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Luke 9

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The Sending of the Twelve Apostles

9:1 After 1  Jesus 2  called 3  the twelve 4  together, he gave them power and authority over all demons and to cure 5  diseases, 9:2 and he sent 6  them out to proclaim 7  the kingdom of God 8  and to heal the sick. 9  9:3 He 10  said to them, “Take nothing for your 11  journey – no staff, 12  no bag, 13  no bread, no money, and do not take an extra tunic. 14  9:4 Whatever 15  house you enter, stay there 16  until you leave the area. 17  9:5 Wherever 18  they do not receive you, 19  as you leave that town, 20  shake the dust off 21  your feet as a testimony against them.” 9:6 Then 22  they departed and went throughout 23  the villages, proclaiming the good news 24  and healing people everywhere.

Herod’s Confusion about Jesus

9:7 Now Herod 25  the tetrarch 26  heard about everything that was happening, and he was thoroughly perplexed, 27  because some people were saying that John 28  had been raised from the dead, 9:8 while others were saying that Elijah 29  had appeared, and still others that one of the prophets of long ago had risen. 30  9:9 Herod said, “I had John 31  beheaded, but who is this about whom I hear such things?” So Herod wanted to learn about Jesus. 32 

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

9:10 When 33  the apostles returned, 34  they told Jesus 35  everything they had done. Then 36  he took them with him and they withdrew privately to a town 37  called Bethsaida. 38  9:11 But when the crowds found out, they followed him. He 39  welcomed them, spoke to them about the kingdom of God, 40  and cured those who needed healing. 41  9:12 Now the day began to draw to a close, 42  so 43  the twelve came and said to Jesus, 44  “Send the crowd away, so they can go into the surrounding villages and countryside and find lodging 45  and food, because we are in an isolated place.” 46  9:13 But he said to them, “You 47  give them something to eat.” They 48  replied, 49  “We have no more than five loaves and two fish – unless 50  we go 51  and buy food 52  for all these people.” 9:14 (Now about five thousand men 53  were there.) 54  Then 55  he said to his disciples, “Have 56  them sit down in groups of about fifty each.” 9:15 So they did as Jesus directed, 57  and the people 58  all sat down.

9:16 Then 59  he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven he gave thanks 60  and broke them. He gave them to the disciples to set before the crowd. 9:17 They all ate and were satisfied, and what was left over 61  was picked up – twelve baskets of broken pieces.

Peter’s Confession

9:18 Once 62  when Jesus 63  was praying 64  by himself, and his disciples were nearby, he asked them, 65  “Who do the crowds say that I am?” 66  9:19 They 67  answered, 68  “John the Baptist; others say Elijah; 69  and still others that one of the prophets of long ago has risen.” 70  9:20 Then 71  he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter 72  answered, 73  “The Christ 74  of God.” 9:21 But he forcefully commanded 75  them not to tell this to anyone, 76  9:22 saying, “The Son of Man must suffer 77  many things and be rejected by the elders, 78  chief priests, and experts in the law, 79  and be killed, and on the third day be raised.” 80 

A Call to Discipleship

9:23 Then 81  he said to them all, 82  “If anyone wants to become my follower, 83  he must deny 84  himself, take up his cross daily, 85  and follow me. 9:24 For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, 86  but whoever loses his life for my sake will save it. 9:25 For what does it benefit a person 87  if he gains the whole world but loses or forfeits himself? 9:26 For whoever is ashamed 88  of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of that person 89  when he comes in his glory and in the glory 90  of the Father and of the holy angels. 9:27 But I tell you most certainly, 91  there are some standing here who will not 92  experience 93  death before they see the kingdom of God.” 94 

The Transfiguration

9:28 Now 95  about eight days 96  after these sayings, Jesus 97  took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up the mountain to pray. 9:29 As 98  he was praying, 99  the appearance of his face was transformed, 100  and his clothes became very bright, a brilliant white. 101  9:30 Then 102  two men, Moses and Elijah, 103  began talking with him. 104  9:31 They appeared in glorious splendor and spoke about his departure 105  that he was about to carry out 106  at Jerusalem. 107  9:32 Now Peter and those with him were quite sleepy, 108  but as they became fully awake, 109  they saw his glory and the two men standing with him. 9:33 Then 110  as the men 111  were starting to leave, 112  Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three shelters, 113  one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah” – not knowing what he was saying. 9:34 As 114  he was saying this, a cloud 115  came 116  and overshadowed 117  them, and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. 9:35 Then 118  a voice came from the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One. 119  Listen to him!” 120  9:36 After 121  the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone. So 122  they kept silent and told no one 123  at that time 124  anything of what they had seen.

Healing a Boy with an Unclean Spirit

9:37 Now on 125  the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 9:38 Then 126  a man from the crowd cried out, 127  “Teacher, I beg you to look at 128  my son – he is my only child! 9:39 A 129  spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams; 130  it throws him into convulsions 131  and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing 132  him severely. 9:40 I 133  begged 134  your disciples to cast it out, but 135  they could not do so.” 136  9:41 Jesus answered, 137  “You 138  unbelieving 139  and perverse generation! How much longer 140  must I be with you and endure 141  you? 142  Bring your son here.” 9:42 As 143  the boy 144  was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground 145  and shook him with convulsions. 146  But Jesus rebuked 147  the unclean 148  spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 9:43 Then 149  they were all astonished at the mighty power 150  of God.

Another Prediction of Jesus’ Suffering

But while the entire crowd 151  was amazed at everything Jesus 152  was doing, he said to his disciples, 9:44 “Take these words to heart, 153  for the Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men.” 154  9:45 But they did not understand this statement; its meaning 155  had been concealed 156  from them, so that they could not grasp it. Yet 157  they were afraid to ask him about this statement.

Concerning the Greatest

9:46 Now an argument started among the disciples 158  as to which of them might be 159  the greatest. 9:47 But when Jesus discerned their innermost thoughts, 160  he took a child, had him stand by 161  his side, 9:48 and said to them, “Whoever welcomes 162  this child 163  in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me, for the one who is least among you all is the one who is great.” 164 

On the Right Side

9:49 John answered, 165  “Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop 166  him because he is not a disciple 167  along with us.” 9:50 But Jesus said to him, “Do not stop him, for whoever is not against you is for you.”

Rejection in Samaria

9:51 Now when 168  the days drew near 169  for him to be taken up, 170  Jesus 171  set out resolutely 172  to go to Jerusalem. 173  9:52 He 174  sent messengers on ahead of him. 175  As they went along, 176  they entered a Samaritan village to make things ready in advance 177  for him, 9:53 but the villagers 178  refused to welcome 179  him, because he was determined to go to Jerusalem. 180  9:54 Now when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, “Lord, do you want us to call fire to come down from heaven and consume 181  them?” 182  9:55 But Jesus 183  turned and rebuked them, 184  9:56 and they went on to another village.

Challenging Professed Followers

9:57 As 185  they were walking 186  along the road, someone said to him, “I will follow you wherever you go.” 187  9:58 Jesus said to him, “Foxes have dens and the birds in the sky 188  have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.” 189  9:59 Jesus 190  said to another, “Follow me.” But he replied, 191  “Lord, first let me go and bury my father.” 9:60 But Jesus 192  said to him, “Let the dead bury their own dead, 193  but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God.” 194  9:61 Yet 195  another said, “I will follow you, Lord, but first let me say goodbye to my family.” 196  9:62 Jesus 197  said to him, “No one who puts his 198  hand to the plow and looks back 199  is fit for the kingdom of God.” 200 

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1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

2 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn An aorist participle preceding an aorist main verb may indicate either contemporaneous (simultaneous) action (“When he called… he gave”) or antecedent (prior) action (“After he called… he gave”). The participle συγκαλεσάμενος (sunkalesameno") has been translated here as indicating antecedent action.

4 tc Some mss add ἀποστόλους (apostolou", “apostles”; א C* L Θ Ψ 070 0291 Ë13 33 579 892 1241 1424 2542 pc lat) or μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ (maqhta" autou, “his disciples”; C3 al it) here, but such clarifying notes are clearly secondary.

5 sn Note how Luke distinguishes between exorcisms (authority over all demons) and diseases here.

6 sn “To send out” is often a term of divine commission in Luke: 1:19; 4:18, 43; 7:27; 9:48; 10:1, 16; 11:49; 13:34; 24:49.

7 tn Or “to preach.”

8 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

9 sn As Jesus’ own ministry (Luke 4:16-44) involved both word (to proclaim) and deed (to heal) so also would that of the disciples.

10 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

11 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

12 sn Mark 6:8 allows one staff. It might be that Luke’s summary (cf. Matt 10:9-10) means not taking an extra staff or that the expression is merely rhetorical for “traveling light” which has been rendered in two slightly different ways.

13 tn Or “no traveler’s bag”; or possibly “no beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).

14 tn Grk “have two tunics.” See the note on the word “tunics” in 3:11.

15 tn Grk “And whatever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

16 sn Jesus telling his disciples to stay there in one house contrasts with the practice of religious philosophers in the ancient world who went from house to house begging.

17 tn Grk “and depart from there.” The literal wording could be easily misunderstood; the meaning is that the disciples were not to move from house to house in the same town or locality, but remain at the same house as long as they were in that place.

18 tn Grk “And wherever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

19 tn Grk “all those who do not receive you.”

20 tn Or “city.”

21 sn To shake the dust off represented shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet; see Luke 10:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6. It was a sign of rejection.

22 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

23 tn This is a distributive use of κατά (kata); see L&N 83:12 where this verse is cited as an example of the usage.

24 tn Or “preaching the gospel.”

sn This verse is similar to Luke 9:2, except for good news at this point. The change means that to “preach the kingdom” is to “preach the good news.” The ideas are interchangeable as summaries for the disciples’ message. They are combined in Luke 8:1.

25 sn Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.

26 sn See the note on tetrarch in 3:1.

27 tn Or “was very confused.” See L&N 32.10 where this verse is given as an example of the usage.

28 sn John refers to John the Baptist, whom Herod had beheaded (v. 9).

29 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.

30 sn The phrase had risen could be understood to mean “had been resurrected,” but this is only a possible option, not a necessary one, since the phrase could merely mean that a figure had appeared on the scene who mirrored an earlier historical figure. The three options of vv. 7-8 will be repeated in v. 19.

31 tn Grk “John I beheaded”; John’s name is in emphatic position in the Greek text. The verb is causative, since Herod would not have personally carried out the execution.

32 tn The expression ἐζήτει ἰδεῖν αὐτόν (ezhtei idein auton, “was seeking to see him”) probably indicates that Herod, for curiosity’s sake or more likely for evil purposes, wanted to get to know Jesus, i.e., who he was and what he was doing. See I. H. Marshall, Luke (NIGTC), 357. Herod finally got his wish in Luke 23:6-12, with inconclusive results from his point of view.

33 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

34 tn The participle ὑποστρέψαντες (Jupostreyante") has been taken temporally.

35 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

37 tc There is a seeming myriad of variants for this text. Many mss read εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (ei" topon erhmon, “to a deserted place”; א*,2 [1241]) or εἰς τόπον ἔρημον πόλεως καλουμένης Βηθσαϊδά (ei" topon erhmon polew" kaloumenh" Bhqsai>da, “to a deserted place of a town called Bethsaida”; [A] C W Ξmg [Ë1,13] [565] Ï) here, while others have εἰς κώμην λεγομένην Βηδσαϊδά (ei" kwmhn legomenhn Bhdsai>da, “to a village called Bedsaida”; D), εἰς κώμην καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (ei" kwmhn kaloumenhn Bhqsai>da ei" topon erhmon, “to a village called Bethsaida to a deserted place”; Θ), or εἰς τόπον καλουμένον Βηθσαϊδά (ei" topon kaloumenon Bhqsaida, “to a place called Bethsaida”; Ψ). The Greek behind the translation (εἰς πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά, ei" polin kaloumenhn Bhqsai>da) is supported by (Ì75) א1 B L Ξ* 33 2542 pc co. The variants can be grouped generally into those that speak of a “deserted place” and those that speak of a place/city/town called Bethsaida. The Byzantine reading is evidently a conflation of the earlier texts, and should be dismissed as secondary. The variants that speak of a deserted place are an assimilation to Mark 6:32, as well a harmonization with v. 12, and should also be regarded as secondary. The reading that best explains the rise of the others – both internally and externally – is the one that stands behind the translation and is found in the text of NA27.

tn Or “city.”

38 sn Bethsaida was a town on the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee. Probably this should be understood to mean a place in the vicinity of the town. It represents an attempt to reconcile the location with the place of the miraculous feeding that follows.

39 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

40 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

41 sn Again the combination of word (spoke to them) and healing (cured, compassionate deed) is what summarizes Jesus’ ministry: See Luke 4:38-44; 6:17-19; 7:22 (as also the disciples, 9:6).

42 tn Grk “the day began to decline,” looking to the approach of sunset.

43 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ request was related to the approach of sunset.

44 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

45 tn That is, find someone to show them hospitality. L&N 34.61 has “find lodging,” using this verse as an example.

46 tn Or “in a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation). Here ὧδε (Jwde) has not been translated.

47 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (Jumeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.

48 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

49 tn Grk “said.”

50 tn This possibility is introduced through a conditional clause, but it is expressed with some skepticism (BDF §376).

51 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.

52 sn Not only would going and buying food have been expensive and awkward at this late time of day, it would have taken quite a logistical effort to get the food back out to this isolated location.

53 tn The Greek text reads here ἄνδρες (andres) – that is, adult males. The actual count would be larger, since the use of this Greek term suggests that women and children were not included in this number (see the parallel in Matt 14:21).

54 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

55 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

56 tn Or “Make” (depending on how the force of the imperative verb is understood). Grk “cause them to recline” (the verb has causative force here).

57 tn Grk “And they did thus.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ action was a result of Jesus’ instructions. The adverb οὕτως ({outw", “thus”) has been expanded in the translation to “as Jesus directed” to clarify what was done.

58 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

59 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

60 sn Gave thanks adds a note of gratitude to the setting. The scene is like two other later meals: Luke 22:19 and 24:30. Jesus gives thanks to God “with respect to” the provision of food. The disciples learn how Jesus is the mediator of blessing. John 6 speaks of him in this scene as picturing the “Bread of Life.”

61 sn There was more than enough for everybody, as indicated by the gathering of what was left over.

62 tn Grk “And it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

63 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

64 sn Prayer is a favorite theme of Luke and he is the only one of the gospel authors to mention it in the following texts (with the exception of 22:41): Luke 3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:28-29; 11:1; 22:41; 23:34, 46.

65 tn Grk “the disciples were with him, and he asked them, saying.”

66 snWho do the crowds say that I am?” The question of who Jesus is occurs frequently in this section of Luke: 7:49; 8:25; 9:9. The answer resolves a major theme of Luke’s Gospel.

67 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

68 tn Grk “And answering, they said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “They answered.”

69 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.

70 sn The phrase has risen could be understood to mean “has been resurrected,” but this is only a possible option, not a necessary one, since the phrase could merely mean that a figure had appeared on the scene who mirrored an earlier historical figure. Note that the three categories in the reply match the ones in Luke 9:7-8.

71 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

72 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

73 tn Grk “Peter answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Peter answered.”

74 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

75 tn The combination of the participle and verb ἐπιτιμήσας and παρήγγειλεν (epitimhsa" and parhngeilen, “commanding, he ordered”) is a hendiadys that makes the instruction emphatic.

76 sn No explanation for the command not to tell this to anyone is given, but the central section of Luke, chapters 9-19, appears to reveal a reason. The disciples needed to understand who the Messiah really was and exactly what he would do before they were ready to proclaim Jesus as such. But they and the people had an expectation that needed some instruction to be correct.

77 sn The necessity that the Son of Man suffer is the particular point that needed emphasis, since for many 1st century Jews the Messiah was a glorious and powerful figure, not a suffering one.

78 sn Rejection in Luke is especially by the Jewish leadership (here elders, chief priests, and experts in the law), though in Luke 23 almost all will join in.

79 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

80 sn The description of the Son of Man being rejected…killed, and…raised is the first of six passion summaries in Luke: 9:44; 17:25; 18:31-33; 24:7; 24:46-47.

81 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

82 sn Here them all could be limited to the disciples, since Jesus was alone with them in v. 18. It could also be that by this time the crowd had followed and found him, and he addressed them, or this could be construed as a separate occasion from the discussion with the disciples in 9:18-22. The cost of discipleship is something Jesus was willing to tell both insiders and outsiders about. The rejection he felt would also fall on his followers.

83 tn Grk “to come after me.”

84 tn This translation better expresses the force of the Greek third person imperative than the traditional “let him deny,” which could be understood as merely permissive.

85 sn Only Luke mentions taking up one’s cross daily. To bear the cross means to accept the rejection of the world for turning to Jesus and following him. Discipleship involves a death that is like a crucifixion; see Gal 6:14.

86 sn The point of the saying whoever wants to save his life will lose it is that if one comes to Jesus then rejection by many will certainly follow. If self-protection is a key motivation, then one will not respond to Jesus and will not be saved. One who is willing to risk rejection will respond and find true life.

87 tn Grk “a man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here to refer to both men and women.

88 sn How one responds now to Jesus and his teaching is a reflection of how Jesus, as the Son of Man who judges, will respond then in the final judgment.

89 tn This pronoun (τοῦτον, touton) is in emphatic position in its own clause in the Greek text: “of that person the Son of Man will be ashamed…”

90 tn Grk “in the glory of him and of the Father and of the holy angels.” “Glory” is repeated here in the translation for clarity and smoothness because the literal phrase is unacceptably awkward in contemporary English.

91 tn Grk “I tell you truly” (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ἀληθῶς, legw de Jumin alhqw").

92 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is the strongest possible.

93 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).

94 sn The meaning of the statement that some will not taste death before they see the kingdom of God is clear at one level, harder at another. Jesus predicts some will experience the kingdom before they die. When does this happen? (1) An initial fulfillment is the next event, the transfiguration. (2) It is also possible in Luke’s understanding that all but Judas experience the initial fulfillment of the coming of God’s presence and rule in the work of Acts 2. In either case, the “kingdom of God” referred to here would be the initial rather than the final phase.

95 tn Grk “Now it happened that about.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

96 tn Matt 17:1 and Mark 9:2 specify the interval more exactly, saying it was the sixth day. Luke uses ὡσεί (Jwsei, “about”) to give an approximate reference.

97 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

98 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

99 tn Here the preposition ἐν (en) plus the dative articular aorist infinitive has been translated as a temporal clause (ExSyn 595).

100 tn Or “the appearance of his face became different.”

sn In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42-49; 2 Cor 5:1-10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw the appearance of his face transformed, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).

101 tn Or “became bright as a flash of lightning” (cf. BDAG 346 s.v. ἐξαστράπτω); or “became brilliant as light” (cf. BDAG 593 s.v. λευκός 1).

102 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

103 sn Commentators and scholars discuss why Moses and Elijah are present. The most likely explanation is that Moses represents the prophetic office (Acts 3:18-22) and Elijah pictures the presence of the last days (Mal 4:5-6), the prophet of the eschaton (the end times).

104 tn Grk “two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah.” The relative clause has been simplified to an appositive and transposed in keeping with contemporary English style.

105 tn Grk “his exodus,” which refers to Jesus’ death in Jerusalem and journey back to glory. Here is the first lesson that the disciples must learn. The wondrous rule comes only after suffering.

106 tn Or “accomplish,” “bring to completion.”

107 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

108 tn Grk “weighed down with sleep” (an idiom).

109 tn Or “after they became fully awake,” “but they became fully awake and saw.”

110 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

111 tn Grk “as they”; the referent (“the men,” referring to Moses and Elijah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

112 tn Grk “to leave from him.”

113 tn Or “booths,” “dwellings” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).

sn By making three shelters Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals. It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the remark at the end of the verse makes it clear that it was not enough honor.

114 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

115 sn This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.

116 tn Or “appeared.”

117 tn Or “surrounded.”

118 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

119 tc Most mss, especially the later ones, have ἀγαπητός (agaphto", “the one I love”; A C* W Ë13 33 Ï it), or ἀγαπητὸς ἐν ᾧ ()υδόκησα (agaphto" en |w (h)udokhsa, “the one I love, in whom I am well pleased”; C3 D Ψ pc) here, instead of ἐκλελεγμένος (eklelegmeno", “the Chosen One”), but these variants are probably assimilations to Matt 17:5 and Mark 9:7. The text behind the translation also enjoys excellent support from Ì45,75 א B L Ξ (579) 892 1241 pc co.

tn The participle ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος (Jo eklelegmeno"), which could be translated “the One who has been chosen,” is best understood as a title rather than a descriptive phrase, probably deriving from Isa 42:1 (LXX) which uses the similar ὁ ἐκλεκτός (Jo eklekto") which also appears in Luke 23:35.

sn This divine endorsement is like Luke 3:22 at Jesus’ baptism. One difference here is the mention of the Chosen One, a reference to the unique and beloved role of the regal, messianic Son.

120 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.

121 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

122 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary of the account.

123 sn Although the disciples told no one at the time, later they did recount this. The commentary on this scene is 2 Pet 1:17-18.

124 tn Grk “in those days.”

125 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

126 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the somewhat unexpected appearance of the man. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

127 tn Grk “cried out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

128 tn This verb means “to have regard for”; see Luke 1:48.

129 tn Grk “and behold, a.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here; instead a new sentence was started in the translation. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

130 tn The Greek here is slightly ambiguous; the subject of the verb “screams” could be either the son or the spirit.

131 sn The reaction is like an epileptic fit (see L&N 14.27). See the parallel in Matt 17:14-20.

132 tn Or “bruising,” or “crushing.” This verb appears to allude to the damage caused when it throws him to the ground. According to L&N 19.46 it is difficult to know from this verb precisely what the symptoms caused by the demon were, but it is clear they must have involved severe pain. The multiple details given in the account show how gruesome the condition of the boy was.

133 tn Grk “And I.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here; instead a new sentence was started in the translation.

134 sn Note the repetition of the verb from v. 38, an indication of the father’s desperation.

135 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

136 tn The words “do so” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity and stylistic reasons.

137 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

138 tn Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, (w), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”

139 tn Or “faithless.”

sn The rebuke for lack of faith has OT roots: Num 14:27; Deut 32:5, 30; Isa 59:8.

140 tn Grk “how long.”

141 tn Or “and put up with.” See Num 11:12; Isa 46:4.

142 sn The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.

143 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

144 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the boy) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

145 sn At this point the boy was thrown down in another convulsion by the demon. See L&N 23.168.

146 tn See L&N 23.167-68, where the second verb συσπαράσσω (susparassw) is taken to mean the violent shaking associated with the convulsions, thus the translation here “and shook him with convulsions.”

147 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).

148 sn This is a reference to an evil spirit. See Luke 4:33.

149 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the response at the conclusion of the account.

150 sn The revelation of the mighty power of God was the manifestation of God’s power shown through Jesus. See Acts 10:38.

151 tn Grk “all”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

152 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C W Θ Ψ 0115 Ë13 33 892 Ï al), actually supply ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (Jo Ihsous, “Jesus”) here. Since the earliest and best witnesses, along with many others (Ì75 א B D L Ξ Ë1 579 700 1241 2542 pc lat), lack the name, and since scribes were unlikely to intentionally omit it, the shorter reading is preferred as the original reading.

tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Some mss have done the same.

153 tn Grk “Place these words into your ears,” an idiom. The meaning is either “do not forget these words” (L&N 29.5) or “Listen carefully to these words” (L&N 24.64). See also Exod 17:14. For a variation of this expression, see Luke 8:8.

154 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV, “into human hands”; TEV, “to the power of human beings”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.

155 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the meaning of the statement) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

156 sn The passive verb had been concealed probably indicates that some force was preventing them from responding. It is debated whether God or Satan is meant here. By 24:25 it is clear that their lack of response is their own responsibility. The only way to reverse this is to pay careful attention as v. 44a urges.

157 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate that in spite of their lack of understanding, the disciples were afraid to ask about it. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

158 tn Grk “among them”; the referent (the disciples) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

159 tn The use of the optative mood means the answer is not clear (BDF §§267.2.3; 385.2.2).

160 tn Grk “knowing the thoughts of their hearts” (an idiom).

161 tn On this use of παρά (para), see BDF §239.1.1.

162 tn This verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).

163 sn Children were very insignificant in ancient culture, so this child would be the perfect object lesson to counter the disciples’ selfish ambitions.

164 tn Grk “among you all, this one is great.” The absence of a comparative term here makes the point that comparison should not be done.

165 tn Grk “And answering, John said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “John answered.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

166 tc The translation follows the reading that has Luke’s normal imperfect here (ἐκωλύομεν, ekwluomen; found in Ì75vid א B L Ξ 579 892 1241). Most mss, however, have an aorist (ἐκωλύσαμεν, ekwlusamen; found in A C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï co), which would be translated “we forbade him.” The imperfect enjoys the best external and internal support.

167 tn Grk “does not follow with us.” BDAG 36 s.v. ἀκολουθέω 2 indicates that the pronoun σοι (soi, “you”) is to be supplied after the verb in this particular instance; the translation in the text best represents this nuance.

168 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

169 tn Grk “the days were being fulfilled.” There is literary design here. This starts what has been called in the Gospel of Luke the “Jerusalem Journey.” It is not a straight-line trip, but a journey to meet his fate (Luke 13:31-35).

170 sn Taken up is a reference to Jesus’ upcoming return to heaven by crucifixion and resurrection (compare Luke 9:31). This term was used in the LXX of Elijah’s departure in 2 Kgs 2:9.

171 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

172 tn Grk “he set his face,” a Semitic idiom that speaks of a firm, unshakable resolve to do something (Gen 31:21; Isa 50:7).

173 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

174 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

175 tn Grk “sent messengers before his face,” an idiom.

176 tn Grk “And going along, they entered.” The aorist passive participle πορευθέντες (poreuqente") has been taken temporally. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

177 tn Or “to prepare (things) for him.”

178 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the villagers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

179 tn Or “did not receive”; this verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality or welcome (L&N 34.53).

180 tn Grk “because his face was set toward Jerusalem.”

sn Jerusalem is to be the place of rejection, as Luke 9:44 suggested. Jesus had resolved to meet his fate in Jerusalem, so the rejection was no surprise.

181 tn Or “destroy.”

182 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C D W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï it), read here “as also Elijah did,” making the allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14 more explicit. The shorter reading has better and earlier support (Ì45,75 א B L Ξ 579 700* 1241 pc lat sa). It is difficult to explain how the shorter reading could have arisen from the longer, especially since it is well represented early on. However, the longer reading looks to have been a marginal note originally, incorporated into the text of Luke by early scribes.

sn An allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14.

183 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

184 tc Many mss ([D] K Γ Θ Ë1,13 [579] 700 2542 pm it) have at the end of the verse (with slight variations) “and he said, ‘You do not know what sort of spirit you are of, for the Son of Man did not come to destroy people’s lives, but to save [them].’” This variant is clearly secondary, as it gives some content to the rebuke. Further, it is difficult to explain how such rich material would have been omitted by the rest of the witnesses, including the earliest and best mss.

sn The point of the rebuke is that now was not the time for judgment but patience; see 2 Pet 3:9.

185 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

186 tn Grk “going,” but “walking” is an accurate description of how they traveled about.

187 tc Most mss (A C W Θ Ψ Ë13 33 Ï) add κύριε (kurie, “Lord”) here, but scribes were prone to add to the text, especially appellations for the Lord. The shorter reading also enjoys significant ms support (Ì45,75 א B D L Ξ Ë1 lat co).

sn The statement “I will follow you wherever you go” is an offer to follow Jesus as a disciple, no matter what the cost.

188 tn Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).

189 sn Jesus’ reply is simply this: Does the man understand the rejection he will be facing? Jesus has no home in the world (the Son of Man has no place to lay his head).

190 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

191 tn Grk “said.”

192 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

193 sn There are several options for the meaning of Jesus’ reply Leave the dead to bury their own dead: (1) Recent research suggests that burial customs in the vicinity of Jerusalem from about 20 b.c. to a.d. 70 involved a reinterment of the bones a year after the initial burial, once the flesh had rotted away. At that point the son would have placed his father’s bones in a special box known as an ossuary to be set into the wall of the tomb. Thus Jesus could well be rebuking the man for wanting to wait around for as much as a year before making a commitment to follow him. In 1st century Jewish culture, to have followed Jesus rather than burying one’s father would have seriously dishonored one’s father (cf. Tobit 4:3-4). (2) The remark is an idiom (possibly a proverbial saying) that means, “The matter in question is not the real issue,” in which case Jesus was making a wordplay on the wording of the man’s (literal) request (see L&N 33.137). (3) This remark could be a figurative reference to various kinds of people, meaning, “Let the spiritually dead bury the dead.” (4) It could also be literal and designed to shock the hearer by the surprise of the contrast. Whichever option is preferred, it is clear that the most important priority is to preach the gospel (proclaim the kingdom of God).

194 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.

195 tn Grk “And another also said.”

196 tn Grk “to those in my house.”

197 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

198 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).

199 sn Jesus warns that excessive concern for family ties (looks back) will make the kingdom a lesser priority, which is not appropriate for discipleship. The image is graphic, for who can plow straight ahead toward a goal while looking back? Discipleship cannot be double-minded.

200 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.



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