5:1 “‘When a person sins 1 in that he hears a public curse against one who fails to testify 2 and he is a witness (he either saw or knew what had happened 3 ) and he does not make it known, 4 then he will bear his punishment for iniquity. 5 5:2 Or when there is 6 a person who touches anything ceremonially 7 unclean, whether the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domesticated animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, even if he did not realize it, 8 but he himself has become unclean and is guilty; 9 5:3 or when he touches human uncleanness with regard to anything by which he can become unclean, 10 even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty; 5:4 or when a person swears an oath, speaking thoughtlessly 11 with his lips, whether to do evil or to do good, with regard to anything which the individual might speak thoughtlessly in an oath, even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty with regard to one of these oaths 12 – 5:5 when an individual becomes guilty with regard to one of these things 13 he must confess how he has sinned, 14 5:6 and he must bring his penalty for guilt 15 to the Lord for his sin that he has committed, a female from the flock, whether a female sheep or a female goat, for a sin offering. So the priest will make atonement 16 on his behalf for 17 his sin.
5:7 “‘If he cannot afford an animal from the flock, 18 he must bring his penalty for guilt for his sin that he has committed, 19 two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 20 to the Lord, one for a sin offering and one for a burnt offering. 5:8 He must bring them to the priest and present first the one that is for a sin offering. The priest 21 must pinch 22 its head at the nape of its neck, but must not sever the head from the body. 23 5:9 Then he must sprinkle 24 some of the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood 25 must be squeezed out at the base of the altar – it is a sin offering. 5:10 The second bird 26 he must make a burnt offering according to the standard regulation. 27 So the priest will make atonement 28 on behalf of this person for 29 his sin which he has committed, and he will be forgiven. 30
5:11 “‘If he cannot afford 31 two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 32 he must bring as his offering for his sin which he has committed 33 a tenth of an ephah 34 of choice wheat flour 35 for a sin offering. He must not place olive oil on it and he must not put frankincense on it, because it is a sin offering. 5:12 He must bring it to the priest and the priest must scoop out from it a handful as its memorial portion 36 and offer it up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts of the Lord – it is a sin offering. 5:13 So the priest will make atonement 37 on his behalf for his sin which he has committed by doing one of these things, 38 and he will be forgiven. 39 The remainder of the offering 40 will belong to the priest like the grain offering.’” 41
5:14 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 42 5:15 “When a person commits a trespass 43 and sins by straying unintentionally 44 from the regulations about the Lord’s holy things, 45 then he must bring his penalty for guilt 46 to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels according to the standard of the sanctuary shekel, 47 for a guilt offering. 48 5:16 And whatever holy thing he violated 49 he must restore and must add one fifth to it and give it to the priest. So the priest will make atonement 50 on his behalf with the guilt offering ram and he will be forgiven.” 51
5:17 “If a person sins and violates any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated 52 (although he did not know it at the time, 53 but later realizes he is guilty), then he will bear his punishment for iniquity 54 5:18 and must bring a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels, 55 for a guilt offering to the priest. So the priest will make atonement 56 on his behalf for his error which he committed 57 (although he himself had not known it) and he will be forgiven. 58 5:19 It is a guilt offering; he was surely guilty before the Lord.”
6:1 (5:20) 59 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 60 6:2 “When a person sins and commits a trespass 61 against the Lord by deceiving his fellow citizen 62 in regard to something held in trust, or a pledge, or something stolen, or by extorting something from his fellow citizen, 63 6:3 or has found something lost and denies it and swears falsely 64 concerning any one of the things that someone might do to sin 65 – 6:4 when it happens that he sins and he is found guilty, 66 then he must return whatever he had stolen, or whatever he had extorted, or the thing that he had held in trust, 67 or the lost thing that he had found, 6:5 or anything about which he swears falsely. 68 He must restore it in full 69 and add one fifth to it; he must give it to its owner when he is found guilty. 70 6:6 Then he must bring his guilt offering to the Lord, a flawless ram from the flock, convertible into silver shekels, 71 for a guilt offering to the priest. 6:7 So the priest will make atonement 72 on his behalf before the Lord and he will be forgiven 73 for whatever he has done to become guilty.” 74
6:8 (6:1) 75 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 76 6:9 “Command Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the burnt offering. The burnt offering is to remain on the hearth 77 on the altar all night until morning, and the fire of the altar must be kept burning on it. 78 6:10 Then the priest must put on his linen robe and must put linen leggings 79 over his bare flesh, and he must take up the fatty ashes of the burnt offering that the fire consumed on the altar, 80 and he must place them 81 beside the altar. 6:11 Then he must take off his clothes and put on other clothes, and he must bring the fatty ashes outside the camp to a ceremonially 82 clean place, 6:12 but the fire which is on the altar must be kept burning on it. 83 It must not be extinguished. So the priest must kindle wood on it morning by morning, and he must arrange the burnt offering on it and offer the fat of the peace offering up in smoke on it. 6:13 A continual fire must be kept burning on the altar. It must not be extinguished.
6:14 “‘This is the law of the grain offering. The sons of Aaron are to present it 84 before the Lord in front of the altar, 6:15 and the priest 85 must take up with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering 86 and some of its olive oil, and all of the frankincense that is on the grain offering, and he must offer its memorial portion 87 up in smoke on the altar 88 as a soothing aroma to the Lord. 89 6:16 Aaron and his sons are to eat what is left over from it. It must be eaten unleavened in a holy place; they are to eat it in the courtyard of the Meeting Tent. 6:17 It must not be baked with yeast. 90 I have given it as their portion from my gifts. It is most holy, 91 like the sin offering and the guilt offering. 6:18 Every male among the sons of Aaron may eat it. It is a perpetual allotted portion 92 throughout your generations 93 from the gifts of the Lord. Anyone who touches these gifts 94 must be holy.’” 95
6:19 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 96 6:20 “This is the offering of Aaron and his sons which they must present to the Lord on the day when he is anointed: a tenth of an ephah 97 of choice wheat flour 98 as a continual grain offering, half of it in the morning and half of it in the evening. 6:21 It must be made with olive oil on a griddle and you must bring it well soaked, 99 so you must present a grain offering of broken pieces 100 as a soothing aroma to the Lord. 6:22 The high priest who succeeds him 101 from among his sons must do it. It is a perpetual statute; it must be offered up in smoke as a whole offering to the Lord. 6:23 Every grain offering of a priest must be a whole offering; it must not be eaten.”
6:24 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 102 6:25 “Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the sin offering. In the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered the sin offering must be slaughtered before the Lord. It is most holy. 103 6:26 The priest who offers it for sin is to eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place, in the court of the Meeting Tent. 6:27 Anyone who touches its meat must be holy, and whoever spatters some of its blood on a garment, 104 you must wash 105 whatever he spatters it on in a holy place. 6:28 Any clay vessel it is boiled in must be broken, and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then that vessel 106 must be rubbed out and rinsed in water. 6:29 Any male among the priests may eat it. It is most holy. 107 6:30 But any sin offering from which some of its blood is brought into the Meeting Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary must not be eaten. It must be burned up in the fire. 108
7:1 “‘This is the law of the guilt offering. It is most holy. 7:2 In the place where they slaughter the burnt offering they must slaughter the guilt offering, and the officiating priest 109 must splash 110 the blood against the altar’s sides. 7:3 Then the one making the offering 111 must present all its fat: the fatty tail, the fat covering the entrails, 7:4 the two kidneys and the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he must remove along with the kidneys). 112 7:5 Then the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar 113 as a gift to the Lord. It is a guilt offering. 7:6 Any male among the priests may eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place. It is most holy. 114 7:7 The law is the same for the sin offering and the guilt offering; 115 it belongs to the priest who makes atonement with it.
7:8 “‘As for the priest who presents someone’s burnt offering, the hide of that burnt offering which he presented belongs to him. 7:9 Every grain offering which is baked in the oven or 116 made in the pan 117 or on the griddle belongs to the priest who presented it. 7:10 Every grain offering, whether mixed with olive oil or dry, belongs to all the sons of Aaron, each one alike. 118
7:11 “‘This is the law of the peace offering sacrifice which he 119 is to present to the Lord. 7:12 If he presents it on account of thanksgiving, 120 along with the thank offering sacrifice he must present unleavened loaves mixed with olive oil, unleavened wafers smeared with olive oil, 121 and well soaked 122 ring-shaped loaves made of choice wheat flour 123 mixed with olive oil. 7:13 He must present this grain offering 124 in addition to ring-shaped loaves of leavened bread which regularly accompany 125 the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offering. 7:14 He must present one of each kind of grain offering 126 as a contribution offering 127 to the Lord; it belongs to the priest who splashes the blood of the peace offering. 7:15 The meat of his 128 thanksgiving peace offering must be eaten on the day of his offering; he must not set any of it aside until morning.
7:16 “‘If his offering is a votive or freewill sacrifice, 129 it may be eaten on the day he presents his sacrifice, and also the leftovers from it may be eaten on the next day, 130 7:17 but the leftovers from the meat of the sacrifice must be burned up in the fire 131 on the third day. 7:18 If some of the meat of his peace offering sacrifice is ever eaten on the third day it will not be accepted; it will not be accounted to the one who presented it, since it is spoiled, 132 and the person who eats from it will bear his punishment for iniquity. 133 7:19 The meat which touches anything ceremonially 134 unclean must not be eaten; it must be burned up in the fire. As for ceremonially clean meat, 135 everyone who is ceremonially clean may eat the meat. 7:20 The person who eats meat from the peace offering sacrifice which belongs to the Lord while his uncleanness persists 136 will be cut off from his people. 137 7:21 When a person touches anything unclean (whether human uncleanness, or an unclean animal, or an unclean detestable creature) 138 and eats some of the meat of the peace offering sacrifice which belongs to the Lord, that person will be cut off from his people.’” 139
7:22 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 140 7:23 “Tell the Israelites, ‘You must not eat any fat of an ox, sheep, or goat. 7:24 Moreover, the fat of an animal that has died of natural causes 141 and the fat of an animal torn by beasts may be used for any other purpose, 142 but you must certainly never eat it. 7:25 If anyone eats fat from the animal from which he presents a gift to the Lord, that person will be cut off from his people. 143 7:26 And you must not eat any blood of the birds or the domesticated land animals in any of the places where you live. 144 7:27 Any person who eats any blood – that person will be cut off from his people.’” 145
7:28 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 146 7:29 “Tell the Israelites, ‘The one who presents his peace offering sacrifice to the Lord must bring his offering to the Lord from his peace offering sacrifice. 7:30 With his own hands he must bring the Lord’s gifts. He must bring the fat with the breast 147 to wave the breast as a wave offering before the Lord, 148 7:31 and the priest must offer the fat up in smoke on the altar, but the breast will belong to Aaron and his sons. 7:32 The right thigh you must give as a contribution offering 149 to the priest from your peace offering sacrifices. 7:33 The one from Aaron’s sons who presents the blood of the peace offering and fat will have the right thigh as his share, 7:34 for the breast of the wave offering and the thigh of the contribution offering I have taken from the Israelites out of their peace offering sacrifices and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons from the people of Israel as a perpetual allotted portion.’” 150
7:35 This is the allotment of Aaron and the allotment of his sons from the Lord’s gifts on the day Moses 151 presented them to serve as priests 152 to the Lord. 7:36 This is what the Lord commanded to give to them from the Israelites on the day Moses 153 anointed them 154 – a perpetual allotted portion throughout their generations. 155
7:37 This is the law 156 for the burnt offering, the grain offering, 157 the sin offering, the guilt offering, the ordination offering, 158 and the peace offering sacrifice, 7:38 which the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day he commanded the Israelites to present their offerings to the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai.
1 tn Heb “And a person when he sins.” Most English versions translate this as the protasis of a conditional clause: “if a person sins” (NASB, NIV).
sn The same expression occurs in Lev 4:2 where it introduces sins done “by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the
2 tn The words “against one who fails to testify” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied to make sense of the remark about the “curse” (“imprecation” or “oath”; cf. ASV “adjuration”; NIV “public charge”) for the modern reader. For the interpretation of this verse reflected in the present translation see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:292-97.
3 tn The words “what had happened” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
4 tn Heb “and hears a voice of curse, and he is a witness or he saw or he knew, if he does not declare.”
5 tn Heb “and he shall bear his iniquity.” The rendering “bear the punishment (for the iniquity)” reflects the use of the word “iniquity” to refer to the punishment for iniquity (cf. NRSV, NLT “subject to punishment”). It is sometimes referred to as the consequential use of the term (cf. Lev 5:17; 7:18; 10:17; etc.).
6 tc The insertion of the words “when there is” is a reflection of the few Hebrew
7 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
8 tn Heb “and it is hidden from him,” meaning that the person who contracted the ceremonial uncleanness was not aware at the time what had happened, but later found out that he had become ceremonially unclean. This same phrase occurs again in both vv. 3 and 4.
9 sn Lev 5:2-3 are parallel laws of uncleanness (contracted from animals and people, respectively), and both seem to assume that the contraction of uncleanness was originally unknown to the person (vv. 2 and 3) but became known to him or her at a later time (v. 3; i.e., “has come to know” in v. 3 is to be assumed for v. 2 as well). Uncleanness itself did not make a person “guilty” unless he or she failed to handle it according to the normal purification regulations (see, e.g., “wash his clothes and bathe with water, and he will be unclean till evening,” Lev 15:5 NIV; cf. Lev 11:39-40; 15:5-12, 16-24; Num 19, etc.). The problem here in Lev 5:2-3 is that, because the person had not been aware of his or her uncleanness, he or she had incurred guilt for not carrying out these regular procedures, and it would now be too late for that. Thus, the unclean person needs to bring a sin offering to atone for the contamination caused by his or her neglect of the purity regulations.
10 tn Heb “or if he touches uncleanness of mankind to any of his uncleanness which he becomes unclean in it.”
11 tn Heb “to speak thoughtlessly”; cf. NAB “rashly utters an oath.”
12 tn Heb “and is guilty to one from these,” probably referring here to any of “these” things about which one might swear a thoughtless oath (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 45), with the word “oath” supplied in the translation for clarity. Another possibility is that “to one from these” is a dittography from v. 5 (cf. the note on v. 5a), and that v. 4 ends with “and is guilty” like vv. 2 and 3 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:300).
13 tn Heb “and it shall happen when he becomes guilty to one from these,” referring to any of “these” possible transgressions in Lev 5:1-4. Tg. Onq., the original Greek translation, and the Latin Vulgate omit this clause, possibly due to homoioteleuton because of the repetition of “to one from these” from the end of v. 4 in v. 5a (cf. the note on v. 4b).
sn What all the transgressions in Lev 5:1-4 have in common is that the time is past for handling the original situation properly (i.e., testifying in court, following purity regulations, or fulfilling an oath), so now the person has become guilty and needs to follow corrective sacrificial procedures.
14 tn Heb “which he sinned on it”; cf. ASV “confess that wherein he hath sinned”; NCV “must tell how he sinned.”
15 tn In this context the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential אָשָׁם (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303; cf. the note on Lev 5:1).
18 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach enough of a flock animal” (see the note on v. 11 below). The term translated “animal from the flock” (שֶׂה, seh) is often translated “lamb” (e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NCV) or “sheep” (e.g., NRSV, TEV, NLT), but it clearly includes either a sheep or a goat here (cf. v. 6), referring to the smaller pasture animals as opposed to the larger ones (i.e., cattle; cf. 4:3). Some English versions use the more generic “animal” (e.g., NAB, CEV).
19 tn Heb “and he shall bring his guilt which he sinned,” which is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the
22 sn The action seems to involve both a twisting action, breaking the neck of the bird and severing its vertebrae, as well as pinching or nipping the skin, but in this case not severing the head from the main body (note the rest of this verse).
23 tn Heb “he shall not divide [it]” (see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:305).
25 tn Heb “the remainder in the blood.” The Heb. preposition “in” (בְּ, bÿ) is used here to mean “some among” a whole collection of something.
26 tn The word “bird” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity.
30 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
31 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach [or is not sufficient] to”; cf. NASB “if his means are insufficient for.” The expression is the same as that in Lev 5:7 above except for the verb: נָשַׂג (nasag, “to collect, to reach, to be sufficient”) is used here, but נָגַע (nagah, “to touch, to reach”) is used in v. 7. Smr has the former in both v. 7 and 11.
33 tn Heb “and he shall bring his offering which he sinned.” Like the similar expression in v. 7 above (see the note there), this is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the
34 sn A tenth of an ephah would be about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306). English versions handle the amount somewhat differently, cf. NCV “about two quarts”; TEV “one kilogramme”; CEV “two pounds.”
36 sn The “memorial portion” (אַזְכָּרָה, ’azkkarah) was the part of the grain offering that was burnt on the altar (Lev 2:2), as opposed to the remainder, which was normally consumed by the priests (Lev 2:3; see the full regulations in Lev 6:14-23 [6:7-16 HT]). It was probably intended to call to mind (i.e., memorialize) before the
39 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
40 tn Heb “and it”; the referent (the remaining portion of the offering) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
43 tn Heb “trespasses a trespass” (verb and direct object from the same Hebrew root, מַעַל, ma’al); cf. NIV “commits a violation.” The word refers to some kind of overstepping of the boundary between that which is common (i.e., available for common use by common people) and that which is holy (i.e., to be used only for holy purposes because it has been consecrated to the
45 sn Heb “from the holy things of the
46 tn Here the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential use of אָשָׁם (’asham; see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303).
47 tn Heb “in your valuation, silver of shekels, in the shekel of the sanctuary.” The translation offered here suggests that, instead of a ram, the guilt offering could be presented in the form of money (see, e.g., NRSV; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:326-27). Others still maintain the view that it refers to the value of the ram that was offered (see, e.g., NIV “of the proper value in silver, according to the sanctuary shekel”; also NAB, NLT; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 72-73, 81).
sn The sanctuary shekel was about 10 grams (= ca. two fifths of an ounce; J. E. Shepherd, NIDOTTE 4:237-38).
48 tn The word for “guilt offering” (sometimes translated “reparation offering”) is the same as “guilt” earlier in the verse (rendered there “[penalty for] guilt”). One can tell which is intended only by the context.
sn The primary purpose of the guilt offering was to “atone” (see the note on Lev 1:4 above) for “trespassing” on the
49 tn Heb “and which he sinned from the holy thing.”
51 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
52 tn Heb “and does one from all of the commandments of the
53 tn The words “at the time” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
54 tn Heb “and he did not know, and he shall be guilty and he shall bear his iniquity” (for the rendering “bear his punishment [for iniquity]”) see the note on Lev 5:1.) This portion of v. 17 is especially difficult. The translation offered here suggests (as in many other English versions) that the offender did not originally know that he had violated the
58 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV and NASB both similar).
59 sn Beginning with 6:1, the verse numbers through 6:30 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 6:1 ET = 5:20 HT, 6:2 ET = 5:21 HT, 6:8 ET = 6:1 HT, etc., through 6:30 ET = 6:23 HT. Beginning with 7:1 the verse numbers in the English text and Hebrew text are again the same.
60 sn This paragraph is Lev 6:1-7 in the English Bible but Lev 5:20-26 in the Hebrew text. The quotation introduced by v. 1 extends from Lev 6:2 (5:21 HT) through 6:7 (5:26 HT), encompassing the third main section of guilt offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1; 4:1; and 5:14 above.
62 tn Or “neighbor” (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NASB “companion”; TEV “a fellow-Israelite.”
63 tn Heb “has extorted his neighbor”; ASV “oppressed”; NRSV “defrauded.”
64 tn Heb “and swears on falsehood”; cf. CEV “deny something while under oath.”
65 tn Heb “on one from all which the man shall do to sin in them.”
66 tn Heb “and it shall happen, when he sins and becomes guilty,” which is both resumptive of the previous (vv. 2-3) and the conclusion to the protasis (cf. “then” introducing the next clause as the apodosis). In this case, “becomes guilty” (cf. NASB, NIV) probably refers to his legal status as one who has been convicted of a crime in court; thus the translation “he is found guilty.” See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:559-61.
67 tn Heb “that had been held in trust with him.”
68 tn Heb “or from all which he swears on it to falsehood.”
69 tn Heb “in its head.” This refers “the full amount” in terms of the “principal,” the original item or amount obtained illegally (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:338; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 84).
70 tn Heb “to whom it is to him he shall give it in the day of his being guilty.” The present translation is based on the view that he has been found guilty through the legal process (see the note on v. 4 above; cf., e.g., TEV and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 33-34). Others translate the latter part as “in the day he offers his guilt [reparation] offering” (e.g., NIV and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 73, 84), or “in the day he realizes his guilt” (e.g., NRSV and J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:319, 338).
73 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).
74 tn Heb “on one from all which he does to become guilty in it”; NAB “whatever guilt he may have incurred.”
76 sn The following paragraphs are Lev 6:8-30 in the English Bible but 6:1-23 in the Hebrew text. This initial verse makes the special priestly regulations for the people’s burnt and grain offerings into a single unit (i.e., Lev 6:8-18 [6:1-11 HT]; cf. Lev 1-2 above). Note also the separate introductions for various priestly regulations in Lev 6:19 [12 HT], 24 [17 HT], and for the common people in Lev 7:22, 28 below.
77 tn Heb “It is the burnt offering on the hearth.”
78 tn Heb “in it.” In this context “in it” apparently refers to the “hearth” which was on top of the altar.
79 tn The exact nature of this article of the priest’s clothing is difficult to determine. Cf. KJV, ASV “breeches”; NAB “drawers”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “undergarments”; NCV “underclothes”; CEV “underwear”; TEV “shorts.”
80 tn Heb “he shall lift up the fatty ashes which the fire shall consume the burnt offering on the altar.”
81 tn Heb “it,” referring the “fatty ashes” as a single unit.
82 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness of the place involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
84 tn Heb “offering it, the sons of Aaron.” The verb is a Hiphil infinitive absolute, which is used here in place of the finite verb as either a jussive (GKC 346 §113.cc, “let the sons of Aaron offer”) or more likely an injunctive in light of the verbs that follow (Joüon 2:430 §123.v, “the sons of Aaron shall/must offer”).
85 tn Heb “and he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. The “he” refers to the officiating priest. A similar shift between singular and plural occurs in Lev 1:7-9, but see the note on Lev 1:7 and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 89 for the possibility of textual corruption.
86 tn Heb “shall take up from it with his hand some of the choice wheat flour of the grain offering.”
88 tc Smr reading, which includes the locative ה (hey, translated “on” the altar), is preferred here. This is the normal construction with the verb “offer up in smoke” in Lev 1-7 (see the note on Lev 1:9).
89 tn Heb “and he shall offer up in smoke [on] the altar a soothing aroma, its memorial portion, to the
91 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; cf. NAB “most sacred.”
92 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “a permanent ordinance”; NRSV “as their perpetual due.”
93 tn Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come.”
94 tn Heb “touches them”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. In this context “them” must refer to the “gifts” of the
95 tn Or “anyone/anything that touches them shall become holy” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:443-56). The question is whether this refers to the contagious nature of holy objects (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT) or whether it simply sets forth a demand that anyone who touches the holy gifts of the
97 sn A tenth of an ephah is about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306).
99 tn The term rendered here “well soaked” (see, e.g., NRSV; the Hebrew term is מֻרְבֶּכֶת, murbbekhet) occurs only three times (here; 7:12, and 1 Chr 23:29), and is sometimes translated “well-mixed” (e.g., NIV, NCV, NLT; NASB “well stirred”; NAB “well kneaded”). The meaning is uncertain (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:399-400), but in Lev 7:12 it stands parallel to already prepared grain offerings either “mixed” (the Hebrew term is בְּלוּלֹת (bÿlulot), not מֻרְבֶּכֶת as in Lev 6:21 [6:14 HT]) or anointed with oil.
100 tn Heb “broken bits [?] of a grain offering of pieces,” but the meaning of the Hebrew term rendered here “broken bits” (תֻּפִינֵי, tufiney) is quite uncertain. Some take it from the Hebrew verb “to break up, to crumble” (פַּת [pat]; e.g., the Syriac, NAB, NIV, NLT “broken” pieces) and others from “to bake” (אָפַה, ’afah; e.g., NRSV “baked pieces”). For a good summary of other proposed options, see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90. Compare Lev 2:5-6 for the general regulations regarding this manner of grain offering. Similar but less problematic terminology is used there.
101 tn Heb “And the anointed priest under him.”
103 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is.” Cf. NAB “most sacred”; CEV “very sacred”; TEV “very holy.”
104 tn Heb “on the garment”; NCV “on any clothes”; CEV “on the clothes of the priest.”
105 tc The translation “you must wash” is based on the MT as it stands (cf. NASB, NIV). Smr, LXX, Syriac, Tg. Ps.-J., and the Vulgate have a third person masculine singular passive form (Pual), “[the garment] must be washed” (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). This could also be supported from the verbs in the following verse, and it requires only a repointing of the Hebrew text with no change in consonants. See the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90 and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:404.
106 tn Heb “it”; the words “that vessel” are supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.
108 tn Heb “burned with fire,” an expression which is sometimes redundant in English, but here means “burned up,” “burned up entirely.”
109 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the officiating priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity. This priest was responsible for any actions involving direct contact with the altar (e.g., the splashing of the blood).
114 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is”; NAB “most sacred”; TEV “very holy.”
115 tn Heb “like the sin offering like the guilt offering, one law to them.”
116 tn Heb “and” rather than “or” (cf. also the next “or”).
117 tn Heb “and all made in the pan”; cf. KJV “fryingpan”; NAB “deep-fried in a pot.”
118 tn Heb “a man like his brother.”
119 tn This “he” pronoun refers to the offerer. Smr and LXX have plural “they.”
120 tn Or “for a thank offering.”
125 tn The words “which regularly accompany” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied for clarity.
sn The translation “[which regularly accompany]…” is based on the practice of bringing bread (and wine) to eat with the portions of the peace offering meat eaten by the priests and worshipers (see v. 14 and Num 15:1-13). This was in addition to the memorial portion of the unleavened bread that was offered to the
127 tn The term rendered “contribution offering” is תְּרוּמָה (tÿrumah), which generally refers to that which is set aside from the offerings to the
128 tn In the verse “his” refers to the offerer.
130 tn Heb “and on the next day and the left over from it shall be eaten.”
132 tn Or “desecrated,” or “defiled,” or “forbidden.” For this difficult term see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:422. Cf. NIV “it is impure”; NCV “it will become unclean”; NLT “will be contaminated.”
134 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation both here and in the following sentence to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.
135 tn The Hebrew has simply “the flesh,” but this certainly refers to “clean” flesh in contrast to the unclean flesh in the first half of the verse.
136 tn Heb “and his unclean condition is on him.”
137 sn The exact meaning of this penalty clause is not certain. It could mean that he will be executed, whether by God or by man, he will be excommunicated from sanctuary worship and/or community benefits (cf. TEV, CEV), or his line will be terminated by God (i.e., extirpation), etc. See J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 100; J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:457-60; and B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 241-42 for further discussion.
141 tn Heb “carcass,” referring to the carcass of an animal that has died on its own, not the carcass of an animal slaughtered for sacrifice or killed by wild beasts. This has been clarified in the translation by supplying the phrase “of natural causes”; cf. NAB, TEV “that has died a natural death.”
142 tn Heb “shall be used for any work”; cf. NIV, NLT “may be used for any other purpose.”
144 tn Heb “and any blood you must not eat in any of your dwelling places, to the bird and to the animal.”
147 tn Heb “on the breast.”
148 tc Many Hebrew
tn Heb “the breast to wave it, a wave offering before the
149 tn Older English versions (e.g., KJV, ASV) translate this Hebrew term (תְּרוּמָה, tÿrumah) “heave offering,” derived from the idea of “to raise, to lift” found in the verbal root (cf. NAB “a raised offering”). “Contribution offering” is a better English rendering because it refers to something “taken out from” (i.e., “lifted up from”; cf. the Hebrew term הֵרִים (herim) in, e.g., Lev 2:9; 4:8, etc.) the offering as a special contribution to the specific priest who presided over the offering procedures in any particular instance (see the next verse and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 4:335-37). Cf. TEV “as a special contribution”; NCV, NLT “as a gift.”
150 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; cf. NASB “as their due forever”; NRSV “as a perpetual due”; NLT “their regular share.”
151 tn Heb “the day he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
152 tn Heb “in the day of he presented them to serve as priests to the
153 tn Heb “the day he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
155 tn Heb “for your generations”; cf. NIV “for the generations to come”; TEV “for all time to come.”
156 sn The Hebrew term translated “law” (תוֹרָה [torah]) occurs up to this point in the book only in Lev 6:9 [6:2 HT], 14 [7 HT], 25 [18 HT], 7:1, 7, 11, and here in 7:37. This suggests that Lev 7:37-38 is a summary of only this section of the book (i.e., Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT]-7:36), not all of Lev 1-7.
157 tc In the MT only “the grain offering” lacks a connecting ו (vav). However, many Hebrew , Smr, LXX, Syriac, and some
158 sn The inclusion of the “ordination offering” (מִלּוּאִים, milu’im; the term apparently comes from the notion of “filling [of the hand],” cf. Lev 8:33) here anticipates Lev 8. It is a kind of peace offering, as the regulations in Lev 8:22-32 will show (cf. Exod 29:19-34). In the context of the ordination ritual for the priests it fits into the sequence of offerings as a peace offering would: sin offering (Lev 8:14-17), burnt and grain offering (Lev 8:18-21), and finally peace (i.e., ordination) offering (Lev 8:22-32). Moreover, in this case, Moses received the breast of the ordination offering as his due since he was the presiding priest over the sacrificial procedures (Lev 8:29; cf. Lev 7:30-31), while Aaron and his sons ate the portions that would have been consumed by the common worshipers in a regular peace offering procedure (Exod 29:31-34; cf. Lev 7:15-18). For a general introduction to the peace offering see the note on Lev 3:1.