 “‘These you can eat from all creatures that are in the water: Any creatures in the water that have both fins and scales, 12 whether in the seas or in the streams, 13 you may eat. 11:10 But any creatures that do not have both fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the streams, from all the swarming things of the water and from all the living creatures that are in the water, are detestable to you. 11:11 Since they are detestable to you, you must not eat their meat and their carcass you must detest. 11:12 Any creature in the water that does not have both fins and scales is detestable to you.
11:13 “‘These you are to detest from among the birds – they must not be eaten, because they are detestable: 14 the griffon vulture, the bearded vulture, the black vulture, 11:14 the kite, the buzzard of any kind, 15 11:15 every kind of crow, 16 11:16 the eagle owl, 17 the short-eared owl, the long-eared owl, the hawk of any kind, 11:17 the little owl, the cormorant, the screech owl, 11:18 the white owl, the scops owl, the osprey, 11:19 the stork, the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and the bat.
11:20 “‘Every winged swarming thing that walks on all fours 18 is detestable to you. 11:21 However, this you may eat from all the winged swarming things that walk on all fours, which have jointed legs 19 to hop with on the land. 11:22 These you may eat from them: 20 the locust of any kind, the bald locust of any kind, the cricket of any kind, the grasshopper of any kind. 11:23 But any other winged swarming thing that has four legs is detestable to you.
11:24 “‘By these 21 you defile yourselves; anyone who touches their carcass will be unclean until the evening, 11:25 and anyone who carries their carcass must wash his clothes and will be unclean until the evening.
11:26 “‘All 22 animals that divide the hoof but it is not completely split in two 23 and do not chew the cud 24 are unclean to you; anyone who touches them becomes unclean. 25 11:27 All that walk on their paws among all the creatures that walk on all fours 26 are unclean to you. Anyone who touches their carcass will be unclean until the evening, 11:28 and the one who carries their carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening; they are unclean to you.
11:29 “‘Now this is what is unclean to you among the swarming things that swarm on the land: 27 the rat, the mouse, the large lizard of any kind, 11:30 the Mediterranean gecko, the spotted lizard, the wall gecko, the skink, and the chameleon. 11:31 These are the ones that are unclean to you among all the swarming things. Anyone who touches them when they die will be unclean until evening. 11:32 Also, anything they fall on 28 when they die will become unclean – any wood vessel or garment or article of leather or sackcloth. Any such vessel with which work is done must be immersed in water 29 and will be unclean until the evening. Then it will become clean. 11:33 As for any clay vessel they fall into, 30 everything in it 31 will become unclean and you must break it. 11:34 Any food that may be eaten which becomes soaked with water 32 will become unclean. Anything drinkable 33 in any such vessel will become unclean. 34 11:35 Anything their carcass may fall on will become unclean. An oven or small stove must be smashed to pieces; they are unclean, and they will stay unclean 35 to you. 11:36 However, a spring or a cistern which collects water 36 will be clean, but one who touches their carcass will be unclean. 11:37 Now, if such a carcass falls on any sowing seed which is to be sown, 37 it is clean, 11:38 but if water is put on the seed and such a carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
11:39 “‘Now if an animal 38 that you may eat dies, 39 whoever touches its carcass will be unclean until the evening. 11:40 One who eats from its carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening, and whoever carries its carcass must wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening. 11:41 Every swarming thing that swarms on the land is detestable; it must not be eaten. 11:42 You must not eat anything that crawls 40 on its belly or anything that walks on all fours or on any number of legs 41 of all the swarming things that swarm on the land, because they are detestable. 11:43 Do not make yourselves detestable by any of the swarming things. 42 You must not defile yourselves by them and become unclean by them, 11:44 for I am the Lord your God and you are to sanctify yourselves and be holy because I am holy. You must not defile yourselves by any of the swarming things that creep on the ground, 11:45 for I am the Lord who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be your God, 43 and you are to be holy because I am holy. 11:46 This is the law 44 of the land animals, the birds, all the living creatures that move in the water, and all the creatures 45 that swarm on the land, 11:47 to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between the living creatures that may be eaten and the living creatures that must not be eaten.’”
12:1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 12:2 “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a woman produces offspring 46 and bears a male child, 47 she will be unclean seven days, as she is unclean during the days of her menstruation. 48 12:3 On 49 the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin 50 must be circumcised. 12:4 Then she will remain 51 thirty-three days in blood purity. 52 She must not touch anything holy and she must not enter the sanctuary until the days of her purification are fulfilled. 53 12:5 If she bears a female child, she will be impure fourteen days as during her menstrual flow, and she will remain sixty-six days in 54 blood purity. 55
12:6 “‘When 56 the days of her purification are completed for a son or for a daughter, she must bring a one year old lamb 57 for a burnt offering 58 and a young pigeon or turtledove for a sin offering 59 to the entrance of the Meeting Tent, to the priest. 12:7 The priest 60 is to present it before the Lord and make atonement 61 on her behalf, and she will be clean 62 from her flow of blood. 63 This is the law of the one who bears a child, for the male or the female child. 12:8 If she cannot afford a sheep, 64 then she must take two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 65 one for a burnt offering and one for a sin offering, and the priest is to make atonement on her behalf, and she will be clean.’” 66
13:1 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron: 13:2 “When someone has 67 a swelling 68 or a scab 69 or a bright spot 70 on the skin of his body 71 that may become a diseased infection, 72 he must be brought to Aaron the priest or one of his sons, the priests. 73 13:3 The priest must then examine the infection 74 on the skin of the body, and if the hair 75 in the infection has turned white and the infection appears to be deeper than the skin of the body, 76 then it is a diseased infection, 77 so when the priest examines it 78 he must pronounce the person unclean. 79
13:4 “If 80 it is a white bright spot on the skin of his body, but it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 81 and the hair has not turned white, then the priest is to quarantine the person with the infection for seven days. 82 13:5 The priest must then examine it on the seventh day, and if, 83 as far as he can see, the infection has stayed the same 84 and has not spread on the skin, 85 then the priest is to quarantine the person for another seven days. 86 13:6 The priest must then examine it again on the seventh day, 87 and if 88 the infection has faded and has not spread on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce the person clean. 89 It is a scab, 90 so he must wash his clothes 91 and be clean. 13:7 If, however, the scab is spreading further 92 on the skin after he has shown himself to the priest for his purification, then he must show himself to the priest a second time. 13:8 The priest must then examine it, 93 and if 94 the scab has spread on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 95 It is a disease.
13:9 “When someone has a diseased infection, 96 he must be brought to the priest. 13:10 The priest will then examine it, 97 and if 98 a white swelling is on the skin, it has turned the hair white, and there is raw flesh in the swelling, 99 13:11 it is a chronic 100 disease on the skin of his body, 101 so the priest is to pronounce him unclean. 102 The priest 103 must not merely quarantine him, for he is unclean. 104 13:12 If, however, the disease breaks out 105 on the skin so that the disease covers all the skin of the person with the infection 106 from his head to his feet, as far as the priest can see, 107 13:13 the priest must then examine it, 108 and if 109 the disease covers his whole body, he is to pronounce the person with the infection clean. 110 He has turned all white, so he is clean. 111 13:14 But whenever raw flesh appears in it 112 he will be unclean, 13:15 so the priest is to examine the raw flesh 113 and pronounce him unclean 114 – it is diseased. 13:16 If, however, 115 the raw flesh once again turns white, 116 then he must come to the priest. 13:17 The priest will then examine it, 117 and if 118 the infection has turned white, the priest is to pronounce the person with the infection clean 119 – he is clean.
13:18 “When someone’s body has a boil on its skin 120 and it heals, 13:19 and in the place of the boil there is a white swelling or a reddish white bright spot, he must show himself to the priest. 121 13:20 The priest will then examine it, 122 and if 123 it appears to be deeper than the skin 124 and its hair has turned white, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 125 It is a diseased infection that has broken out in the boil. 126 13:21 If, however, 127 the priest examines it, and 128 there is no white hair in it, it is not deeper than the skin, and it has faded, then the priest is to quarantine him for seven days. 129 13:22 If 130 it is spreading further 131 on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce him unclean. 132 It is an infection. 13:23 But if the bright spot stays in its place and has not spread, 133 it is the scar of the boil, so the priest is to pronounce him clean. 134
13:24 “When a body has a burn on its skin 135 and the raw area of the burn becomes a reddish white or white bright spot, 13:25 the priest must examine it, 136 and if 137 the hair has turned white in the bright spot and it appears to be deeper than the skin, 138 it is a disease that has broken out in the burn. 139 The priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 140 It is a diseased infection. 141 13:26 If, however, 142 the priest examines it and 143 there is no white hair in the bright spot, it is not deeper than the skin, 144 and it has faded, then the priest is to quarantine him for seven days. 145 13:27 The priest must then examine it on the seventh day, and if it is spreading further 146 on the skin, then the priest is to pronounce him unclean. It is a diseased infection. 147 13:28 But if the bright spot stays in its place, has not spread on the skin, 148 and it has faded, then it is the swelling of the burn, so the priest is to pronounce him clean, 149 because it is the scar of the burn.
13:29 “When a man or a woman has an infection on the head or in the beard, 150 13:30 the priest is to examine the infection, 151 and if 152 it appears to be deeper than the skin 153 and the hair in it is reddish yellow and thin, then the priest is to pronounce the person unclean. 154 It is scall, 155 a disease of the head or the beard. 156 13:31 But if the priest examines the scall infection and it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 157 and there is no black hair in it, then the priest is to quarantine the person with the scall infection for seven days. 158 13:32 The priest must then examine the infection on the seventh day, and if 159 the scall has not spread, there is no reddish yellow hair in it, and the scall does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 160 13:33 then the individual is to shave himself, 161 but he must not shave the area affected by the scall, 162 and the priest is to quarantine the person with the scall for another seven days. 163 13:34 The priest must then examine the scall on the seventh day, and if 164 the scall has not spread on the skin and it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, 165 then the priest is to pronounce him clean. 166 So he is to wash his clothes and be clean. 13:35 If, however, the scall spreads further 167 on the skin after his purification, 13:36 then the priest is to examine it, and if 168 the scall has spread on the skin the priest is not to search further for reddish yellow hair. 169 The person 170 is unclean. 13:37 If, as far as the priest can see, the scall has stayed the same 171 and black hair has sprouted in it, the scall has been healed; the person is clean. So the priest is to pronounce him clean. 172
13:38 “When a man or a woman has bright spots – white bright spots – on the skin of their body, 13:39 the priest is to examine them, 173 and if 174 the bright spots on the skin of their body are faded white, it is a harmless rash that has broken out on the skin. The person is clean. 175
13:40 “When a man’s head is bare so that he is balding in back, 176 he is clean. 13:41 If his head is bare on the forehead 177 so that he is balding in front, 178 he is clean. 13:42 But if there is a reddish white infection in the back or front bald area, it is a disease breaking out in his back or front bald area. 13:43 The priest is to examine it, 179 and if 180 the swelling of the infection is reddish white in the back or front bald area like the appearance of a disease on the skin of the body, 181 13:44 he is a diseased man. He is unclean. The priest must surely pronounce him unclean because of his infection on his head. 182
13:45 “As for the diseased person who has the infection, 183 his clothes must be torn, the hair of his head must be unbound, he must cover his mustache, 184 and he must call out ‘Unclean! Unclean!’ 13:46 The whole time he has the infection 185 he will be continually unclean. He must live in isolation, and his place of residence must be outside the camp.
13:47 “When a garment has a diseased infection in it, 186 whether a wool or linen garment, 187 13:48 or in the warp or woof 188 of the linen or the wool, or in leather or anything made of leather, 189 13:49 if the infection 190 in the garment or leather or warp or woof or any article of leather is yellowish green or reddish, it is a diseased infection and it must be shown to the priest. 13:50 The priest is to examine and then quarantine the article with the infection for seven days. 191 13:51 He must then examine the infection on the seventh day. If the infection has spread in the garment, or in the warp, or in the woof, or in the leather – whatever the article into which the leather was made 192 – the infection is a malignant disease. It is unclean. 13:52 He must burn the garment or the warp or the woof, whether wool or linen, or any article of leather which has the infection in it. Because it is a malignant disease it must be burned up in the fire. 13:53 But if the priest examines it and 193 the infection has not spread in the garment or in the warp or in the woof or in any article of leather, 13:54 the priest is to command that they wash whatever has the infection and quarantine it for another seven days. 194 13:55 The priest must then examine it after the infection has been washed out, and if 195 the infection has not changed its appearance 196 even though the infection has not spread, it is unclean. You must burn it up in the fire. It is a fungus, whether on the back side or front side of the article. 197 13:56 But if the priest has examined it and 198 the infection has faded after it has been washed, he is to tear it out of 199 the garment or the leather or the warp or the woof. 13:57 Then if 200 it still appears again in the garment or the warp or the woof, or in any article of leather, it is an outbreak. Whatever has the infection in it you must burn up in the fire. 13:58 But the garment or the warp or the woof or any article of leather which you wash and infection disappears from it 201 is to be washed a second time and it will be clean.”
1 tn Heb “the animal,” but as a collective plural, and so throughout this chapter.
2 tn Heb “every divider of hoof and cleaver of the cleft of hooves”; KJV, ASV “parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted.”
3 tn Heb “bringer up of the cud” (a few of the ancient versions include the conjunction “and,” but it does not appear in the MT). The following verses make it clear that both dividing the hoof and chewing the cud were required; one of these conditions would not be enough to make the animal suitable for eating without the other.
4 tn Heb “this,” but as a collective plural (see the following context).
8 sn A small animal generally understood to be Hyrax syriacus; KJV, ASV, NIV “coney”; NKJV “rock hyrax.”
10 tn The meaning and basic rendering of this clause is quite certain, but the verb for “chewing” the cud here is not the same as the preceding verses, where the expression is “to bring up the cud” (see the note on v. 3 above). It appears to be a cognate verb for the noun “cud” (גֵּרָה, gerah) and could mean either “to drag up” (i.e., from the Hebrew Qal of גָרָר [garar] meaning “to drag,” referring to the dragging the cud up and down between the stomach and mouth of the ruminant animal; so J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:647, 653) or “to chew” (i.e., from the Hebrew Niphal [or Qal B] of גָרָר used in a reciprocal sense; so J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 149, and compare BDB 176 s.v. גָרַר, “to chew,” with HALOT 204 s.v. גרר qal.B, “to ruminate”).
11 sn The regulations against touching the carcasses of dead unclean animals (contrast the restriction against eating their flesh) is treated in more detail in Lev 11:24-28 (cf. also vv. 29-40). For the time being, this chapter continues to develop the issue of what can and cannot be eaten.
14 tn For zoological remarks on the following list of birds see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:662-64; and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 159-60.
16 tn Heb “every crow to its kind.” Many English versions (e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) render this as “raven.”
17 tn Literally, “the daughter of the wasteland.” Various proposals for the species of bird referred to here include “owl” (KJV), “horned owl” (NIV, NCV), and “ostrich” (ASV, NAB, NASB, NRSV, NLT).
19 tn Heb “which to it are lower legs from above to its feet” (reading the Qere “to it” rather than the Kethib “not”).
20 tn For entomological remarks on the following list of insects see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:665-66; and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 160-61.
21 tn Heb “and to these.”
23 tn Heb “divides hoof and cleft it does not cleave”; KJV “divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted”; NLT “divided but unsplit hooves.”
28 tn Heb “And all which it shall fall on it from them.”
29 tn Heb “in water it shall be brought.”
30 tn Heb “And any earthenware vessel which shall fall from them into its midst.”
31 tn Heb “all which is in its midst.”
32 tn Heb “which water comes on it.”
33 tn Heb “any drink which may be drunk”; NASB “any liquid which may be drunk”; NLT “any beverage that is in such an unclean container.”
35 tn Heb “be unclean.”
36 tn Heb “a spring and a cistern collection of water”; NAB, NIV “for collecting water.”
37 tn Heb “And if there falls from their carcass on any seed of sowing which shall be sown.”
39 tn Heb “which is food for you” or “which is for you to eat.”
40 tn Heb “goes” (KJV, ASV “goeth”); NIV “moves about”; NLT “slither along.” The same Hebrew term is translated “walks” in the following clause.
41 tn Heb “until all multiplying of legs.”
42 tn Heb “by any of the swarming things that swarm.”
43 tn Heb “to be to you for a God.”
45 tn Heb “for all the creatures.”
46 tn Heb “produces seed” (Hiphil of זָרַע, zara’; used only elsewhere in Gen 1:11-12 for plants “producing” their own “seed”), referring to the process of childbearing as a whole, from conception to the time of birth (H. D. Preuss, TDOT 4:144; cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 164-65; and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:742-43). Smr and LXX have Niphal “be impregnated” (see, e.g., Num 5:28); note KJV “If a woman have conceived seed” (cf. ASV, NAB, NRSV; also NIV, NLT “becomes pregnant”).
48 tn Heb “as the days of the menstrual flow [nom.] of her menstruating [q. inf.] she shall be unclean” (R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:925-26; the verb appears only in this verse in the OT). Cf. NASB “as in the days of her menstruation”; NLT “during her menstrual period”; NIV “during her monthly period.”
sn See Lev 15:19-24 for the standard purity regulations for a woman’s menstrual period.
49 tn Heb “and in….”
50 tn This rendering, “the flesh of his foreskin,” is literal. Based on Lev 15:2-3, one could argue that the Hebrew word for “flesh” here (בָּשָׂר, basar) is euphemistic for the male genitals and therefore translate “the foreskin of his member” (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:748). A number of English versions omit this reference to the foreskin and mention only circumcision, presumably for euphemistic reasons (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT).
52 tn Heb “in bloods of purification” or “purifying” or “purity”; NASB “in the blood of her purification”; NRSV “her time of blood purification.” See the following note.
53 tn The initial seven days after the birth of a son were days of blood impurity for the woman as if she were having her menstrual period. Her impurity was contagious during this period, so no one should touch her or even furniture on which she has sat or reclined (Lev 15:19-23), lest they too become impure. Even her husband would become impure for seven days if he had sexual intercourse with her during this time (Lev 15:24; cf. 18:19). The next thirty-three days were either “days of purification, purifying” or “days of purity,” depending on how one understands the abstract noun טֹהֳרָה (toharah, “purification, purity”) in this context. During this time the woman could not touch anything holy or enter the sanctuary, but she was no longer contagious like she had been during the first seven days. She could engage in normal everyday life, including sexual intercourse, without fear of contaminating anyone else (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 73-74; cf. J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:749-50). Thus, in a sense, the thirty-three days were a time of blood “purity” (cf. the present translation) as compared to the previous seven days of blood “impurity,” but they were also a time of blood “purification” (or “purifying”) as compared to the time after the thirty-three days, when the blood atonement had been made and she was pronounced “clean” by the priest (see vv. 6-8 below). In other words, the thirty-three day period was a time of “blood” (flow), but this was “pure blood,” as opposed to the blood of the first seven days.
sn The doubling of the time after the birth of a female child is puzzling (see the remarks in J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:750-51; and G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 188). Some have argued, for example, that it derives from the relative status of the sexes, or a supposed longer blood flow for the birth of a woman, or even to compensate for the future menstrual periods of the female just born. Perhaps there is a better explanation. First, a male child must be circumcised on the eighth day, so the impurity of the mother could not last beyond the first seven days lest it interfere with the circumcision rite. A female child, of course, was not circumcised, so the impurity of the mother would not interfere and the length of the impure time could be extended further. Second, it would be natural to expect that the increased severity of the blood flow after childbirth, as compared to that of a woman’s menstrual period, would call for a longer period of impurity than the normal seven days of the menstrual period impurity (compare Lev 15:19 with 15:25-30). Third, this suggests that the fourteen day impurity period for the female child would have been more appropriate, and the impurity period for the birth of a male child had to be shortened. Fourth, not only the principle of multiples of seven but also multiples of forty applies to this reckoning. Since the woman’s blood discharge after bearing a child continues for more than seven days, her discharge keeps her from contact with sacred things for a longer period of time in order to avoid contaminating the tabernacle (note Lev 15:31). This ended up totaling forty days for the birth of a male child (seven plus thirty-three) and a corresponding doubling of the second set of days for the woman (fourteen plus sixty-six). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:368-70. The fact that the offerings were the same for either a male or a female infant (vv. 6-8) suggests that the other differences in the regulations are not due to the notion that a male child had greater intrinsic value than a female child (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 169).
56 tn Heb “And when” (so KJV, NASB). Many recent English versions leave the conjunction untranslated.
57 tn Heb “a lamb the son of his year”; KJV “a lamb of the first year” (NRSV “in its first year”); NAB “a yearling lamb.”
61 sn See the note on Lev 1:4 “make atonement.” The purpose of sin offering “atonement,” in particular, was to purge impurities from the tabernacle (see Lev 15:31 and 16:5-19, 29-34), whether they were caused by physical uncleannesses or by sins and iniquities. In this case, the woman has not “sinned” morally by having a child. Even Mary brought such offerings for giving birth to Jesus (Luke 2:22-24), though she certainly did not “sin” in giving birth to him. Note that the result of bringing this “sin offering” was “she will be clean,” not “she will be forgiven” (cf. Lev 4:20, 26, 31, 35; 5:10, 13). The impurity of the blood flow has caused the need for this “sin offering,” not some moral or relational infringement of the law (contrast Lev 4:2, “When a person sins by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the
62 tn Or “she will be[come] pure.”
63 tn Heb “from her source [i.e., spring] of blood,” possibly referring to the female genital area, not just the “flow of blood” itself (as suggested by J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:761). Cf. ASV “from the fountain of her blood.”
64 tn Heb “If her hand cannot find the sufficiency of a sheep.” Many English versions render this as “lamb.”
65 tn Heb “from the sons of the pigeon,” referring either to “young pigeons” or “various species of pigeon” (contrast J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:168, with J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 14; cf. Lev 1:14 and esp. 5:7-10).
66 tn Or “she will be[come] pure.”
67 tn Heb “A man, if [or when] he has….” The term for “a man, human being” (אָדָם, ’adam; see the note on Lev 1:2) in this case refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female, since either could be afflicted with infections on the skin.
68 tn Some of the terms for disease or symptoms of disease in this chapter present difficulties for the translator. Most modern English versions render the Hebrew term שְׂאֵת (sÿ’et) as “swelling,” which has been retained here (see the explanation in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 189). Some have argued that “deeper (עָמֹק, ’amoq) than the skin of his body” in v. 3 means that “this sore was lower than the surrounding skin” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:773), in which case “swelling” would be an inappropriate translation of שְׂאֵת in v. 2. Similarly, שְׂאֵת also occurs in v. 19, and then v. 20 raises the issue of whether or not it appears to be “lower (שָׁפָל, shafal) than the skin” (cf. also 14:37 for a mark on the wall of a house), which may mean that the sore sinks below the surface of the skin rather than protruding above it as a swelling would (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 76-77). Thus, one could translate here, for example, “discoloration” (so Milgrom and II שְׂאֵת “spot, blemish on the skin” in HALOT 1301 s.v. II שְׂאֵת) or “local inflammation, boil, mole” (so Levine). However, one could interpret “lower” as “deeper,” i.e., visibly extending below the surface of the skin into the deeper layers as suggested by J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 188, 192. “Swelling” often extends deeply below the surface of the skin, it is certainly a common symptom of skin diseases, and the alternation of these two terms (i.e., “deeper” and “lower”) in vv. 25-26 below shows that they both refer to the same phenomenon (see also the note on v. 20 below), so it is retained in the present translation.
69 tn The etymology and meaning of this term is unknown. It could mean “scab” (KJV, ASV, NASB) or possibly “rash” (NIV, NLT), “flaking skin,” or an “eruption” (NRSV) of some sort.
70 tn Heb “shiny spot” or “white spot,” but to render this term “white spot” in this chapter would create redundancy in v. 4 where the regular term for “white” occurs alongside this word for “bright spot.”
72 tn Heb “a mark [or stroke; or plague] of disease.” In some places in this context (vv. 2, 3) it could be translated “a contagious skin disease.” Although the Hebrew term צָרָעַת (tsara’at) rendered here “diseased” is translated in many English versions as “leprosy,” it does not refer to Hanson’s disease, which is the modern technical understanding of the term “leprosy” (HALOT 1057 s.v. צָרְעַת a). There has been much discussion of the proper meaning of the term and the disease(s) to which it may refer (see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:774-76, 816-26; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 187-89; and the literature cited by them). The further description of the actual condition in the text suggests that the regulations are concerned with any kind of infectious diseases that are observable on the surface of the skin and, in addition to that, penetrate below the surface of the skin (vv. 3-4) or spread further across the surface of the skin (vv. 5-8). It is true that, in the OT, the term “disease” is often associated specifically with white “scaly” skin diseases that resemble the wasting away of the skin after death (see Milgrom who, in fact, translates “scale disease”; cf., e.g., Exod 4:6-7 and Num 12:9-12, esp. v. 12), but here it appears to be a broader term for any skin disease that penetrates deep or spreads far on the body. Scaly skin diseases would be included in this category, but also other types. Thus, a “swelling,” “scab,” or “bright spot” on the skin might be a symptom of disease, but not necessarily so. In this sense, “diseased” is a technical term. The term “infection” can apply to any “mark” on the skin whether it belongs to the category of “disease” or not (compare and contrast v. 3, where the “infection” is not “diseased,” with v. 4, where the “infection” is found to be “diseased”).
73 tn Or “it shall be reported to Aaron the priest.” This alternative rendering may be better in light of the parallel use of the same expression in Lev 14:2, where the priest had to go outside the camp in order to inspect the person who had been diseased. Since the rendering “he shall be brought to Aaron the priest” might confuse matters there, this expression should be rendered “it shall be reported” both here in 13:2 (cf. also v. 9) and in 14:2. See, however, the further note on 14:2 below, where it is argued that the diseased person would still need to “be brought” to the priest even if this happened outside the camp. Most English versions retain the idea of the afflicted person being “brought” to the priest for inspection.
74 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the infection.”
75 tn There is no “if” expressed, but the contrast between the priestly finding in this verse and the next verse clearly implies it.
78 tn The pronoun “it” here refers to the “infection,” not the person who has the infection (cf. the object of “examine” at the beginning of the verse).
79 tn Heb “he shall make him unclean.” The verb is the Piel of טָמֵא (tame’) “to be unclean.” Here it is a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare unclean”), but it also implies that the person is put into the category of actually being “unclean” by the pronouncement itself (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 175; cf. the corresponding opposite in v. 6 below).
80 tn Heb “and if.”
81 tn Heb “and deep is not its appearance from the skin”; cf. NAB “does not seem to have penetrated below the skin.”
82 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the infection seven days.”
83 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
84 tn Heb “the infection has stood in his eyes”; ASV “if in his eyes the plague be at a stay.”
86 tn Heb “a second seven days.”
88 tn Heb “and behold.”
89 tn Heb “he shall make him clean.” The verb is the Piel of טָהֵר (taher, “to be clean”). Here it is a so-called “declarative” Piel (i.e., “to declare clean”), but it also implies that the person is put into the category of being “clean” by the pronouncement itself (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 176; cf. the corresponding opposite in v. 3 above).
91 tn Heb “and he shall wash his clothes.”
92 tn Heb “And if spreading [infinitive absolute] it spreads [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
94 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
96 tn Heb “When there is an infection of disease in a man.” The term for “a man; a human being” (אָדָם, ’adam; see the note on Lev 1:2 and cf. v. 2 above) refers to any person among “mankind,” male or female. For the rendering “diseased infection” see the note on v. 2 above.
98 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
99 tn Heb “and rawness [i.e., something living] of living flesh is in the swelling”; KJV, NASB, NRSV “quick raw flesh.”
100 tn The term rendered here “chronic” is a Niphal participle meaning “grown old” (HALOT 448 s.v. II ישׁן nif.2). The idea is that this is an old enduring skin disease that keeps on developing or recurring.
103 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
104 sn Instead of just the normal quarantine isolation, this condition calls for the more drastic and enduring response stated in Lev 13:45-46. Raw flesh, of course, sometimes oozes blood to one degree or another, and blood flows are by nature impure (see, e.g., Lev 12 and 15; cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 191).
105 tn Heb “And if spreading [infinitive absolute] it spreads out [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
107 tn Heb “to all the appearance of the eyes of the priest.”
109 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).
111 tn Heb “all of him has turned white, and he is clean.”
112 tn Heb “and in the day of there appears in it living flesh.” Some English versions render this as “open sores” (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).
113 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the living flesh.”
115 tn Heb “Or if/when.”
116 tn Heb “the living flesh returns and is turned/changed to white.” The Hebrew verb “returns” is שׁוּב (shuv), which often functions adverbially when combined with a second verb as it is here (cf. “and is turned”) and, in such cases, is usually rendered “again” (see, e.g., GKC 386-87 §120.g). Another suggestion is that here שׁוּב means “to recede” (cf., e.g., 2 Kgs 20:9), so one could translate “the raw flesh recedes and turns white.” This would mean that the new “white” skin “has grown over” the raw flesh (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 79).
117 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it.”
118 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).
120 tc Heb (MT) reads, “And flesh if/when there is in it, in its skin, a boil.” Smr has only “in it,” not “in its skin,” and a few medieval Hebrew
121 tn Some English versions translate “it shall be shown to [or “be seen by”] the priest,” taking the infection to be the subject of the verb (e.g., KJV, NASB, RSV, NRSV). Based on the Hebrew grammar there is no way to be sure which is intended.
123 tn Heb “and behold.”
124 tn Heb “and behold its appearance is low (שָׁפָל, shafal) ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “lower than”) the skin.” Compare “deeper” in v. 3 above where, however, a different word is used (עָמֹק, ’amoq), and see the note on “swelling” in v. 1 above (cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 192; note that, contrary to the MT, Tg. Onq. has עָמֹק in this verse as well as v. 4). The alternation of these two terms (i.e., “deeper” and “lower”) in vv. 25-26 below shows that they both refer to the same phenomenon. Some have argued that “this sore was lower than the surrounding skin” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:773, 788), in which case “swelling” would be an inappropriate translation of שְׂאֵת (sÿ’et) in v. 19. It seems unlikely, however, that the surface of a “boil” would sink below the surface of the surrounding skin. The infectious pus etc. that makes up a boil normally causes swelling.
127 tn Heb “and if.”
128 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV, NASB).
129 tn Heb “and the priest will shut him up seven days.”
130 tn Heb “and if.”
131 tn Heb “is indeed spreading.”
133 tn Heb “and if under it the bright spot stands, it has not spread.”
135 tn Heb “Or a body, if there is in its skin a burn of fire.”
136 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it.”
137 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
138 tn Heb “and its appearance is deep ‘from’ [comparative מִן (min) meaning ‘deeper than’] the skin.”
139 tn Heb “it is a disease. In the burn it has broken out.”
142 tn Heb “and if.”
143 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV); NASB “and indeed.”
145 tn Heb “and the priest will shut him up seven days.”
146 tn Heb “is indeed spreading.”
148 tn Heb “and if under it the bright spot stands, it has not spread in the skin.”
150 tn Heb “And a man or a woman if there is in him an infection in head or in beard.”
sn The shift here is from diseases that are on the (relatively) bare skin of the body to the scalp area of the male or female head or the bearded area of the male face.
151 tn Heb “and the priest shall see the infection.”
152 tn Heb “and behold.”
153 tn Heb “its appearance is deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, “deeper than”) the skin.”
155 tn The exact identification of this disease is unknown. Cf. KJV “dry scall”; NASB “a scale”; NIV, NCV, NRSV “an itch”; NLT “a contagious skin disease.” For a discussion of “scall” disease in the hair, which is a crusty scabby disease of the skin under the hair that also affects the hair itself, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 192-93, and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:793-94. The Hebrew word rendered “scall” (נֶתֶק, neteq) is related to a verb meaning “to tear; to tear out; to tear apart.” It may derive from the scratching and/or the tearing out of the hair or the scales of the skin in response to the itching sensation caused by the disease.
156 tn Heb “It is scall. It is the disease of the head or the beard.”
157 tn Heb “and behold there is not its appearance deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”
158 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the infection of the scall seven days.”
159 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
160 tn Heb “and the appearance of the scall is not deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”
161 tn The shaving is done by the one who has the infection. Although KJV, ASV have the passive “he shall be shaven” here, most modern English versions have the reflexive “shall shave himself” (so NAB).
162 tn Heb “but the scall shall he not shave” (so KJV, ASV); NIV “except for the diseased area.”
163 tn Heb “and the priest will shut up the scall a second seven days.”
164 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
165 tn Heb “and its appearance is not deep ‘from’ (comparative מִן, min, meaning “deeper than”) the skin.”
167 tn Heb “And if spreading (infinitive absolute) it spreads further (finite verb).” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
168 tn Heb “and behold.”
169 tn Heb “the priest shall not search to the reddish yellow hair.”
170 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the affected person) is specified in the translation for clarity (likewise in the following verse).
171 tn Heb “and if in his eyes the infection has stood.”
173 tn Heb “and the priest shall see.”
174 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
176 tn Heb “And a man, when his head is rubbed bare, he is bald-headed.” The translation offered here, referring to the back of the head (i.e., the area from the top of the head sloping backwards), is based on the contrast between this condition and that of the following verse. See also B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 82.
178 tn The rendering “balding in front” corresponds to the location of the bareness at the beginning of the verse.
179 tn Heb “and the priest shall see it” (cf. KJV). The MT has “him/it” which some take to refer to the person as a whole (i.e., “him”; see, e.g., J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:770; NIV, NRSV, etc.), while others take it as a reference to the “infection” (נֶגַע, nega’) in v. 42 (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 172, 177). Smr has “her/it,” which would probably refer to “disease” (צָרַעַת, tsara’at) in v. 42. The general pattern in the chapter suggests that “it,” either the infection or the disease, is the object of the examination (see, e.g., v. 3 above and v. 50 below).
180 tn Heb “and behold.”
181 tn Heb “like appearance of disease of skin of flesh.”
182 tn Or perhaps translate, “His infection [is] on his head,” as a separate independent sentence (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV). There is no causal expression in the Hebrew text connecting these two clauses, but the logical relationship between them seems to be causal.
183 tn Heb “And the diseased one who in him is the infection.”
184 tn Heb “and his head shall be unbound, and he shall cover on [his] mustache.” Tearing one’s clothing, allowing the hair to hang loose rather than bound up in a turban, and covering the mustache on the upper lip are all ways of expressing shame, grief, or distress (cf., e.g., Lev 10:6 and Micah 3:7).
185 tn Heb “All the days which the infection is in him.”
186 tn Heb “And the garment, if there is in it a mark of disease.”
187 tn Heb “in a wool garment or in a linen garment.”
188 sn The warp (vertical) and woof (horizontal) thread may be two different sets of thread not yet woven together, or they may refer to two different kinds of thread already woven, in which case one might have the disease in it while the other does not. See the explanation in J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:809-10.
189 tn Heb “in any handiwork of skin” (cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV); most other modern English versions have “leather.”
190 tn Heb “and the infection is.” This clause is conditional in force, and is translated as such by almost all English versions.
191 tn Heb “And the priest shall see the infection and he shall shut up the infection seven days.”
192 tn Heb “to all which the leather was made into a handiwork.”
193 tn Heb “And if the priest sees and behold”; NASB “and indeed.”
194 tn Heb “a second seven days.”
195 tn Heb “and behold” (so KJV, ASV).
196 tn Heb “the infection has not changed its eye.” Smr has “its/his eyes,” as in vv. 5 and 37, but here it refers to the appearance of the article of cloth or leather, unlike vv. 5 and 37 where there is a preposition attached and it refers to the eyes of the priest.
197 tn The terms “back side” and “front side” are the same as those used in v. 42 for the “back or front bald area” of a man’s head. The exact meaning of these terms when applied to articles of cloth or leather is uncertain. It could refer, for example, to the inside versus the outside of a garment, or the back versus the front side of an article of cloth or leather. See J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:814, for various possibilities.
198 tn Heb “And if the priest saw and behold….”
199 tn Heb “and he shall tear it from.”
200 tn Heb “And if”; NIV, NCV “But if”; NAB “If, however.”
201 tn Heb “and the infection turns aside from them.”