47:1 Joseph went and told Pharaoh, “My father, my brothers, their flocks and herds, and all that they own have arrived from the land of
47:3 Pharaoh said to Joseph’s 3 brothers, “What is your occupation?” They said to Pharaoh, “Your servants take care of flocks, just as our ancestors did.” 4 47:4 Then they said to Pharaoh, “We have come to live as temporary residents 5 in the land. There 6 is no pasture for your servants’ flocks because the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. So now, please let your servants live in the land of Goshen.”
47:5 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Your father and your brothers have come to you. 47:6 The land of Egypt is before you; settle your father and your brothers in the best region of the land. They may live in the land of Goshen. If you know of any highly capable men 7 among them, put them in charge 8 of my livestock.”
47:7 Then Joseph brought in his father Jacob and presented him 9 before Pharaoh. Jacob blessed 10 Pharaoh. 47:8 Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How long have you lived?” 11 47:9 Jacob said to Pharaoh, “All 12 the years of my travels 13 are 130. All 14 the years of my life have been few and painful; 15 the years of my travels are not as long as those of my ancestors.” 16 47:10 Then Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from his presence. 17
47:11 So Joseph settled his father and his brothers. He gave them territory 18 in the land of Egypt, in the best region of the land, the land of Rameses, 19 just as Pharaoh had commanded. 47:12 Joseph also provided food for his father, his brothers, and all his father’s household, according to the number of their little children.
47:13 But there was no food in all the land because the famine was very severe; the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan wasted away 20 because of the famine. 47:14 Joseph collected all the money that could be found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan as payment 21 for the grain they were buying. Then Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s palace. 22 47:15 When the money from the lands of Egypt and Canaan was used up, all the Egyptians 23 came to Joseph and said, “Give us food! Why should we die 24 before your very eyes because our money has run out?”
47:16 Then Joseph said, “If your money is gone, bring your livestock, and I will give you food 25 in exchange for 26 your livestock.” 47:17 So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them food in exchange for their horses, the livestock of their flocks and herds, and their donkeys. 27 He got them through that year by giving them food in exchange for livestock.
47:18 When that year was over, they came to him the next year and said to him, “We cannot hide from our 28 lord that the money is used up and the livestock and the animals belong to our lord. Nothing remains before our lord except our bodies and our land. 47:19 Why should we die before your very eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land in exchange for food, and we, with our land, will become 29 Pharaoh’s slaves. 30 Give us seed that we may live 31 and not die. Then the land will not become desolate.” 32
47:20 So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh. Each 33 of the Egyptians sold his field, for the famine was severe. 34 So the land became Pharaoh’s. 47:21 Joseph 35 made all the people slaves 36 from one end of Egypt’s border to the other end of it. 47:22 But he did not purchase the land of the priests because the priests had an allotment from Pharaoh and they ate from their allotment that Pharaoh gave them. That is why they did not sell their land.
47:23 Joseph said to the people, “Since I have bought you and your land today for Pharaoh, here is seed for you. Cultivate 37 the land. 47:24 When you gather in the crop, 38 give 39 one-fifth of it to Pharaoh, and the rest 40 will be yours for seed for the fields and for you to eat, including those in your households and your little children.” 47:25 They replied, “You have saved our lives! You are showing us favor, 41 and we will be Pharaoh’s slaves.” 42
47:27 Israel settled in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen, and they owned land there. They were fruitful and increased rapidly in number.
47:28 Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years; the years 45 of Jacob’s life were 147 in all. 47:29 The time 46 for Israel to die approached, so he called for his son Joseph and said to him, “If now I have found favor in your sight, put your hand under my thigh 47 and show me kindness and faithfulness. 48 Do not bury me in Egypt, 47:30 but when I rest 49 with my fathers, carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burial place.” Joseph 50 said, “I will do as you say.”
48:1 After these things Joseph was told, 57 “Your father is weakening.” So he took his two sons Manasseh and Ephraim with him. 48:2 When Jacob was told, 58 “Your son Joseph has just 59 come to you,” Israel regained strength and sat up on his bed. 48:3 Jacob said to Joseph, “The sovereign God 60 appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me. 48:4 He said to me, ‘I am going to make you fruitful 61 and will multiply you. 62 I will make you into a group of nations, and I will give this land to your descendants 63 as an everlasting possession.’ 64
48:5 “Now, as for your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, they will be mine. 65 Ephraim and Manasseh will be mine just as Reuben and Simeon are. 48:6 Any children that you father 66 after them will be yours; they will be listed 67 under the names of their brothers in their inheritance. 68 48:7 But as for me, when I was returning from Paddan, Rachel died – to my sorrow 69 – in the land of Canaan. It happened along the way, some distance from Ephrath. So I buried her there on the way to Ephrath” (that is, Bethlehem). 70
48:8 When Israel saw Joseph’s sons, he asked, “Who are these?” 48:9 Joseph said to his father, “They are the 71 sons God has given me in this place.” His father 72 said, “Bring them to me so I may bless them.” 73 48:10 Now Israel’s eyes were failing 74 because of his age; he was not able to see well. So Joseph 75 brought his sons 76 near to him, and his father 77 kissed them and embraced them. 48:11 Israel said to Joseph, “I never expected 78 to see you 79 again, but now God has allowed me to see your children 80 too.”
48:12 So Joseph moved them from Israel’s knees 81 and bowed down with his face to the ground. 48:13 Joseph positioned them; 82 he put Ephraim on his right hand across from Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh on his left hand across from Israel’s right hand. Then Joseph brought them closer to his father. 83 48:14 Israel stretched out his right hand and placed it on Ephraim’s head, although he was the younger. 84 Crossing his hands, he put his left hand on Manasseh’s head, for Manasseh was the firstborn.
48:15 Then he blessed Joseph and said,
“May the God before whom my fathers
Abraham and Isaac walked –
the God who has been my shepherd 85
all my life long to this day,
from all harm –
bless these boys.
May my name be named in them, 88
and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac.
May they grow into a multitude on the earth.”
48:17 When Joseph saw that his father placed his right hand on Ephraim’s head, it displeased him. 89 So he took his father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 48:18 Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father, for this is the firstborn. Put your right hand on his head.”
48:19 But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He too will become a nation and he too will become great. In spite of this, his younger brother will be even greater and his descendants will become a multitude 90 of nations.” 48:20 So he blessed them that day, saying,
‘May God make you like Ephraim and Manasseh.’”
So he put Ephraim before Manasseh. 93
48:21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “I am about to die, but God will be with you 94 and will bring you back to the land of your fathers. 48:22 As one who is above your 95 brothers, I give to you the mountain slope, 96 which I took from the Amorites with my sword and my bow.”
49:2 “Assemble and listen, you sons of Jacob;
listen to Israel, your father.
49:3 Reuben, you are my firstborn,
my might and the beginning of my strength,
outstanding in dignity, outstanding in power.
for you got on your father’s bed, 101
then you defiled it – he got on my couch! 102
49:5 Simeon and Levi are brothers,
weapons of violence are their knives! 103
49:6 O my soul, do not come into their council,
do not be united to their assembly, my heart, 104
for in their anger they have killed men,
and for pleasure they have hamstrung oxen.
49:7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce,
and their fury, for it was cruel.
I will divide them in Jacob,
and scatter them in Israel! 105
Your hand will be on the neck of your enemies,
your father’s sons will bow down before you.
49:9 You are a lion’s cub, Judah,
from the prey, my son, you have gone up.
He crouches and lies down like a lion;
like a lioness – who will rouse him?
49:10 The scepter will not depart from Judah,
nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, 107
until he comes to whom it belongs; 108
the nations will obey him. 109
49:11 Binding his foal to the vine,
and his colt to the choicest vine,
he will wash 110 his garments in wine,
his robes in the blood of grapes.
49:12 His eyes will be dark from wine,
and his teeth white from milk. 111
and become a haven for ships;
his border will extend to Sidon. 113
49:14 Issachar is a strong-boned donkey
lying down between two saddlebags.
and the pleasant land,
he will bend his shoulder to the burden
and become a slave laborer. 115
as one of the tribes of Israel.
49:17 May Dan be a snake beside the road,
a viper by the path,
that bites the heels of the horse
so that its rider falls backward. 118
49:19 Gad will be raided by marauding bands,
but he will attack them at their heels. 120
and he will provide delicacies 123 to royalty.
he speaks delightful words. 125
a fruitful bough near a spring
whose branches 127 climb over the wall.
they will shoot at him and oppose him.
49:24 But his bow will remain steady,
and his hands 129 will be skillful;
because of the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob,
49:25 because of the God of your father,
who will help you, 132
because of the sovereign God, 133
who will bless you 134
with blessings from the sky above,
blessings from the deep that lies below,
and blessings of the breasts and womb. 135
49:26 The blessings of your father are greater
or the desirable things of the age-old hills.
They will be on the head of Joseph
and on the brow of the prince of his brothers. 138
49:27 Benjamin is a ravenous wolf;
in the morning devouring the prey,
and in the evening dividing the plunder.”
49:29 Then he instructed them, 141 “I am about to go 142 to my people. Bury me with my fathers in the cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite. 49:30 It is the cave in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought for a burial plot from Ephron the Hittite. 49:31 There they buried Abraham and his wife Sarah; there they buried Isaac and his wife Rebekah; and there I buried Leah. 49:32 The field and the cave in it were acquired from the sons of Heth.” 143
50:1 Then Joseph hugged his father’s face. 145 He wept over him and kissed him. 50:2 Joseph instructed the physicians in his service 146 to embalm his father, so the physicians embalmed Israel. 50:3 They took forty days, for that is the full time needed for embalming. 147 The Egyptians mourned 148 for him seventy days. 149
50:4 When the days of mourning 150 had passed, Joseph said to Pharaoh’s royal court, 151 “If I have found favor in your sight, please say to Pharaoh, 152 50:5 ‘My father made me swear an oath. He said, 153 “I am about to die. Bury me 154 in my tomb that I dug for myself there in the land of Canaan.” Now let me go and bury my father; then I will return.’” 50:6 So Pharaoh said, “Go and bury your father, just as he made you swear to do.” 155
50:7 So Joseph went up to bury his father; all Pharaoh’s officials went with him – the senior courtiers 156 of his household, all the senior officials of the land of Egypt, 50:8 all Joseph’s household, his brothers, and his father’s household. But they left their little children and their flocks and herds in the land of Goshen. 50:9 Chariots and horsemen also went up with him, so it was a very large entourage. 157
50:10 When they came to the threshing floor of Atad 158 on the other side of the Jordan, they mourned there with very great and bitter sorrow. 159 There Joseph observed a seven day period of mourning for his father. 50:11 When the Canaanites who lived in the land saw them mourning at the threshing floor of Atad, they said, “This is a very sad occasion 160 for the Egyptians.” That is why its name was called 161 Abel Mizraim, 162 which is beyond the Jordan.
50:12 So the sons of Jacob did for him just as he had instructed them. 50:13 His sons carried him to the land of Canaan and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, near Mamre. This is the field Abraham purchased as a burial plot from Ephron the Hittite. 50:14 After he buried his father, Joseph returned to Egypt, along with his brothers and all who had accompanied him to bury his father.
50:15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “What if Joseph bears a grudge and wants to repay 163 us in full 164 for all the harm 165 we did to him?” 50:16 So they sent word 166 to Joseph, saying, “Your father gave these instructions before he died: 50:17 ‘Tell Joseph this: Please forgive the sin of your brothers and the wrong they did when they treated you so badly.’ Now please forgive the sin of the servants of the God of your father.” When this message was reported to him, Joseph wept. 167 50:18 Then his brothers also came and threw themselves down before him; they said, “Here we are; we are your slaves.” 50:19 But Joseph answered them, “Don’t be afraid. Am 168 I in the place of God? 50:20 As for you, you meant to harm me, 169 but God intended it for a good purpose, so he could preserve the lives of many people, as you can see this day. 170 50:21 So now, don’t be afraid. I will provide for you and your little children.” Then he consoled them and spoke kindly 171 to them.
50:22 Joseph lived in Egypt, along with his father’s family. 172 Joseph lived 110 years. 50:23 Joseph saw the descendants of Ephraim to the third generation. 173 He also saw the children of Makir the son of Manasseh; they were given special inheritance rights by Joseph. 174
50:24 Then Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die. But God will surely come to you 175 and lead you up from this land to the land he swore on oath to give 176 to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.” 50:25 Joseph made the sons of Israel swear an oath. He said, “God will surely come to you. Then you must carry my bones up from this place.” 50:26 So Joseph died at the age of 110. 177 After they embalmed him, his body 178 was placed in a coffin in Egypt.
1 tn Heb “Look they [are] in the land of Goshen.” Joseph draws attention to the fact of their presence in Goshen.
2 tn Heb “and from the whole of his brothers he took five men and presented them before Pharaoh.”
3 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
4 tn Heb “both we and our fathers.”
5 tn Heb “to sojourn.”
6 tn Heb “for there.” The Hebrew uses a causal particle to connect what follows with what precedes. The translation divides the statement into two sentences for stylistic reasons.
7 tn Heb “men of skill.”
8 tn Heb “make them rulers.”
sn Put them in charge of my livestock. Pharaoh is, in effect, offering Joseph’s brothers jobs as royal keepers of livestock, a position mentioned often in Egyptian inscriptions, because the Pharaohs owned huge herds of cattle.
9 tn Heb “caused him to stand.”
10 sn The precise meaning of the Hebrew verb translated “blessed” is difficult in this passage, because the content of Jacob’s blessing is not given. The expression could simply mean that he greeted Pharaoh, but that seems insufficient in this setting. Jacob probably praised Pharaoh, for the verb is used this way for praising God. It is also possible that he pronounced a formal prayer of blessing, asking God to reward Pharaoh for his kindness.
11 tn Heb “How many are the days of the years of your life?”
12 tn Heb “the days of.”
13 tn Heb “sojournings.” Jacob uses a term that depicts him as one who has lived an unsettled life, temporarily residing in many different places.
14 tn Heb “the days of.”
15 tn The Hebrew word רַע (ra’) can sometimes mean “evil,” but that would give the wrong connotation here, where it refers to pain, difficulty, and sorrow. Jacob is thinking back through all the troubles he had to endure to get to this point.
16 tn Heb “and they have not reached the days of the years of my fathers in the days of their sojournings.”
17 tn Heb “from before Pharaoh.”
18 tn Heb “a possession,” or “a holding.” Joseph gave them a plot of land with rights of ownership in the land of Goshen.
19 sn The land of Rameses is another designation for the region of Goshen. It is named Rameses because of a city in that region (Exod 1:11; 12:37). The use of this name may represent a modernization of the text for the understanding of the intended readers, substituting a later name for an earlier one. Alternatively, there may have been an earlier Rameses for which the region was named.
20 tn The verb לַהַה (lahah, = לָאָה, la’ah) means “to faint, to languish”; it figuratively describes the land as wasting away, drooping, being worn out.
21 tn Or “in exchange.” On the use of the preposition here see BDB 90 s.v. בְּ.
22 tn Heb “house.”
23 tn Heb “all Egypt.” The expression is a metonymy and refers to all the people of Egypt.
24 tn The imperfect verbal form has a deliberative force here.
25 tn The word “food” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
26 tn On the use of the preposition here see BDB 90 s.v. בְּ.
27 tn The definite article is translated here as a possessive pronoun.
28 tn Heb “my.” The expression “my lord” occurs twice more in this verse.
29 tn After the imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav here indicates consequence.
30 sn Pharaoh’s slaves. The idea of slavery is not attractive to the modern mind, but in the ancient world it was the primary way of dealing with the poor and destitute. If the people became slaves of Pharaoh, it was Pharaoh’s responsibility to feed them and care for them. It was the best way for them to survive the famine.
31 tn After the imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav here indicates purpose or result.
32 tn The disjunctive clause structure (vav [ו] + subject + negated verb) highlights the statement and brings their argument to a conclusion.
33 tn The Hebrew text connects this clause with the preceding one with a causal particle (כִּי, ki). The translation divides the clauses into two sentences for stylistic reasons.
34 tn The Hebrew text adds “upon them.” This has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.
35 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
36 tc The MT reads “and the people he removed to the cities,” which does not make a lot of sense in this context. The Samaritan Pentateuch and the LXX read “he enslaved them as slaves.”
37 tn The perfect verbal form with the vav consecutive is equivalent to a command here.
38 tn The words “the crop” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
39 tn The perfect form with the vav (ו) consecutive is equivalent to an imperfect of instruction here.
40 tn Heb “four parts.”
41 tn Heb “we find favor in the eyes of my lord.” Some interpret this as a request, “may we find favor in the eyes of my lord.”
43 tn On the term translated “statute” see P. Victor, “A Note on Hoq in the Old Testament,” VT 16 (1966): 358-61.
44 tn The words “which is in effect” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
45 tn Heb “the days of the years.”
46 tn Heb “days.”
48 tn Or “deal with me in faithful love.”
49 tn Heb “lie down.” Here the expression “lie down” refers to death.
50 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
51 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
52 tn Heb “swear on oath to me.” The words “that you will do so” have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
53 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
54 tn Heb “swore on oath to him.”
55 sn The Hebrew verb normally means “bow down,” especially in worship or prayer. Here it might simply mean “bend low,” perhaps from weakness or approaching death. The narrative is ambiguous at this point and remains open to all these interpretations.
56 tc The MT reads מִטָּה (mittah, “bed, couch”). The LXX reads the word as מַטֶּה (matteh, “staff, rod”) and interprets this to mean that Jacob bowed down in worship while leaning on the top of his staff. The LXX reading was used in turn by the writer of the Letter to the Hebrews (Heb 11:21).
57 tn Heb “and one said.” With no expressed subject in the Hebrew text, the verb can be translated with the passive voice.
58 tn Heb “and one told and said.” The verbs have no expressed subject and can be translated with the passive voice.
59 tn Heb “Look, your son Joseph.”
61 tn Heb “Look, I am making you fruitful.” The participle following הִנֵּה (hinneh) has the nuance of a certain and often imminent future.
62 tn The perfect verbal form with vav consecutive carries on the certain future idea.
63 tn The Hebrew text adds “after you,” which has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.
64 tn The Hebrew word אֲחֻזָּה (’akhuzzah), translated “possession,” describes a permanent holding in the land. It is the noun form of the same verb (אָחַז, ’akhaz) that was used for the land given to them in Goshen (Gen 47:27).
65 sn They will be mine. Jacob is here adopting his two grandsons Manasseh and Ephraim as his sons, and so they will have equal share with the other brothers. They will be in the place of Joseph and Levi (who will become a priestly tribe) in the settlement of the land. See I. Mendelsohn, “A Ugaritic Parallel to the Adoption of Ephraim and Manasseh,” IEJ (1959): 180-83.
66 tn Or “you fathered.”
67 tn Heb “called” or “named.”
68 sn Listed under the names of their brothers in their inheritance. This means that any subsequent children of Joseph will be incorporated into the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh.
69 tn Heb “upon me, against me,” which might mean something like “to my sorrow.”
71 tn Heb “my.”
72 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Joseph’s father) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
73 tn The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose after the imperative.
74 tn Heb “heavy.”
sn The disjunctive clause provides supplemental information that is important to the story. The weakness of Israel’s sight is one of several connections between this chapter and Gen 27. Here there are two sons, and it appears that the younger is being blessed over the older by a blind old man. While it was by Jacob’s deception in chap. 27, here it is with Jacob’s full knowledge.
75 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
76 tn Heb “them”; the referent (Joseph’s sons) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
77 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Joseph’s father) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
79 tn Heb “your face.”
80 tn Heb “offspring.”
81 tn Heb “and Joseph brought them out from with his knees.” The two boys had probably been standing by Israel’s knees when being adopted and blessed. The referent of the pronoun “his” (Israel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
82 tn Heb “and Joseph took the two of them.”
83 tn Heb “and he brought near to him.” The referents of the pronouns “he” and “him” (Joseph and his father respectively) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
84 tn The disjunctive clause is circumstantial-concessive here.
85 tn Heb “shepherded me.” The verb has been translated as an English noun for stylistic reasons.
86 sn The Samaritan Pentateuch reads “king” here, but the traditional reading (“angel”) may be maintained. Jacob closely associates God with an angelic protective presence. This does not mean that Jacob viewed his God as a mere angel, but it does suggest that he was aware of an angelic presence sent by God to protect him. Here he so closely associates the two that they become virtually indistinguishable. In this culture messengers typically carried the authority of the one who sent them and could even be addressed as such. Perhaps Jacob thought that the divine blessing would be mediated through this angelic messenger.
87 tn The verb גָּאַל (ga’al) has the basic idea of “protect” as a near relative might do. It is used for buying someone out of bondage, marrying a deceased brother’s widow, paying off debts, avenging the family, and the like. The meanings of “deliver, protect, avenge” are most fitting when God is the subject (see A. R. Johnson, “The Primary Meaning of √גאל,” Congress Volume: Copenhagen, 1953 [VTSup], 67-77).
88 tn Or “be recalled through them.”
89 tn Heb “it was bad in his eyes.”
90 tn Heb “fullness.”
91 tn The pronoun is singular in the Hebrew text, apparently elevating Ephraim as the more prominent of the two. Note, however, that both are named in the blessing formula that follows.
92 tn Or “pronounce a blessing.”
93 sn On the elevation of Ephraim over Manasseh see E. C. Kingsbury, “He Set Ephraim Before Manasseh,” HUCA 38 (1967): 129-36; H. Mowvley, “The Concept and Content of ‘Blessing’ in the Old Testament,” BT 16 (1965): 74-80; and I. Mendelsohn, “On the Preferential Status of the Eldest Son,” BASOR 156 (1959): 38-40.
94 tn The pronouns translated “you,” “you,” and “your” in this verse are plural in the Hebrew text.
95 tn The pronouns translated “your” and “you” in this verse are singular in the Hebrew text.
96 tn The Hebrew word שְׁכֶם (shÿkhem) could be translated either as “mountain slope” or “shoulder, portion,” or even taken as the proper name “Shechem.” Jacob was giving Joseph either (1) one portion above his brothers, or (2) the mountain ridge he took from the Amorites, or (3) Shechem. The ambiguity actually allows for all three to be the referent. He could be referring to the land in Shechem he bought in Gen 33:18-19, but he mentions here that it was acquired by warfare, suggesting that the events of 34:25-29 are in view (even though at the time he denounced it, 34:30). Joseph was later buried in Shechem (Josh 24:32).
97 tn After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
98 tn The expression “in the future” (אַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים, ’akharit hayyamim, “in the end of days”) is found most frequently in prophetic passages; it may refer to the end of the age, the eschaton, or to the distant future. The contents of some of the sayings in this chapter stretch from the immediate circumstances to the time of the settlement in the land to the coming of Messiah. There is a great deal of literature on this chapter, including among others C. Armerding, “The Last Words of Jacob: Genesis 49,” BSac 112 (1955): 320-28; H. Pehlke, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Genesis 49:1-28” (Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1985); and B. Vawter, “The Canaanite Background of Genesis 49,” CBQ 17 (1955): 1-18.
99 tn The Hebrew noun פַּחַז (pakhaz) only occurs here in the OT. A related verb occurs twice in the prophets (Jer 23:32; Zeph 3:4) for false prophets inventing their messages, and once in Judges for unscrupulous men bribed to murder (Judg 9:4). It would describe Reuben as being “frothy, boiling, turbulent” as water. The LXX has “run riot,” the Vulgate has “poured out,” and Tg. Onq. has “you followed your own direction.” It is a reference to Reuben’s misconduct in Gen 35, but the simile and the rare word invite some speculation. H. Pehlke suggests “destructive like water,” for Reuben acted with pride and presumption; see his “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Genesis 49:1-28” (Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1985).
100 tn Heb “Do not excel!” The Hiphil of the verb יָתַר (yatar) has this meaning only here. The negated jussive is rhetorical here. Rather than being a command, it anticipates what will transpire. The prophecy says that because of the character of the ancestor, the tribe of Reuben would not have the character to lead (see 1 Chr 5:1).
102 tn The last verb is third masculine singular, as if for the first time Jacob told the brothers, or let them know that he knew. For a discussion of this passage see S. Gevirtz, “The Reprimand of Reuben,” JNES 30 (1971): 87-98.
103 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word מְכֵרָה (mÿkherah) is uncertain. It has been rendered (1) “habitations”; (2) “merchandise”; (3) “counsels”; (4) “swords”; (5) “wedding feasts.” If it is from the verb כָּרַת (karat) and formed after noun patterns for instruments and tools (maqtil, miqtil form), then it would refer to “knives.” Since the verb is used in Exod 4:25 for circumcision, the idea would be “their circumcision knives,” an allusion to the events of Gen 34 (see M. J. Dahood, “‘MKRTYHM’ in Genesis 49,5,” CBQ 23 : 54-56). Another explanation also connects the word to the events of Gen 34 as a reference to the intended “wedding feast” for Dinah which could take place only after the men of Shechem were circumcised (see D. W. Young, “A Ghost Word in the Testament of Jacob (Gen 49:5)?” JBL 100 : 335-422).
104 tn The Hebrew text reads “my glory,” but it is preferable to repoint the form and read “my liver.” The liver was sometimes viewed as the seat of the emotions and will (see HALOT 456 s.v. II כָּבֵד) for which the heart is the modern equivalent.
105 sn Divide…scatter. What is predicted here is a division of their tribes. Most commentators see here an anticipation of Levi being in every area but not their own. That may be part of it, but not entirely what the curse intended. These tribes for their ruthless cruelty would be eliminated from the power and prestige of leadership.
106 sn There is a wordplay here; the name Judah (יְהוּדָה, yÿhudah) sounds in Hebrew like the verb translated praise (יוֹדוּךָ, yodukha). The wordplay serves to draw attention to the statement as having special significance.
107 tn Or perhaps “from his descendants,” taking the expression “from between his feet” as a euphemism referring to the genitals. In this case the phrase refers by metonymy to those who come forth from his genitals, i.e., his descendants.
108 tn The Hebrew form שִׁילֹה (shiloh) is a major interpretive problem. There are at least four major options (with many variations and less likely alternatives): (1) Some prefer to leave the text as it is, reading “Shiloh” and understanding it as the place where the ark rested for a while in the time of the Judges. (2) By repointing the text others arrive at the translation “until the [or “his”] ruler comes,” a reference to a Davidic ruler or the Messiah. (3) Another possibility that does not require emendation of the consonantal text, but only repointing, is “until tribute is brought to him” (so NEB, JPS, NRSV), which has the advantage of providing good parallelism with the following line, “the nations will obey him.” (4) The interpretation followed in the present translation, “to whom it [belongs]” (so RSV, NIV, REB), is based on the ancient versions. Again, this would refer to the Davidic dynasty or, ultimately, to the Messiah.
109 tn “and to him [will be] the obedience of the nations.” For discussion of this verse see J. Blenkinsopp, “The Oracle of Judah and the Messianic Entry,” JBL 80 (1961): 55-64; and E. M. Good, “The ‘Blessing’ on Judah,” JBL 82 (1963): 427-32.
110 tn The perfect verbal form is used rhetorically, describing coming events as though they have already taken place.
111 tn Some translate these as comparatives, “darker than wine…whiter than milk,” and so a reference to his appearance (so NEB, NIV, NRSV). But if it is in the age of abundance, symbolized by wine and milk, then the dark (i.e., red or perhaps dull) eyes would be from drinking wine, and the white teeth from drinking milk.
112 tn The verb שָׁכַן (shakhan) means “to settle,” but not necessarily as a permanent dwelling place. The tribal settlements by the sea would have been temporary and not the tribe’s territory.
114 tn The verb forms in this verse (“sees,” “will bend,” and “[will] become”) are preterite; they is used in a rhetorical manner, describing the future as if it had already transpired.
115 sn The oracle shows that the tribe of Issachar will be willing to trade liberty for the material things of life. Issachar would work (become a slave laborer) for the Canaanites, a reversal of the oracle on Canaan. See C. M. Carmichael, “Some Sayings in Genesis 49,” JBL 88 (1969): 435-44; and S. Gevirtz, “The Issachar Oracle in the Testament of Jacob,” ErIsr 12 (1975): 104-12.
116 sn The name Dan (דָּן, dan) means “judge” and forms a wordplay with the following verb.
117 tn Or “govern.”
118 sn The comparison of the tribe of Dan to a venomous serpent is meant to say that Dan, though small, would be potent, gaining victory through its skill and shrewdness. Jewish commentators have linked the image in part with Samson. That link at least illustrates the point: Though a minority tribe, Dan would gain the upper hand over others.
120 tc Heb “heel.” The MT has suffered from misdivision at this point. The initial mem on the first word in the next verse should probably be taken as a plural ending on the word “heel.”
sn In Hebrew the name Gad (גָּד, gad ) sounds like the words translated “raided” (יְגוּדֶנּוּ, yÿgudennu) and “marauding bands” (גְּדוּד, gÿdud).
121 tc Heb “from Asher,” but the initial mem (מ) of the MT should probably be moved to the end of the preceding verse and taken as a plural ending on “heel.”
122 tn The Hebrew word translated “rich,” when applied to products of the ground, means abundant in quantity and quality.
123 tn The word translated “delicacies” refers to foods that were delightful, the kind fit for a king.
124 tn Heb “a doe set free.”
125 tn Heb “the one who gives words of beauty.” The deer imagery probably does not continue into this line; Naphtali is the likely antecedent of the substantival participle, which is masculine, not feminine, in form. If the animal imagery is retained from the preceding line, the image of a talking deer is preposterous. For this reason some read the second line “the one who bears beautiful fawns,” interpreting אִמְרֵי (’imre) as a reference to young animals, not words (see HALOT 67 s.v. *אִמֵּר).
sn Almost every word in the verse is difficult. Some take the imagery to mean that Naphtali will be swift and agile (like a doe), and be used to take good messages (reading “words of beauty”). Others argue that the tribe was free-spirited (free running), but then settled down with young children.
126 tn The Hebrew text appears to mean “[is] a son of fruitfulness.” The second word is an active participle, feminine singular, from the verb פָּרָה (parah, “to be fruitful”). The translation “bough” is employed for בֵּן (ben, elsewhere typically “son”) because Joseph is pictured as a healthy and fruitful vine growing by the wall. But there are difficulties with this interpretation. The word “son” nowhere else refers to a plant and the noun translated “branches” (Heb “daughters”) in the third line is a plural form whereas its verb is singular. In the other oracles of Gen 49 an animal is used for comparison and not a plant, leading some to translate the opening phrase בֵּן פָּרָה (ben parah, “fruitful bough”) as “wild donkey” (JPS, NAB). Various other interpretations involving more radical emendation of the text have also been offered.
127 tn Heb “daughters.”
129 tn Heb “the arms of his hands.”
130 tn Heb “from there,” but the phrase should be revocalized and read “from [i.e., because of] the name of.”
131 tn Or “Stone.”
132 tn Heb “and he will help you.”
134 tn Heb “and he will bless you.”
135 sn Jacob envisions God imparting both agricultural (blessings from the sky above, blessings from the deep that lies below) and human fertility (blessings of the breasts and womb) to Joseph and his family.
136 tn Heb “have prevailed over.”
137 tn One could interpret the phrase הוֹרַי (horay) to mean “my progenitors” (literally, “the ones who conceived me”), but the masculine form argues against this. It is better to emend the text to הַרֲרֵי (harare, “mountains of”) because it forms a better parallel with the next clause. In this case the final yod (י) on the form is a construct plural marker, not a pronominal suffix.
139 tn Heb “All these.”
140 tn Heb “and he blessed them, each of whom according to his blessing, he blessed them.”
141 tn The Hebrew text adds “and he said to them,” which is not included in the translation because it is redundant in English.
142 tn Heb “I am about to be gathered” The participle is used here to describe what is imminent.
143 tn Some translate the Hebrew term “Heth” as “Hittites” here (see also Gen 23:3), but this gives the impression that these people were the classical Hittites of Anatolia. However, there is no known connection between these sons of Heth, apparently a Canaanite group (see Gen 10:15), and the Hittites of Asia Minor. See H. A. Hoffner, Jr., “Hittites,” Peoples of the Old Testament World, 152-53.
144 tn Heb “was gathered.”
145 tn Heb “fell on.” The expression describes Joseph’s unrestrained sorrow over Jacob’s death; he probably threw himself across the body and embraced his father.
146 tn Heb “his servants the physicians.”
147 tn Heb “and forty days were fulfilled for him, for thus are fulfilled the days of embalming.”
148 tn Heb “wept.”
149 sn Seventy days. This probably refers to a time of national mourning.
150 tn Heb “weeping.”
151 tn Heb “the house of Pharaoh.”
152 tn Heb “in the ears of Pharaoh.”
153 tn Heb “saying.”
154 tn The imperfect verbal form here has the force of a command.
155 tn Heb “he made you swear on oath.”
156 tn Or “dignitaries”; Heb “elders.”
157 tn Heb “camp.”
158 sn The location of the threshing floor of Atad is not certain. The expression the other side of the Jordan could refer to the eastern or western bank, depending on one’s perspective. However, it is commonly used in the OT for Transjordan. This would suggest that the entourage came up the Jordan Valley and crossed into the land at Jericho, just as the Israelites would in the time of Joshua.
159 tn Heb “and they mourned there [with] very great and heavy mourning.” The cognate accusative, as well as the two adjectives and the adverb, emphasize the degree of their sorrow.
160 tn Heb “this is heavy mourning for Egypt.”
161 tn The verb has no expressed subject and so it may be translated as passive.
162 sn The name Abel Mizraim means “the mourning of Egypt.”
163 tn The imperfect tense could be a simple future; it could also have a desiderative nuance.
164 tn The infinitive absolute makes the statement emphatic, “repay in full.”
165 tn Or “evil.”
166 tn The verb means “command,” but they would hardly be commanding him. It probably means they sent their father’s instructions to Joseph.
167 tn Heb “and Joseph wept when they spoke to him.”
168 tn Heb “For am I.”
169 tn Heb “you devised against me evil.”
170 tn Heb “God devised it for good in order to do, like this day, to preserve alive a great nation.”
171 tn Heb “spoke to their heart.”
172 tn Heb “he and the house of his father.”
173 tn Heb “saw Ephraim, the children of the third.”
174 tn Heb “they were born on the knees of Joseph.” This expression implies their adoption by Joseph, which meant that they received an inheritance from him.
175 tn The verb פָּקַד (paqad) means “to visit,” i.e., to intervene for blessing or cursing; here Joseph announces that God would come to fulfill the promises by delivering them from Egypt. The statement is emphasized by the use of the infinitive absolute with the verb: “God will surely visit you.”
176 tn The words “to give” are supplied in the translation for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
177 tn Heb “son of a hundred and ten years.”
178 tn Heb “he.”