43:3 But Judah said to him, “The man solemnly warned 2 us, ‘You will not see my face 3 unless your brother is with you.’ 43:4 If you send 4 our brother with us, we’ll go down and buy food for you. 43:5 But if you will not send him, we won’t go down there because the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’”
43:7 They replied, “The man questioned us 7 thoroughly 8 about ourselves and our family, saying, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ 9 So we answered him in this way. 10 How could we possibly know 11 that he would say, 12 ‘Bring your brother down’?”
43:8 Then Judah said to his father Israel, “Send the boy with me and we will go immediately. 13 Then we will live 14 and not die – we and you and our little ones. 43:9 I myself pledge security 15 for him; you may hold me liable. If I do not bring him back to you and place him here before you, I will bear the blame before you all my life. 16 43:10 But if we had not delayed, we could have traveled there and back 17 twice by now!”
43:11 Then their father Israel said to them, “If it must be so, then do this: Take some of the best products of the land in your bags, and take a gift down to the man – a little balm and a little honey, spices and myrrh, pistachios and almonds. 43:12 Take double the money with you; 18 you must take back 19 the money that was returned in the mouths of your sacks – perhaps it was an oversight. 43:13 Take your brother too, and go right away 20 to the man. 21 43:14 May the sovereign God 22 grant you mercy before the man so that he may release 23 your other brother 24 and Benjamin! As for me, if I lose my children I lose them.” 25
43:15 So the men took these gifts, and they took double the money with them, along with Benjamin. Then they hurried down to Egypt 26 and stood before Joseph. 43:16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the servant who was over his household, “Bring the men to the house. Slaughter an animal and prepare it, for the men will eat with me at noon.” 43:17 The man did just as Joseph said; he 27 brought the men into Joseph’s house. 28
43:18 But the men were afraid when they were brought to Joseph’s house. They said, “We are being brought in because of 29 the money that was returned in our sacks last time. 30 He wants to capture us, 31 make us slaves, and take 32 our donkeys!” 43:19 So they approached the man who was in charge of Joseph’s household and spoke to him at the entrance to the house. 43:20 They said, “My lord, we did indeed come down 33 the first time 34 to buy food. 43:21 But when we came to the place where we spent the night, we opened our sacks and each of us found his money – the full amount 35 – in the mouth of his sack. So we have returned it. 36 43:22 We have brought additional money with us to buy food. We do not know who put the money in our sacks!”
43:23 “Everything is fine,” 37 the man in charge of Joseph’s household told them. “Don’t be afraid. Your God and the God of your father has given you treasure in your sacks. 38 I had your money.” 39 Then he brought Simeon out to them.
43:24 The servant in charge 40 brought the men into Joseph’s house. He gave them water, and they washed their feet. Then he gave food to their donkeys. 43:25 They got their gifts ready for Joseph’s arrival 41 at noon, for they had heard 42 that they were to have a meal 43 there.
43:26 When Joseph came home, they presented him with the gifts they had brought inside, 44 and they bowed down to the ground before him. 43:27 He asked them how they were doing. 45 Then he said, “Is your aging father well, the one you spoke about? Is he still alive?” 43:28 “Your servant our father is well,” they replied. “He is still alive.” They bowed down in humility. 46
43:29 When Joseph looked up 47 and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother’s son, he said, “Is this your youngest brother, whom you told me about?” Then he said, “May God be gracious to you, my son.” 48 43:30 Joseph hurried out, for he was overcome by affection for his brother 49 and was at the point of tears. 50 So he went to his room and wept there.
43:31 Then he washed his face and came out. With composure he said, 51 “Set out the food.” 43:32 They set a place for him, a separate place for his brothers, 52 and another for the Egyptians who were eating with him. (The Egyptians are not able to eat with Hebrews, for the Egyptians think it is disgusting 53 to do so.) 54 43:33 They sat before him, arranged by order of birth, beginning with the firstborn and ending with the youngest. 55 The men looked at each other in astonishment. 56 43:34 He gave them portions of the food set before him, 57 but the portion for Benjamin was five times greater than the portions for any of the others. They drank with Joseph until they all became drunk. 58
44:1 He instructed the servant who was over his household, “Fill the sacks of the men with as much food as they can carry and put each man’s money in the mouth of his sack. 44:2 Then put 59 my cup – the silver cup – in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the money for his grain.” He did as Joseph instructed. 60
44:3 When morning came, 61 the men and their donkeys were sent off. 62 44:4 They had not gone very far from the city 63 when Joseph said 64 to the servant who was over his household, “Pursue the men at once! 65 When you overtake 66 them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil? 44:5 Doesn’t my master drink from this cup 67 and use it for divination? 68 You have done wrong!’” 69
44:6 When the man 70 overtook them, he spoke these words to them. 44:7 They answered him, “Why does my lord say such things? 71 Far be it from your servants to do such a thing! 72 44:8 Look, the money that we found in the mouths of our sacks we brought back to you from the land of Canaan. Why then would we steal silver or gold from your master’s house? 44:9 If one of us has it, 73 he will die, and the rest of us will become my lord’s slaves!”
44:10 He replied, “You have suggested your own punishment! 74 The one who has it will become my slave, 75 but the rest of 76 you will go free.” 77 44:11 So each man quickly lowered 78 his sack to the ground and opened it. 44:12 Then the man 79 searched. He began with the oldest and finished with the youngest. The cup was found in Benjamin’s sack! 44:13 They all tore their clothes! Then each man loaded his donkey, and they returned to the city.
44:14 So Judah and his brothers 80 came back to Joseph’s house. He was still there, 81 and they threw themselves to the ground before him. 44:15 Joseph said to them, “What did you think you were doing? 82 Don’t you know that a man like me can find out things like this by divination?” 83
44:16 Judah replied, “What can we say 84 to my lord? What can we speak? How can we clear ourselves? 85 God has exposed the sin of your servants! 86 We are now my lord’s slaves, we and the one in whose possession the cup was found.”
44:18 Then Judah approached him and said, “My lord, please allow your servant to speak a word with you. 89 Please do not get angry with your servant, 90 for you are just like Pharaoh. 91 44:19 My lord asked his servants, ‘Do you have a father or a brother?’ 44:20 We said to my lord, ‘We have an aged father, and there is a young boy who was born when our father was old. 92 The boy’s 93 brother is dead. He is the only one of his mother’s sons left, 94 and his father loves him.’
44:21 “Then you told your servants, ‘Bring him down to me so I can see 95 him.’ 96 44:22 We said to my lord, ‘The boy cannot leave his father. If he leaves his father, his father 97 will die.’ 98 44:23 But you said to your servants, ‘If your youngest brother does not come down with you, you will not see my face again.’ 44:24 When we returned to your servant my father, we told him the words of my lord.
44:25 “Then our father said, ‘Go back and buy us a little food.’ 44:26 But we replied, ‘We cannot go down there. 99 If our youngest brother is with us, then we will go, 100 for we won’t be permitted to see the man’s face if our youngest brother is not with us.’
44:27 “Then your servant my father said to us, ‘You know that my wife gave me two sons. 101 44:28 The first disappeared 102 and I said, “He has surely been torn to pieces.” I have not seen him since. 44:29 If you take 103 this one from me too and an accident happens to him, then you will bring down my gray hair 104 in tragedy 105 to the grave.’ 106
44:30 “So now, when I return to your servant my father, and the boy is not with us – his very life is bound up in his son’s life. 107 44:31 When he sees the boy is not with us, 108 he will die, and your servants will bring down the gray hair of your servant our father in sorrow to the grave. 44:32 Indeed, 109 your servant pledged security for the boy with my father, saying, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, then I will bear the blame before my father all my life.’
44:33 “So now, please let your servant remain as my lord’s slave instead of the boy. As for the boy, let him go back with his brothers. 44:34 For how can I go back to my father if the boy is not with me? I couldn’t bear to see 110 my father’s pain.” 111
45:1 Joseph was no longer able to control himself before all his attendants, 112 so he cried out, “Make everyone go out from my presence!” No one remained 113 with Joseph when he made himself known to his brothers. 45:2 He wept loudly; 114 the Egyptians heard it and Pharaoh’s household heard about it. 115
45:3 Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph! Is my father still alive?” His brothers could not answer him because they were dumbfounded before him. 45:4 Joseph said to his brothers, “Come closer to me,” so they came near. Then he said, “I am Joseph your brother, whom you sold into Egypt. 45:5 Now, do not be upset and do not be angry with yourselves because you sold me here, 116 for God sent me 117 ahead of you to preserve life! 45:6 For these past two years there has been famine in 118 the land and for five more years there will be neither plowing nor harvesting. 45:7 God sent me 119 ahead of you to preserve you 120 on the earth and to save your lives 121 by a great deliverance. 45:8 So now, it is not you who sent me here, but God. He has made me an adviser 122 to Pharaoh, lord over all his household, and ruler over all the land of Egypt. 45:9 Now go up to my father quickly 123 and tell him, ‘This is what your son Joseph says: “God has made me lord of all Egypt. Come down to me; do not delay! 45:10 You will live 124 in the land of Goshen, and you will be near me – you, your children, your grandchildren, your flocks, your herds, and everything you have. 45:11 I will provide you with food 125 there because there will be five more years of famine. Otherwise you would become poor – you, your household, and everyone who belongs to you.”’ 45:12 You and my brother Benjamin can certainly see with your own eyes that I really am the one who speaks to you. 126 45:13 So tell 127 my father about all my honor in Egypt and about everything you have seen. But bring my father down here quickly!” 128
45:16 Now it was reported 129 in the household of Pharaoh, “Joseph’s brothers have arrived.” It pleased 130 Pharaoh and his servants. 45:17 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Say to your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your animals and go 131 to the land of Canaan! 45:18 Get your father and your households and come to me! Then I will give you 132 the best land in Egypt and you will eat 133 the best 134 of the land.’ 45:19 You are also commanded to say, 135 ‘Do this: Take for yourselves wagons from the land of Egypt for your little ones and for your wives. Bring your father and come. 45:20 Don’t worry 136 about your belongings, for the best of all the land of Egypt will be yours.’”
45:21 So the sons of Israel did as he said. 137 Joseph gave them wagons as Pharaoh had instructed, 138 and he gave them provisions for the journey. 45:22 He gave sets of clothes to each one of them, 139 but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and five sets of clothes. 140 45:23 To his father he sent the following: 141 ten donkeys loaded with the best products of Egypt and ten female donkeys loaded with grain, food, and provisions for his father’s journey. 45:24 Then he sent his brothers on their way and they left. He said to them, “As you travel don’t be overcome with fear.” 142
45:25 So they went up from Egypt and came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan. 143 45:26 They told him, “Joseph is still alive and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt!” Jacob was stunned, 144 for he did not believe them. 45:27 But when they related to him everything Joseph had said to them, 145 and when he saw the wagons that Joseph had sent to transport him, their father Jacob’s spirit revived. 45:28 Then Israel said, “Enough! My son Joseph is still alive! I will go and see him before I die.”
46:1 So Israel began his journey, taking with him all that he had. 146 When he came to Beer Sheba 147 he offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac. 46:2 God spoke to Israel in a vision during the night 148 and said, “Jacob, Jacob!” He replied, “Here I am!” 46:3 He said, “I am God, 149 the God of your father. Do not be afraid to go down to Egypt, for I will make you into a great nation there. 46:4 I will go down with you to Egypt and I myself will certainly bring you back from there. 150 Joseph will close your eyes.” 151
46:5 Then Jacob started out 152 from Beer Sheba, and the sons of Israel carried their father Jacob, their little children, and their wives in the wagons that Pharaoh had sent along to transport him. 46:6 Jacob and all his descendants took their livestock and the possessions they had acquired in the land of Canaan, and they went to Egypt. 153 46:7 He brought with him to Egypt his sons and grandsons, 154 his daughters and granddaughters – all his descendants.
46:8 These are the names of the sons of Israel who went to Egypt – Jacob and his sons:
Reuben, the firstborn of Jacob.
46:9 The sons of Reuben:
Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.
46:10 The sons of Simeon:
Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar,
and Shaul (the son of a Canaanite woman).
46:11 The sons of Levi:
Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.
46:12 The sons of Judah:
Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah
(but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan).
The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.
46:13 The sons of Issachar:
46:14 The sons of Zebulun:
Sered, Elon, and Jahleel.
46:16 The sons of Gad:
Zephon, 158 Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi, and Areli.
46:17 The sons of Asher:
Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, Beriah, and Serah their sister.
The sons of Beriah were Heber and Malkiel.
46:18 These were the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter. She bore these to Jacob, sixteen in all.
46:19 The sons of Rachel the wife of Jacob:
Joseph and Benjamin.
Bela, Beker, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim and Ard.
46:22 These were the sons of Rachel who were born to Jacob, fourteen in all.
46:24 The sons of Naphtali:
Jahziel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.
46:25 These were the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel his daughter. She bore these to Jacob, seven in all.
46:26 All the direct descendants of Jacob who went to Egypt with him were sixty-six in number. (This number does not include the wives of Jacob’s sons.) 162 46:27 Counting the two sons 163 of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt, all the people of the household of Jacob who were in Egypt numbered seventy. 164
46:28 Jacob 165 sent Judah before him to Joseph to accompany him to Goshen. 166 So they came to the land of Goshen. 46:29 Joseph harnessed his chariot and went up to meet his father Israel in Goshen. When he met him, 167 he hugged his neck and wept on his neck for quite some time.
46:30 Israel said to Joseph, “Now let me die since I have seen your face and know that you are still alive.” 168 46:31 Then Joseph said to his brothers and his father’s household, “I will go up and tell Pharaoh, 169 ‘My brothers and my father’s household who were in the land of Canaan have come to me. 46:32 The men are shepherds; 170 they take care of livestock. 171 They have brought their flocks and their herds and all that they have.’ 46:33 Pharaoh will summon you and say, ‘What is your occupation?’ 46:34 Tell him, ‘Your servants have taken care of cattle 172 from our youth until now, both we and our fathers,’ so that you may live in the land of Goshen, 173 for everyone who takes care of sheep is disgusting 174 to the Egyptians.”
1 tn The disjunctive clause gives supplemental information that is important to the storyline.
2 tn The infinitive absolute with the finite verb stresses the point. The primary meaning of the verb is “to witness; to testify.” It alludes to Joseph’s oath, which was tantamount to a threat or warning.
3 tn The idiom “see my face” means “have an audience with me.”
4 tn Heb “if there is you sending,” that is, “if you send.”
5 tn The verb may even have a moral connotation here, “Why did you do evil to me?”
6 tn The infinitive construct here explains how they brought trouble on Jacob.
7 tn The word “us” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
8 tn The infinitive absolute with the perfect verbal form emphasizes that Joseph questioned them thoroughly.
9 sn The report given here concerning Joseph’s interrogation does not exactly match the previous account where they supplied the information to clear themselves (see 42:13). This section may reflect how they remembered the impact of his interrogation, whether he asked the specific questions or not. That may be twisting the truth to protect themselves, not wanting to admit that they volunteered the information. (They admitted as much in 42:31, but now they seem to be qualifying that comment.) On the other hand, when speaking to Joseph later (see 44:19), Judah claims that Joseph asked for the information about their family, making it possible that 42:13 leaves out some of the details of their first encounter.
10 tn Heb “and we told to him according to these words.”
11 tn The infinitive absolute emphasizes the imperfect verbal form, which here is a historic future (that is, future from the perspective of a past time).
12 tn Once again the imperfect verbal form is used as a historic future (that is, future from the perspective of past time).
13 tn Heb “and we will rise up and we will go.” The first verb is adverbial and gives the expression the sense of “we will go immediately.”
14 tn After the preceding cohortatives, the prefixed verbal form (either imperfect or cohortative) with the prefixed conjunction here indicates purpose or result.
15 tn The pronoun before the first person verbal form draws attention to the subject and emphasizes Judah’s willingness to be personally responsible for the boy.
16 sn I will bear the blame before you all my life. It is not clear how this would work out if Benjamin did not come back. But Judah is offering his life for Benjamin’s if Benjamin does not return.
17 tn Heb “we could have returned.”
18 tn Heb “in your hand.”
19 tn Heb “take back in your hand.” The imperfect verbal form probably has an injunctive or obligatory force here, since Jacob is instructing his sons.
20 tn Heb “arise, return,” meaning “get up and go back,” or “go back immediately.”
23 tn Heb “release to you.” After the jussive this perfect verbal form with prefixed vav (ו) probably indicates logical consequence, as well as temporal sequence.
24 sn Several Jewish commentators suggest that the expression your other brother refers to Joseph. This would mean that Jacob prophesied unwittingly. However, it is much more likely that Simeon is the referent of the phrase “your other brother” (see Gen 42:24).
25 tn Heb “if I am bereaved I am bereaved.” With this fatalistic sounding statement Jacob resolves himself to the possibility of losing both Benjamin and Simeon.
26 tn Heb “they arose and went down to Egypt.” The first verb has an adverbial function and emphasizes that they departed right away.
27 tn Heb “the man.” This has been replaced in the translation by the pronoun “he” for stylistic reasons.
29 tn Heb “over the matter of.”
30 tn Heb “in the beginning,” that is, at the end of their first visit.
31 tn Heb “to roll himself upon us and to cause himself to fall upon us.” The infinitives here indicate the purpose (as viewed by the brothers) for their being brought to Joseph’s house.
32 tn The word “take” has been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
33 tn The infinitive absolute is used for emphasis before the finite verbal form.
35 tn Heb “in its weight.”
36 tn Heb “brought it back in our hand.”
37 tn Heb “and he said, ‘peace to you.’” Here the statement has the force of “everything is fine,” or perhaps even “calm down.” The referent of “he” (the man in charge of Joseph’ household) has been specified in the translation for clarity, and the order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged for stylistic reasons.
38 sn Your God and the God of your father…This is the first clear reference in the story to the theme of divine providence – that God works through the human actions to do his will.
39 tn Heb “your money came to me.”
40 tn Heb “the man.”
41 tn The construction uses the infinitive construct after the preposition, followed by the subjective genitive.
42 tn The action precedes the action of preparing the gift, and so must be translated as past perfect.
43 tn Heb “eat bread.” The imperfect verbal form is used here as a historic future (future from the perspective of the past).
44 tn Heb “into the house.”
45 tn Heb “concerning peace.”
46 tn Heb “and they bowed low and they bowed down.” The use of synonyms here emphasizes the brothers’ humility.
47 tn Heb “and he lifted his eyes.” The referent of “he” (Joseph) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
48 sn Joseph’s language here becomes warmer and more personal, culminating in calling Benjamin my son.
50 tn Heb “and he sought to weep.”
51 tn Heb “and he controlled himself and said.”
52 tn Heb “them”; the referent (Joseph’s brothers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
53 tn Or “disgraceful.” The Hebrew word תּוֹעֵבָה (to’evah, “abomination”) describes something that is loathsome or off-limits. For other practices the Egyptians considered disgusting, see Gen 46:34 and Exod 8:22.
54 tn Heb “and they set for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians who were eating with him by themselves, for the Egyptians are not able to eat food with the Hebrews, for it is an abomination for the Egyptians.” The imperfect verbal form in the explanatory clause is taken as habitual in force, indicating a practice that was still in effect in the narrator’s time.
sn That the Egyptians found eating with foreigners disgusting is well-attested in extra-biblical literature by writers like Herodotus, Diodorus, and Strabo.
55 tn Heb “the firstborn according to his birthright and the youngest according to his youth.”
56 sn The brothers’ astonishment indicates that Joseph arranged them in this way. They were astonished because there was no way, as far as they were concerned, that Joseph could have known the order of their birth.
57 tn Heb “and he lifted up portions from before his face to them.”
58 tn Heb “and they drank and were intoxicated with him” (cf. NIV “drank freely with him”; NEB “grew merry”; NRSV “were merry”). The brothers were apparently relaxed and set at ease, despite Joseph’s obvious favoritism toward Benjamin.
59 tn The imperfect verbal form is used here to express Joseph’s instructions.
60 tn Heb “and he did according to the word of Joseph which he spoke.”
61 tn Heb “the morning was light.”
62 tn Heb “and the men were sent off, they and their donkeys.” This clause, like the preceding one, has the subject before the verb, indicating synchronic action.
63 tn Heb “they left the city, they were not far,” meaning “they had not gone very far.”
64 tn Heb “and Joseph said.” This clause, like the first one in the verse, has the subject before the verb, indicating synchronic action.
65 tn Heb “arise, chase after the men.” The first imperative gives the command a sense of urgency.
66 tn After the imperative this perfect verbal form with vav consecutive has the same nuance of instruction. In the translation it is subordinated to the verbal form that follows (also a perfect with vav consecutive): “and overtake them and say,” becomes “when you overtake them, say.”
67 tn Heb “Is this not what my master drinks from.” The word “cup” is not in the Hebrew text, but is obviously the referent of “this,” and so has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
68 tn Heb “and he, divining, divines with it.” The infinitive absolute is emphatic, stressing the importance of the cup to Joseph.
69 tn Heb “you have caused to be evil what you have done.”
70 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the man who was in charge of Joseph’s household) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
71 tn Heb “Why does my lord speak according to these words?”
72 tn Heb “according to this thing.”
73 tn Heb “The one with whom it is found from your servants.” Here “your servants” (a deferential way of referring to the brothers themselves) has been translated by the pronoun “us” to avoid confusion with Joseph’s servants.
74 tn Heb “Also now, according to your words, so it is.” As the next statement indicates, this does mean that he will do exactly as they say. He does agree with them the culprit should be punished, but not as harshly as they suggest. Furthermore, the innocent parties will not be punished.
75 tn Heb “The one with whom it is found will become my slave.”
76 tn The words “the rest of” have been supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
77 tn The Hebrew word נָקִי (naqi) means “acquitted,” that is, free of guilt and the responsibility for it.
sn The rest of you will be free. Joseph’s purpose was to single out Benjamin to see if the brothers would abandon him as they had abandoned Joseph. He wanted to see if they had changed.
78 tn Heb “and they hurried and they lowered.” Their speed in doing this shows their presumption of innocence.
79 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the man who was in charge of Joseph’s household) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
80 sn Judah and his brothers. The narrative is already beginning to bring Judah to the forefront.
81 tn The disjunctive clause here provides supplemental information.
82 tn Heb “What is this deed you have done?” The demonstrative pronoun (“this”) adds emphasis to the question. A literal translation seems to contradict the following statement, in which Joseph affirms that he is able to divine such matters. Thus here the emotive force of the question has been reflected in the translation, “What did you think you were doing?”
83 tn Heb “[is] fully able to divine,” meaning that he can find things out by divination. The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis, stressing his ability to do this.
84 tn The imperfect verbal form here indicates the subject’s potential.
85 tn The Hitpael form of the verb צָדֵק (tsadeq) here means “to prove ourselves just, to declare ourselves righteous, to prove our innocence.”
86 sn God has exposed the sin of your servants. The first three questions are rhetorical; Judah is stating that there is nothing they can say to clear themselves. He therefore must conclude that they have been found guilty.
87 tn The words “the rest of” have been supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
88 tn Heb “up” (reflecting directions from their point of view – “up” to Canaan; “down” to Egypt).
89 tn Heb “Please my lord, let your servant speak a word into the ears of my lord.”
90 tn Heb “and let not your anger burn against your servant.”
91 sn You are just like Pharaoh. Judah’s speech begins with the fear and trembling of one who stands condemned. Joseph has as much power as Pharaoh, either to condemn or to pardon. Judah will make his appeal, wording his speech in such a way as to appeal to Joseph’s compassion for the father, whom he mentions no less than fourteen times in the speech.
92 tn Heb “and a small boy of old age,” meaning that he was born when his father was elderly.
93 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the boy just mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
94 tn Heb “he, only he, to his mother is left.”
95 tn The cohortative after the imperative indicates purpose here.
96 tn Heb “that I may set my eyes upon him.”
97 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the boy’s father, i.e., Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
98 tn The last two verbs are perfect tenses with vav consecutive. The first is subordinated to the second as a conditional clause.
99 tn The direct object is not specified in the Hebrew text, but is implied; “there” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
100 tn Heb “go down.”
101 tn Heb “that two sons my wife bore to me.”
102 tn Heb “went forth from me.”
103 tn The construction uses a perfect verbal form with the vav consecutive to introduce the conditional clause and then another perfect verbal form with a vav consecutive to complete the sentence: “if you take…then you will bring down.”
104 sn The expression bring down my gray hair is figurative, using a part for the whole – they would put Jacob in the grave. But the gray head signifies a long life of worry and trouble. See Gen 42:38.
106 tn Heb “to Sheol,” the dwelling place of the dead.
107 tn Heb “his life is bound up in his life.”
108 tn Heb “when he sees that there is no boy.”
109 tn Or “for.”
110 tn The Hebrew text has “lest I see,” which expresses a negative purpose – “I cannot go up lest I see.”
111 tn Heb “the calamity which would find my father.”
112 tn Heb “all the ones standing beside him.”
113 tn Heb “stood.”
114 tn Heb “and he gave his voice in weeping,” meaning that Joseph could not restrain himself and wept out loud.
115 tn Heb “and the Egyptians heard and the household of Pharaoh heard.” Presumably in the latter case this was by means of a report.
116 tn Heb “let there not be anger in your eyes.”
117 sn You sold me here, for God sent me. The tension remains as to how the brothers’ wickedness and God’s intentions work together. Clearly God is able to transform the actions of wickedness to bring about some gracious end. But this is saying more than that; it is saying that from the beginning it was God who sent Joseph here. Although harmonization of these ideas remains humanly impossible, the divine intention is what should be the focus. Only that will enable reconciliation.
118 tn Heb “the famine [has been] in the midst of.”
120 tn Heb “to make you a remnant.” The verb, followed here by the preposition לְ (lÿ), means “to make.”
121 tn The infinitive gives a second purpose for God’s action.
122 tn Heb “a father.” The term is used here figuratively of one who gives advice, as a father would to his children.
123 tn Heb “hurry and go up.”
124 tn The perfect verbal form with vav consecutive here expresses instruction.
126 tn Heb “And, look, your eyes see and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that my mouth is the one speaking to you.”
127 tn The perfect verbal form with the vav consecutive here expresses instruction.
128 tn Heb “and hurry and bring down my father to here.”
129 tn Heb “and the sound was heard.”
130 tn Heb “was good in the eyes of.”
131 tn Heb “and go! Enter!”
133 tn After the cohortative the imperative with vav states the ultimate goal.
134 tn Heb “fat.”
135 tn The words “to say” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
136 tn Heb “let not your eye regard.”
137 tn Heb “and the sons of Israel did so.”
138 tn Heb “according to the mouth of Pharaoh.”
139 tn Heb “to all of them he gave, to each one, changes of outer garments.”
140 tn Heb “changes of outer garments.”
141 tn Heb “according to this.”
142 tn Heb “do not be stirred up in the way.” The verb means “stir up.” Some understand the Hebrew verb רָגָז (ragaz, “to stir up”) as a reference to quarreling (see Prov 29:9, where it has this connotation), but in Exod 15:14 and other passages it means “to fear.” This might refer to a fear of robbers, but more likely it is an assuring word that they need not be fearful about returning to Egypt. They might have thought that once Jacob was in Egypt, Joseph would take his revenge on them.
143 tn Heb “and they entered the land of Canaan to their father.”
144 tn Heb “and his heart was numb.” Jacob was stunned by the unbelievable news and was unable to respond.
145 tn Heb “and they spoke to him all the words of Joseph which he had spoke to them.”
146 tn Heb “and Israel journeyed, and all that was his.”
148 tn Heb “in visions of the night.” The plural form has the singular meaning, probably as a plural of intensity.
149 tn Heb “the God.”
150 tn Heb “and I, I will bring you up, also bringing up.” The independent personal pronoun before the first person imperfect verbal form draws attention to the speaker/subject, while the infinitive absolute after the imperfect strongly emphasizes the statement: “I myself will certainly bring you up.”
151 tn Heb “and Joseph will put his hand upon your eyes.” This is a promise of peaceful death in Egypt with Joseph present to close his eyes.
152 tn Heb “arose.”
153 tn Heb “and they took their livestock and their possessions which they had acquired in the land of Canaan and they went to Egypt, Jacob and all his offspring with him.” The order of the clauses has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
154 tn The Hebrew text adds “with him” here. This is omitted in the translation because it is redundant in English style (note the same phrase earlier in the verse).
157 tn Heb “all the lives of his sons and his daughters, thirty-three.”
159 sn On is another name for the city of Heliopolis.
160 sn The sons of Benjamin. It is questionable whether youthful Benjamin had ten sons by the time he went into Egypt, but it is not impossible. If Benjamin was born when Joseph was six or seven, he was ten when Joseph was sold into Egypt, and would have been thirty-two at this point. Some suggest that the list originally served another purpose and included the names of all who were in the immediate family of the sons, whether born in Canaan or later in Egypt.
162 tn Heb “All the people who went with Jacob to Egypt, the ones who came out of his body, apart from the wives of the sons of Jacob, all the people were sixty-six.”
sn The number sixty-six includes the seventy-one descendants (including Dinah) listed in vv. 8-25 minus Er and Onan (deceased), and Joseph, Manasseh, and Ephraim (already in Egypt).
164 tn Heb “And the sons of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt were two people; all the people belonging to the house of Jacob who came to Egypt were seventy.”
sn The number seventy includes Jacob himself and the seventy-one descendants (including Dinah, Joseph, Manasseh, and Ephraim) listed in vv. 8-25, minus Er and Onan (deceased). The LXX gives the number as “seventy-five” (cf. Acts 7:14).
165 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
166 tn Heb “to direct before him to Goshen.”
167 tn Heb “and he appeared to him.”
168 tn Heb “after my seeing your face that you are still alive.”
169 tn Heb “tell Pharaoh and say to him.”
170 tn Heb “feeders of sheep.”
171 tn Heb “for men of livestock they are.”
172 tn Heb “your servants are men of cattle.”
173 sn So that you may live in the land of Goshen. Joseph is apparently trying to stress to Pharaoh that his family is self-sufficient, that they will not be a drain on the economy of Egypt. But they will need land for their animals and so Goshen, located on the edge of Egypt, would be a suitable place for them to live. The settled Egyptians were uneasy with nomadic people, but if Jacob and his family settled in Goshen they would represent no threat.
174 tn Heb “is an abomination.” The Hebrew word תּוֹעֵבָה (to’evah, “abomination”) describes something that is loathsome or off-limits. For other practices the Egyptians considered disgusting, see Gen 43:32 and Exod 8:22.