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Revelation 19

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19:1 After these things I heard what sounded like the loud voice of a vast throng in heaven, saying,

“Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,

19:2 because his judgments are true and just. 1 

For he has judged 2  the great prostitute

who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality,

and has avenged the blood of his servants 3  poured out by her own hands!” 4 

19:3 Then 5  a second time the crowd shouted, “Hallelujah!” The smoke rises from her forever and ever. 6  19:4 The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures threw themselves to the ground 7  and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne, saying: “Amen! Hallelujah!”

19:5 Then 8  a voice came from the throne, saying:

“Praise our God

all you his servants,

and all you who fear Him,

both the small and the great!”

The Wedding Celebration of the Lamb

19:6 Then 9  I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng, like the roar of many waters and like loud crashes of thunder. They were shouting: 10 

“Hallelujah!

For the Lord our God, 11  the All-Powerful, 12  reigns!

19:7 Let us rejoice 13  and exult

and give him glory,

because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come,

and his bride has made herself ready.

19:8 She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen” 14  (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints). 15 

19:9 Then 16  the angel 17  said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!” He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.” 19:10 So 18  I threw myself down 19  at his feet to worship him, but 20  he said, “Do not do this! 21  I am only 22  a fellow servant 23  with you and your brothers 24  who hold to the testimony about 25  Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony about Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”

The Son of God Goes to War

19:11 Then 26  I saw heaven opened and here came 27  a white horse! The 28  one riding it was called “Faithful” and “True,” and with justice 29  he judges and goes to war. 19:12 His eyes are like a fiery 30  flame and there are many diadem crowns 31  on his head. He has 32  a name written 33  that no one knows except himself. 19:13 He is dressed in clothing dipped 34  in blood, and he is called 35  the Word of God. 19:14 The 36  armies that are in heaven, dressed in white, clean, fine linen, 37  were following him on white horses. 19:15 From his mouth extends a sharp sword, so that with it he can strike the nations. 38  He 39  will rule 40  them with an iron rod, 41  and he stomps the winepress 42  of the furious 43  wrath of God, the All-Powerful. 44  19:16 He has a name written on his clothing and on his thigh: “King of kings and Lord of lords.”

19:17 Then 45  I saw one angel standing in 46  the sun, and he shouted in a loud voice to all the birds flying high in the sky: 47 

“Come, gather around for the great banquet 48  of God,

19:18 to eat 49  your fill 50  of the flesh of kings,

the flesh of generals, 51 

the flesh of powerful people,

the flesh of horses and those who ride them,

and the flesh of all people, both free and slave, 52 

and small and great!”

19:19 Then 53  I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies assembled to do battle with the one who rode the horse and with his army. 19:20 Now 54  the beast was seized, and along with him the false prophet who had performed the signs on his behalf 55  – signs by which he deceived those who had received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. Both of them were thrown alive into the lake of fire burning with sulfur. 56  19:21 The 57  others were killed by the sword that extended from the mouth of the one who rode the horse, and all the birds gorged 58  themselves with their flesh.

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1 tn Compare the similar phrase in Rev 16:7.

2 tn Or “has punished.” See BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.b.α, describing the OT background which involves both the vindication of the innocent and the punishment of the guilty.

3 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

4 tn Grk “from her hand” (referring to her responsibility in causing the blood of God’s followers to be shed).

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

6 tn Or “her smoke ascends forever and ever.”

7 tn Grk “creatures fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

10 tn Grk “like the voice of a large crowd…saying.” Because of the complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

11 tc Several mss (א2 P 1611 2053 2344 pc ÏK lat ) read “the Lord our God” (κύριος ὁ θεός ἡμῶν, kurio" Jo qeo" Jhmwn). Other important mss (A 1006 1841 pc), however, omit the “our” (ἡμῶν). Further, certain mss (051 ÏA) omit “Lord” (κύριος), while others (including א*) change the order of the statement to “God our Lord” (ὁ θεός ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν). The expression “the Lord God, the All-Powerful” occurs in 6 other places in Revelation (1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22) and the pronoun “our” is never used. Scribes familiar with the expression in this book, and especially with the frequent κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ (kurio" Jo qeo" Jo pantokratwr; “the Lord God, the All-Powerful”) in the OT Prophets (LXX; cf. Jer 39:19; Hos 12:6; Amos 3:13; 4:13; 5:8, 14, 15, 16, 27; 9:5, 6, 15; Nah 3:5; Zech 10:3), would naturally omit the pronoun. Its presence may have arisen due to liturgical motivations or to conform to the expression “our God” in 19:1, 5, but this seems much less likely than an aversion to using the pronoun here and only here in the Greek Bible in the fuller title κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ.

12 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν ὁ π. Rv 19:6.”

13 tn This verb and the next two verbs are hortatory subjunctives (giving exhortations).

14 tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garmentRv 18:12…16; 19:8, 14.”

15 sn This phrase is treated as a parenthetical explanation by the author.

16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

17 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s announcement.

19 tn Grk “I fell down at his feet.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

21 tn On the elliptical expression ὅρα μή (Jora mh) BDAG 720 s.v. ὁράω B.2 states: “Elliptically…ὅρα μή (sc. ποιήσῃς) watch out! don’t do that! Rv 19:10; 22:9.”

22 tn The lowliness of a slave is emphasized in the Greek text with the emphatic position of σύνδουλος (sundoulo"). The use of “only” helps to bring this nuance out in English.

23 tn Grk “fellow slave.” See the note on the word “servants” in v. 2.

24 tn The Greek term “brother” literally refers to family relationships, but here it is used in a broader sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a).

25 tn The genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) has been translated as an objective genitive here. A subjective genitive, also possible, would produce the meaning “who hold to what Jesus testifies.”

26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

27 tn The phrase “and here came” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

28 tn A new sentence was started in the translation at this point and καί (kai) was not translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

29 tn Or “in righteousness,” but since the context here involves the punishment of the wicked and the vindication of the saints, “justice” was preferred.

30 tn The genitive noun πυρός (puros) has been translated as an attributive genitive (see also Rev 1:14).

31 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.

sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.

32 tn Grk “head, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

33 tn Although many translations supply a prepositional phrase to specify what the name was written on (“upon Him,” NASB; “on him,” NIV), there is no location for the name specified in the Greek text.

34 tc It appears that “dipped” (βεβαμμένον, bebammenon), supported by several uncials and other witnesses (A 051 Ï), is the original reading. Due to the lack of the preposition “in” (ἐν, en) after the verb (βεβαμμένον αἵματι, bebammenon {aimati), and also probably because of literary allusions to Isa 63:3, several mss and versions seem to have changed the text to “sprinkled” (either ῥεραντισμένον [rJerantismenon] in P 2329 al; ἐρραντισμένον [errantismenon] in 1006 1841; ἐρραμμένον [errammenon] in 2053 2062; or ῥεραμμένον [rJerammenon] in 1611; or in one case περιρεραμμένον [perirerammenon] in א[2]). The reading most likely to give rise to the others is “dipped.”

tn Or perhaps “soaked.”

35 tn Grk “the name of him is called.”

36 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

37 tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garmentRv 18:12, 16; 19:8, 14.”

38 tn Or “the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

39 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

40 tn Grk “will shepherd.”

41 tn Or “scepter.” The Greek term ῥάβδος (rJabdo") can mean either “rod” or “scepter.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:9 (see also Rev 2:27, 12:5).

42 sn He stomps the winepress. See Isa 63:3, where Messiah does this alone (usually several individuals would join in the process), and Rev 14:20.

43 tn The genitive θυμοῦ (qumou) has been translated as an attributed genitive. Following BDAG 461 s.v. θυμός 2, the combination of the genitives of θυμός (qumos) and ὀργή (orgh) in Rev 16:19 and 19:15 are taken to be a strengthening of the thought as in the OT and Qumran literature (Exod 32:12; Jer 32:37; Lam 2:3; CD 10:9).

44 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

45 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

46 tn The precise significance of ἐν (en) here is difficult to determine.

47 tn On μεσουρανήματι (mesouranhmati) here see L&N 1.10: “high in the sky, midpoint in the sky, directly overhead, straight above in the sky.” The birds mentioned here are carrion birds like vultures, circling high overhead, and now being summoned to feast on the corpses.

48 tn This is the same Greek word (δεῖπνον, deipnon) used in 19:9.

49 tn The ἵνα (Jina) clause, insofar as it is related to the first imperative, has the force of an imperative.

50 tn The idea of eating “your fill” is evident in the context with the use of χορτάζω (cortazw) in v. 21.

51 tn Grk “chiliarchs”; normally a chiliarch was a military officer commanding a thousand soldiers, but here probably used of higher-ranking commanders like generals (see L&N 55.15; cf. Rev 6:15).

52 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

53 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

54 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of an unexpected development in the account: The opposing armies do not come together in battle; rather the leader of one side is captured.

55 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

56 tn Traditionally, “brimstone.”

57 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

58 tn On the translation of ἐχορτάσθησαν (ecortasqhsan) BDAG 1087 s.v. χορτάζω 1.a states, “of animals, pass. in act. sense πάντα τὰ ὄρνεα ἐχορτάσθησαν ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν αὐτῶν all the birds gorged themselves with their flesh Rv 19:21 (cp. TestJud. 21:8).”



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