NETBible KJV GRK-HEB XRef Names Titles Articles Arts Hymns ITL - draft
  Discovery Box

Luke 23

Tweetthis!
Jesus Brought Before Pilate

23:1 Then 1  the whole group of them rose up and brought Jesus 2  before Pilate. 3  23:2 They 4  began to accuse 5  him, saying, “We found this man subverting 6  our nation, forbidding 7  us to pay the tribute tax 8  to Caesar 9  and claiming that he himself is Christ, 10  a king.” 23:3 So 11  Pilate asked Jesus, 12  “Are you the king 13  of the Jews?” He replied, “You say so.” 14  23:4 Then 15  Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find no basis for an accusation 16  against this man.” 23:5 But they persisted 17  in saying, “He incites 18  the people by teaching throughout all Judea. It started in Galilee and ended up here!” 19 

Jesus Brought Before Herod

23:6 Now when Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. 23:7 When 20  he learned that he was from Herod’s jurisdiction, 21  he sent him over to Herod, 22  who also happened to be in Jerusalem 23  at that time. 23:8 When 24  Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had long desired to see him, because he had heard about him and was hoping to see him perform 25  some miraculous sign. 26  23:9 So 27  Herod 28  questioned him at considerable length; Jesus 29  gave him no answer. 23:10 The chief priests and the experts in the law 30  were there, vehemently accusing him. 31  23:11 Even Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him. Then, 32  dressing him in elegant clothes, 33  Herod 34  sent him back to Pilate. 23:12 That very day Herod and Pilate became friends with each other, 35  for prior to this they had been enemies. 36 

Jesus Brought Before the Crowd

23:13 Then 37  Pilate called together the chief priests, the 38  rulers, and the people, 23:14 and said to them, “You brought me this man as one who was misleading 39  the people. When I examined him before you, I 40  did not find this man guilty 41  of anything you accused him of doing. 23:15 Neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us. Look, he has done nothing 42  deserving death. 43  23:16 I will therefore have him flogged 44  and release him.”

23:17 [[EMPTY]] 45 

23:18 But they all shouted out together, 46  “Take this man 47  away! Release Barabbas for us!” 23:19 (This 48  was a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection 49  started in the city, and for murder.) 50  23:20 Pilate addressed them once again because he wanted 51  to release Jesus. 23:21 But they kept on shouting, 52  “Crucify, crucify 53  him!” 23:22 A third time he said to them, “Why? What wrong has he done? I have found him guilty 54  of no crime deserving death. 55  I will therefore flog 56  him and release him.” 23:23 But they were insistent, 57  demanding with loud shouts that he be crucified. And their shouts prevailed. 23:24 So 58  Pilate 59  decided 60  that their demand should be granted. 23:25 He released the man they asked for, who had been thrown in prison for insurrection and murder. But he handed Jesus over 61  to their will. 62 

The Crucifixion

23:26 As 63  they led him away, they seized Simon of Cyrene, 64  who was coming in from the country. 65  They placed the cross on his back and made him carry it behind Jesus. 66  23:27 A great number of the people followed him, among them women 67  who were mourning 68  and wailing for him. 23:28 But Jesus turned to them and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, 69  do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves 70  and for your children. 23:29 For this is certain: 71  The days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore children, and the breasts that never nursed!’ 72  23:30 Then they will begin to say to the mountains, 73 Fall on us!and to the hills,Cover us! 74  23:31 For if such things are done 75  when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” 76 

23:32 Two other criminals 77  were also led away to be executed with him. 23:33 So 78  when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,” 79  they crucified 80  him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. 23:34 [But Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”] 81  Then 82  they threw dice 83  to divide his clothes. 84  23:35 The people also stood there watching, but the rulers ridiculed 85  him, saying, “He saved others. Let him save 86  himself if 87  he is the Christ 88  of God, his chosen one!” 23:36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine, 89  23:37 and saying, “If 90  you are the king of the Jews, save yourself!” 23:38 There was also an inscription 91  over him, “This is the king of the Jews.”

23:39 One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t 92  you the Christ? 93  Save yourself and us!” 23:40 But the other rebuked him, saying, 94  “Don’t 95  you fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation? 96  23:41 And we rightly so, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did, but this man has done nothing 97  wrong.” 23:42 Then 98  he said, “Jesus, remember me 99  when you come in 100  your kingdom.” 23:43 And Jesus 101  said to him, “I tell you the truth, 102  today 103  you will be with me in paradise.” 104 

23:44 It was now 105  about noon, 106  and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon, 107  23:45 because the sun’s light failed. 108  The temple curtain 109  was torn in two. 23:46 Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit! 110  And after he said this he breathed his last.

23:47 Now when the centurion 111  saw what had happened, he praised God and said, “Certainly this man was innocent!” 112  23:48 And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts. 113  23:49 And all those who knew Jesus 114  stood at a distance, and the women who had followed him from Galilee saw 115  these things.

Jesus’ Burial

23:50 Now 116  there was a man named Joseph who was a member of the council, 117  a good and righteous man. 23:51 (He 118  had not consented 119  to their plan and action.) He 120  was from the Judean town 121  of Arimathea, and was looking forward to 122  the kingdom of God. 123  23:52 He went to Pilate and asked for the body 124  of Jesus. 23:53 Then 125  he took it down, wrapped it in a linen cloth, 126  and placed it 127  in a tomb cut out of the rock, 128  where no one had yet been buried. 129  23:54 It was the day of preparation 130  and the Sabbath was beginning. 131  23:55 The 132  women who had accompanied Jesus 133  from Galilee followed, and they saw the tomb and how his body was laid in it. 23:56 Then 134  they returned and prepared aromatic spices 135  and perfumes. 136 

On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment. 137 

Drag to resizeDrag to resize

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

2 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 sn Pilate was the Roman prefect (procurator) in charge of collecting taxes and keeping the peace. His immediate superior was the Roman governor (proconsul) of Syria, although the exact nature of this administrative relationship is unknown. Pilate’s relations with the Jews had been rocky (v. 12). Here he is especially sensitive to them.

4 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

5 sn They began to accuse him. There were three charges: (1) disturbing Jewish peace; (2) fomenting rebellion through advocating not paying taxes (a lie – 20:20-26); and (3) claiming to be a political threat to Rome, by claiming to be a king, an allusion to Jesus’ messianic claims. The second and third charges were a direct challenge to Roman authority. Pilate would be forced to do something about them.

6 tn On the use of the term διαστρέφω (diastrefw) here, see L&N 31.71 and 88.264.

sn Subverting our nation was a summary charge, as Jesus “subverted” the nation by making false claims of a political nature, as the next two detailed charges show.

7 tn Grk “and forbidding.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated to suggest to the English reader that this and the following charge are specifics, while the previous charge was a summary one. See the note on the word “misleading” earlier in this verse.

8 tn This was a “poll tax.” L&N 57.182 states this was “a payment made by the people of one nation to another, with the implication that this is a symbol of submission and dependence – ‘tribute tax.’”

9 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

10 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the charges brought in the previous verse.

12 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested only in the third charge, because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.

14 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership in 22:70.

15 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

16 tn Grk “find no cause.”

sn Pilate’s statement “I find no reason for an accusation” is the first of several remarks in Luke 23 that Jesus is innocent or of efforts to release him (vv. 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22).

17 tn Or “were adamant.” For “persisted in saying,” see L&N 68.71.

18 sn He incites the people. The Jewish leadership claimed that Jesus was a political threat and had to be stopped. By reiterating this charge of stirring up rebellion, they pressured Pilate to act, or be accused of overlooking political threats to Rome.

19 tn Grk “beginning from Galilee until here.”

20 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

21 sn Learning that Jesus was from Galilee and therefore part of Herod’s jurisdiction, Pilate decided to rid himself of the problem by sending him to Herod.

22 sn Herod was Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great. See the note on Herod in 3:1.

23 sn Herod would probably have come to Jerusalem for the feast, although his father was only half Jewish (Josephus, Ant. 14.15.2 [14.403]). Josephus does mention Herod’s presence in Jerusalem during a feast (Ant. 18.5.3 [18.122]).

map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

24 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

25 tn Grk “to see some sign performed by him.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style.

26 sn Herod, hoping to see him perform some miraculous sign, seems to have treated Jesus as a curiosity (cf. 9:7-9).

27 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the previous statements in the narrative about Herod’s desire to see Jesus.

28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

30 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.

31 sn Luke portrays the Jewish leadership as driving events toward the cross by vehemently accusing Jesus.

32 tn This is a continuation of the previous Greek sentence, but because of its length and complexity, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying “then” to indicate the sequence of events.

33 sn This mockery involved putting elegant royal clothes on Jesus, either white or purple (the colors of royalty). This was no doubt a mockery of Jesus’ claim to be a king.

34 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

35 sn Herod and Pilate became friends with each other. It may be that Pilate’s change of heart was related to the death of his superior, Sejanus, who had a reputation for being anti-Jewish. To please his superior, Pilate may have ruled the Jews with insensitivity. Concerning Sejanus, see Philo, Embassy 24 (160-61) and Flaccus 1 (1).

36 tn Grk “at enmity with each other.”

37 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

38 tn Grk “and the,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

39 tn This term also appears in v. 2.

40 tn Grk “behold, I” A transitional use of ἰδού (idou) has not been translated here.

41 tn Grk “nothing did I find in this man by way of cause.” The reference to “nothing” is emphatic.

42 sn With the statement “he has done nothing,” Pilate makes another claim that Jesus is innocent of any crime worthy of death.

43 tn Grk “nothing deserving death has been done by him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style.

44 tn Or “scourged” (BDAG 749 s.v. παιδεύω 2.b.γ). This refers to a whipping Pilate ordered in an attempt to convince Jesus not to disturb the peace. It has been translated “flogged” to distinguish it from the more severe verberatio.

45 tc Many of the best mss, as well as some others (Ì75 A B K L T 070 1241 pc sa), lack 23:17 “(Now he was obligated to release one individual for them at the feast.)” This verse appears to be a parenthetical note explaining the custom of releasing someone on amnesty at the feast. It appears in two different locations with variations in wording, which makes it look like a scribal addition. It is included in א (D following v. 19) W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat. The verse appears to be an explanatory gloss based on Matt 27:15 and Mark 15:6, not original in Luke. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

46 tn Grk “together, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated here.

47 tn Grk “this one.” The reference to Jesus as “this man” is pejorative in this context.

48 tn Grk “who” (a continuation of the previous sentence).

49 sn Ironically, what Jesus was alleged to have done, started an insurrection, this man really did.

50 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

51 sn The account pictures a battle of wills – the people versus Pilate. Pilate is consistently portrayed in Luke’s account as wanting to release Jesus because he believed him to be innocent.

52 tn Grk “shouting, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated here.

53 tn This double present imperative is emphatic.

sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.

54 tn Grk “no cause of death I found in him.”

55 sn The refrain of innocence comes once again. Pilate tried to bring some sense of justice, believing Jesus had committed no crime deserving death.

56 tn Or “scourge” (BDAG 749 s.v. παιδεύω 2.b.γ). See the note on “flogged” in v. 16.

57 tn Though a different Greek term is used here (BDAG 373 s.v. ἐπίκειμαι), this remark is like 23:5.

58 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the crowd’s cries prevailing.

59 sn Finally Pilate gave in. He decided crucifying one Galilean teacher was better than facing a riot. Justice lost out in the process, because he did not follow his own verdict.

60 tn Although some translations render ἐπέκρινεν (epekrinen) here as “passed sentence” or “gave his verdict,” the point in context is not that Pilate sentenced Jesus to death here, but that finally, although convinced of Jesus’ innocence, he gave in to the crowd’s incessant demand to crucify an innocent man.

61 tn Or “delivered up.”

62 sn He handed Jesus over to their will. Here is where Luke places the major blame for Jesus’ death. It lies with the Jewish nation, especially the leadership, though in Acts 4:24-27 he will bring in the opposition of Herod, Pilate, and all people.

63 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

64 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help. Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.

65 tn Or perhaps, “was coming in from his field” outside the city (BDAG 15-16 s.v. ἀγρός 1).

66 tn Grk “they placed the cross on him to carry behind Jesus.”

67 sn The background of these women is disputed. Are they “official” mourners of Jesus’ death, appointed by custom to mourn death? If so, the mourning here would be more pro forma. However, the text seems to treat the mourning as sincere, so their tears and lamenting would have been genuine.

68 tn Or “who were beating their breasts,” implying a ritualized form of mourning employed in Jewish funerals. See the note on the term “women” earlier in this verse.

69 sn The title Daughters of Jerusalem portrays these women mourning as representatives of the nation.

map For the location of Jerusalem see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

70 sn Do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves. Judgment now comes on the nation (see Luke 19:41-44) for this judgment of Jesus. Ironically, they mourn the wrong person – they should be mourning for themselves.

71 tn Grk “For behold.”

72 tn Grk “Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the breasts that have not nursed!”

sn Normally barrenness is a sign of judgment, because birth would be seen as a sign of blessing. The reversal of imagery indicates that something was badly wrong.

73 sn The figure of crying out to the mountains ‘Fall on us!’ (appealing to creation itself to hide them from God’s wrath), means that a time will come when people will feel they are better off dead (Hos 10:8).

74 sn An allusion to Hos 10:8 (cf. Rev 6:16).

75 tn Grk “if they do such things.” The plural subject here is indefinite, so the active voice has been translated as a passive (see ExSyn 402).

76 sn The figure of the green wood and the dry has been variously understood. Most likely the picture compares the judgment on Jesus as the green (living) wood to the worse judgment that will surely come for the dry (dead) wood of the nation.

77 tc The text reads either “two other criminals” or “others, two criminals.” The first reading (found in Ì75 א B) could be read as describing Jesus as a criminal, while the second (found in A C D L W Θ Ψ 070 0250 Ë1,13 33 Ï) looks like an attempt to prevent this identification. The first reading, more difficult to explain from the other, is likely original.

sn Jesus is numbered among the criminals (see Isa 53:12 and Luke 22:37).

78 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.

79 sn The place that is calledThe Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).

80 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.

81 tc Many important mss (Ì75 א1 B D* W Θ 070 579 1241 pc sys sa) lack v. 34a. It is included in א*,2 (A) C D2 L Ψ 0250 Ë1,(13) 33 Ï lat syc,p,h. It also fits a major Lukan theme of forgiving the enemies (6:27-36), and it has a parallel in Stephen’s response in Acts 7:60. The lack of parallels in the other Gospels argues also for inclusion here. On the other hand, the fact of the parallel in Acts 7:60 may well have prompted early scribes to insert the saying in Luke’s Gospel alone. Further, there is the great difficulty of explaining why early and diverse witnesses lack the saying. A decision is difficult, but even those who regard the verse as inauthentic literarily often consider it to be authentic historically. For this reason it has been placed in single brackets in the translation.

82 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

83 tn Grk “cast lots” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent “threw dice” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.

84 sn An allusion to Ps 22:18, which identifies Jesus as the suffering innocent one.

85 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).

86 sn The irony in the statement Let him save himself is that salvation did come, but later, not while on the cross.

87 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.

88 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

89 sn Sour wine was cheap wine, called in Latin posca, and referred to a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion, who had some on hand, now used it to taunt Jesus further.

90 tn This is also a first class condition in the Greek text.

91 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.

92 tc Most mss (A C3 W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat) read εἰ σὺ εἶ (ei su ei, “If you are”) here, while οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ (ouci su ei, “Are you not”) is found in overall better and earlier witnesses (Ì75 א B C* L 070 1241 pc it). The “if” clause reading creates a parallel with the earlier taunts (vv. 35, 37), and thus is most likely a motivated reading.

sn The question in Greek expects a positive reply and is also phrased with irony.

93 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.

94 tn Grk “But answering, the other rebuking him, said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

95 tn The particle used here (οὐδέ, oude), which expects a positive reply, makes this a rebuke – “You should fear God and not speak!”

96 tn The words “of condemnation” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

97 sn This man has done nothing wrong is yet another declaration that Jesus was innocent of any crime.

98 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

99 sn Jesus, remember me is a statement of faith from the cross, as Jesus saves another even while he himself is dying. This man’s faith had shown itself when he rebuked the other thief. He hoped to be with Jesus sometime in the future in the kingdom.

100 tc ‡ The alternate readings of some mss make the reference to Jesus’ coming clearer. “Into your kingdom” – with εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν (ei" thn basileian), read by Ì75 B L – is a reference to his entering into God’s presence at the right hand. “In your kingdom” – with ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ (en th basileia), read by א A C*,2 W Θ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy – looks at his return. It could be argued that the reading with εἰς is more in keeping with Luke’s theology elsewhere, but the contrast with Jesus’ reply, “Today,” slightly favors the reading “in your kingdom.” Codex Bezae (D), in place of this short interchange between the criminal and Jesus, reads “Then he turned to the Lord and said to him, ‘Remember me in the day of your coming.’ Then the Lord said in reply to [him], ‘Take courage; today you will be with me in paradise.’” This reading emphasizes the future aspect of the coming of Christ; it has virtually no support in any other mss.

101 tn Grk “he.”

102 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

103 sn Jesus gives more than the criminal asked for, because the blessing will come today, not in the future. He will be among the righteous. See the note on today in 2:11.

104 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.

105 tn Grk “And it was.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

106 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”

107 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”

108 tc The wording “the sun’s light failed” is a translation of τοῦ ἡλίου ἐκλιπόντος/ ἐκλείποντος (tou Jhliou eklipontos/ ekleipontos), a reading found in the earliest and best witnesses (among them Ì75 א B C*vid L 070 579 2542 pc) as well as several ancient versions. The majority of mss (A C3 [D] W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat sy) have the flatter, less dramatic term, “the sun was darkened” (ἐσκοτίσθη, eskotisqe), a reading that avoids the problem of implying an eclipse (see sn below). This alternative thus looks secondary because it is a more common word and less likely to be misunderstood as referring to a solar eclipse. That it appears in later witnesses rather than the earliest ones adds confirmatory testimony to its inauthentic character.

sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15. Some students of the NT see in Luke’s statement the sun’s light failed (eklipontos) an obvious blunder in his otherwise meticulous historical accuracy. The reason for claiming such an error on the author’s part is due to an understanding of the verb as indicating a solar eclipse when such would be an astronomical impossibility during a full moon. There are generally two ways to resolve this difficulty: (a) adopt a different reading (“the sun was darkened”) that smoothes over the problem (discussed in the tc problem above), or (b) understand the verb eklipontos in a general way (such as “the sun’s light failed”) rather than as a technical term, “the sun was eclipsed.” The problem with the first solution is that it is too convenient, for the Christian scribes who, over the centuries, copied Luke’s Gospel would have thought the same thing. That is, they too would have sensed a problem in the wording and felt that some earlier scribe had incorrectly written down what Luke penned. The fact that the reading “was darkened” shows up in the later and generally inferior witnesses does not bolster one’s confidence that this is the right solution. But second solution, if taken to its logical conclusion, proves too much for it would nullify the argument against the first solution: If the term did not refer to an eclipse, then why would scribes feel compelled to change it to a more general term? The solution to the problem is that ekleipo did in fact sometimes refer to an eclipse, but it did not always do so. (BDAG 306 s.v. ἐκλείπω notes that the verb is used in Hellenistic Greek “Of the sun cease to shine.” In MM it is argued that “it seems more than doubtful that in Lk 2345 any reference is intended to an eclipse. To find such a reference is to involve the Evangelist in a needless blunder, as an eclipse is impossible at full moon, and to run counter to his general usage of the verb = ‘fail’…” [p. 195]. They enlist Luke 16:9; 22:32; and Heb 1:12 for the general meaning “fail,” and further cite several contemporaneous examples from papyri of this meaning [195-96]) Thus, the very fact that the verb can refer to an eclipse would be a sufficient basis for later scribes altering the text out of pious motives; conversely, the very fact that the verb does not always refer to an eclipse and, in fact, does not normally do so, is enough of a basis to exonerate Luke of wholly uncharacteristic carelessness.

109 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.

110 sn A quotation from Ps 31:5. It is a psalm of trust. The righteous, innocent sufferer trusts in God. Luke does not have the cry of pain from Ps 22:1 (cf. Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34), but notes Jesus’ trust instead.

111 sn See the note on the word centurion in 7:2.

112 tn Or “righteous.” It is hard to know whether “innocent” or “righteous” is intended, as the Greek term used can mean either, and both make good sense in this context. Luke has been emphasizing Jesus as innocent, so that is slightly more likely here. Of course, one idea entails the other.

sn Here is a fourth figure who said that Jesus was innocent in this chapter (Pilate, Herod, a criminal, and now a centurion).

113 sn Some apparently regretted what had taken place. Beating their breasts was a sign of lamentation.

114 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

115 tn Technically the participle ὁρῶσαι (Jorwsai) modifies only γυναῖκες (gunaike") since both are feminine plural nominative, although many modern translations refer this as well to the group of those who knew Jesus mentioned in the first part of the verse. These events had a wide array of witnesses.

116 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

117 tn Grk “a councillor” (as a member of the Sanhedrin, see L&N 11.85). This indicates that some individuals among the leaders did respond to Jesus.

118 tn Grk “This one.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

119 tc Several mss (א C D L Δ Ψ 070 Ë1,13 [579] 892 1424 2542 al) read the present participle συγκατατιθέμενος (sunkatatiqemeno") instead of the perfect participle συγκατατεθειμένος (sunkatateqeimeno"). The present participle could be taken to mean that Joseph had decided that the execution was now a mistake. The perfect means that he did not agree with it from the start. The perfect participle, however, has better support externally (Ì75 A B W Θ 33 Ï), and is thus the preferred reading.

sn The parenthetical note at the beginning of v. 51 indicates that Joseph of Arimathea had not consented to the action of the Sanhedrin in condemning Jesus to death. Since Mark 14:64 indicates that all the council members condemned Jesus as deserving death, it is likely that Joseph was not present at the trial.

120 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.

121 tn Or “Judean city”; Grk “from Arimathea, a city of the Jews.” Here the expression “of the Jews” (᾿Iουδαίων, Ioudaiwn) is used in an adjectival sense to specify a location (cf. BDAG 478 s.v. ᾿Iουδαῖος 2.c) and so has been translated “Judean.”

122 tn Or “waiting for.”

123 sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, this remark that he was looking forward to the kingdom of God, the affirmation of his character at the end of v. 50, and his actions regarding Jesus’ burial all suggest otherwise.

124 sn Joseph went to Pilate and asked for the body because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial. This was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43).

125 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

126 tn The term σινδών (sindwn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.

127 tn In the Greek text this pronoun (αὐτόν, auton) is masculine, while the previous one (αὐτό, auto) is neuter, referring to the body.

128 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.26).

129 tc Codex Bezae (D), with some support from 070, one Itala ms, and the Sahidic version, adds the words, “And after he [Jesus] was laid [in the tomb], he [Joseph of Arimathea] put a stone over the tomb which scarcely twenty men could roll.” Although this addition is certainly not part of the original text of Luke, it does show how interested the early scribes were in the details of the burial and may even reflect a very primitive tradition. Matt 27:60 and Mark 15:46 record the positioning of a large stone at the door of the tomb.

tn Or “laid to rest.”

130 sn The day of preparation was the day before the Sabbath when everything had to be prepared for it, as no work could be done on the Sabbath.

131 tn Normally, “dawning,” but as the Jewish Sabbath begins at 6 p.m., “beginning” is more appropriate.

132 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

133 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

134 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

135 tn On this term see BDAG 140-41 s.v. ἄρωμα. The Jews did not practice embalming, so these preparations were used to cover the stench of decay and slow decomposition. The women planned to return and anoint the body. But that would have to wait until after the Sabbath.

136 tn Or “ointments.” This was another type of perfumed oil.

137 sn According to the commandment. These women are portrayed as pious, faithful to the law in observing the Sabbath.



TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
created in 0.14 seconds
powered by bible.org