19:1 Jesus 1 entered Jericho 2 and was passing through it. 19:2 Now 3 a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax collector 4 and was rich. 19:3 He 5 was trying to get a look at Jesus, 6 but being a short man he could not see over the crowd. 7 19:4 So 8 he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree 9 to see him, because Jesus 10 was going to pass that way. 19:5 And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up 11 and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly, 12 because I must 13 stay at your house today.” 14 19:6 So he came down quickly 15 and welcomed Jesus 16 joyfully. 17 19:7 And when the people 18 saw it, they all complained, 19 “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.” 20 19:8 But Zacchaeus stopped and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, half of my possessions I now give 21 to the poor, and if 22 I have cheated anyone of anything, I am paying back four times as much!” 19:9 Then 23 Jesus said to him, “Today salvation 24 has come to this household, 25 because he too is a son of Abraham! 26 19:10 For the Son of Man came 27 to seek and to save the lost.”
19:11 While the people were listening to these things, Jesus 28 proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, 29 and because they thought 30 that the kingdom of God 31 was going to 32 appear immediately. 19:12 Therefore he said, “A nobleman 33 went to a distant country to receive 34 for himself a kingdom and then return. 35 19:13 And he summoned ten of his slaves, 36 gave them ten minas, 37 and said to them, ‘Do business with these until I come back.’ 19:14 But his citizens 38 hated 39 him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man 40 to be king 41 over us!’ 19:15 When 42 he returned after receiving the kingdom, he summoned 43 these slaves to whom he had given the money. He wanted 44 to know how much they had earned 45 by trading. 19:16 So 46 the first one came before him and said, ‘Sir, 47 your mina 48 has made ten minas more.’ 19:17 And the king 49 said to him, ‘Well done, good slave! Because you have been faithful 50 in a very small matter, you will have authority 51 over ten cities.’ 19:18 Then 52 the second one came and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made five minas.’ 19:19 So 53 the king 54 said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ 19:20 Then another 55 slave 56 came and said, ‘Sir, here is 57 your mina that I put away for safekeeping 58 in a piece of cloth. 59 19:21 For I was afraid of you, because you are a severe 60 man. You withdraw 61 what you did not deposit 62 and reap what you did not sow.’ 19:22 The king 63 said to him, ‘I will judge you by your own words, 64 you wicked slave! 65 So you knew, did you, that I was a severe 66 man, withdrawing what I didn’t deposit and reaping what I didn’t sow? 19:23 Why then didn’t you put 67 my money in the bank, 68 so that when I returned I could have collected it with interest?’ 19:24 And he said to his attendants, 69 ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has ten.’ 70 19:25 But 71 they said to him, ‘Sir, he has ten minas already!’ 72 19:26 ‘I tell you that everyone who has will be given more, 73 but from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away. 74 19:27 But as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to be their king, 75 bring them here and slaughter 76 them 77 in front of me!’”
19:28 After Jesus 78 had said this, he continued on ahead, 79 going up to Jerusalem. 80 19:29 Now 81 when he approached Bethphage 82 and Bethany, at the place called the Mount of Olives, 83 he sent two of the disciples, 19:30 telling them, 84 “Go to the village ahead of you. 85 When 86 you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden. 87 Untie it and bring it here. 19:31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs 88 it.’” 19:32 So those who were sent ahead found 89 it exactly 90 as he had told them. 19:33 As 91 they were untying the colt, its owners asked them, 92 “Why are you untying that colt?” 19:34 They replied, “The Lord needs it.” 19:35 Then 93 they brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks 94 on the colt, 95 and had Jesus get on 96 it. 19:36 As 97 he rode along, they 98 spread their cloaks on the road. 19:37 As he approached the road leading down from 99 the Mount of Olives, 100 the whole crowd of his 101 disciples began to rejoice 102 and praise 103 God with a loud voice for all the mighty works 104 they had seen: 105 19:38 “Blessed is the king 106 who comes in the name of the Lord! 107 Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 19:39 But 108 some of the Pharisees 109 in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” 110 19:40 He answered, 111 “I tell you, if they 112 keep silent, the very stones 113 will cry out!”
19:41 Now 114 when Jesus 115 approached 116 and saw the city, he wept over it, 19:42 saying, “If you had only known on this day, 117 even you, the things that make for peace! 118 But now they are hidden 119 from your eyes. 19:43 For the days will come upon you when your enemies will build 120 an embankment 121 against you and surround you and close in on you from every side. 19:44 They will demolish you 122 – you and your children within your walls 123 – and they will not leave within you one stone 124 on top of another, 125 because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God.” 126
19:45 Then 127 Jesus 128 entered the temple courts 129 and began to drive out those who were selling things there, 130 19:46 saying to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be a house of prayer,’ 131 but you have turned it into a den 132 of robbers!” 133
19:47 Jesus 134 was teaching daily in the temple courts. The chief priests and the experts in the law 135 and the prominent leaders among the people were seeking to assassinate 136 him, 19:48 but 137 they could not find a way to do it, 138 for all the people hung on his words. 139
1 tn Grk “And entering, he passed through”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
3 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new character. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
4 sn This is the one place in the NT the office of chief tax collector is noted. He would organize the other tax collectors and collect healthy commissions (see also the note on the word tax collector in 3:12).
5 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
6 tn Grk “He was trying to see who Jesus was.”
7 tn Grk “and he was not able to because of the crowd, for he was short in stature.”
8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Zacchaeus not being able to see over the crowd.
9 sn A sycamore tree would have large branches near the ground like an oak tree and would be fairly easy to climb. These trees reach a height of some 50 ft (about 15 m).
10 tn Grk “that one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
11 tc Most
12 tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusa") has been translated as a participle of manner.
15 tn Grk “hastening, he came down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner.
16 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
17 tn The participle χαίρων (cairwn) has been taken as indicating manner.
sn Zacchaeus responded joyfully. Luke likes to mention joy as a response to what God was doing (1:14; 2:10; 10:20; 13:17; 15:5, 32; 19:37; 24:41, 52).
18 tn Grk “they”; the referent is unspecified but is probably the crowd in general, who would have no great love for a man like Zacchaeus who had enriched himself many times over at their expense.
19 tn This term is used only twice in the NT, both times in Luke (here and 15:2) and has negative connotations both times (BDAG 227 s.v. διαγογγύζω). The participle λέγοντες (legonte") is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
21 sn Zacchaeus was a penitent man who resolved on the spot to act differently in the face of Jesus’ acceptance of him. In resolving to give half his possessions to the poor, Zacchaeus was not defending himself against the crowd’s charges and claiming to be righteous. Rather as a result of this meeting with Jesus, he was a changed individual. So Jesus could speak of salvation coming that day (v. 9) and of the lost being saved (v. 10).
22 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text. It virtually confesses fraud.
23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative
25 sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8).
26 sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family.
28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
30 tn The present active infinitive δοκεῖν (dokein) has been translated as causal.
32 tn Or perhaps, “the kingdom of God must appear immediately (see L&N 71.36).
33 tn Grk “a man of noble birth” or “a man of noble status” (L&N 87.27).
34 sn Note that the receiving of the kingdom takes place in the far country. This suggests that those in the far country recognize and acknowledge the king when his own citizens did not want him as king (v. 14; cf. John 1:11-12).
35 sn The background to this story about the nobleman who went…to receive for himself a kingdom had some parallels in the area’s recent history: Archelaus was appointed ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea in 4
37 sn That is, one for each. A mina was a Greek monetary unit worth one hundred denarii or about four months’ wages for an average worker based on a six-day work week.
38 tn Or “subjects.” Technically these people were not his subjects yet, but would be upon his return. They were citizens of his country who opposed his appointment as their king; later the newly-appointed king will refer to them as his “enemies” (v. 27).
39 tn The imperfect is intense in this context, suggesting an ongoing attitude.
40 tn Grk “this one” (somewhat derogatory in this context).
41 tn Or “to rule.”
42 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
43 tn Grk “he said for these slaves to be called to him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one and simplified to “he summoned.”
44 tn Grk “in order that he might know” (a continuation of the preceding sentence). Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he” as subject and the verb “wanted” to convey the idea of purpose.
45 sn The Greek verb earned refers to profit from engaging in commerce and trade (L&N 57.195). This is an examination of stewardship.
46 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the royal summons.
47 tn Or “Lord”; or “Master.” (and so throughout this paragraph).
51 sn The faithful slave received expanded responsibility (authority over ten cities) as a result of his faithfulness; this in turn is an exhortation to faithfulness for the reader.
52 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
53 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the second slave’s report.
55 sn Though ten were given minas, the story stops to focus on the one who did nothing with the opportunity given to him. Here is the parable’s warning about the one who does not trust the master. This figure is called “another,” marking him out as different than the first two.
56 tn The word “slave” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for stylistic reasons.
57 tn Grk “behold.”
58 tn Or “that I stored away.” L&N 85.53 defines ἀπόκειμαι (apokeimai) here as “to put something away for safekeeping – ‘to store, to put away in a safe place.’”
59 tn The piece of cloth, called a σουδάριον (soudarion), could have been a towel, napkin, handkerchief, or face cloth (L&N 6.159).
60 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”
61 tn Grk “man, taking out.” The Greek word can refer to withdrawing money from a bank (L&N 57.218), and in this context of financial accountability that is the most probable meaning. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “you” as subject and translating the participle αἴρεις (airei") as a finite verb.
62 tn The Greek verb τίθημι (tiqhmi) can be used of depositing money with a banker to earn interest (L&N 57.217). In effect the slave charges that the master takes what he has not earned.
64 tn Grk “out of your own mouth” (an idiom).
66 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”
67 tn That is, “If you really feared me why did you not do a minimum to get what I asked for?”
68 tn Grk “on the table”; the idiom refers to a place where money is kept or managed, or credit is established, thus “bank” (L&N 57.215).
69 tn Grk “to those standing by,” but in this context involving an audience before the king to give an accounting, these would not be casual bystanders but courtiers or attendants.
70 tn Grk “the ten minas.”
71 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Those watching the evaluation are shocked, as the one with the most gets even more. The word “already” is supplied at the end of the statement to indicate this surprise and shock.
73 tn Grk “to everyone who has, he will be given more.”
74 sn The one who has nothing has even what he seems to have taken away from him, ending up with no reward at all (see also Luke 8:18). The exact force of this is left ambiguous, but there is no comfort here for those who are pictured by the third slave as being totally unmoved by the master. Though not an outright enemy, there is no relationship to the master either. Three groups are represented in the parable: the faithful of various sorts (vv. 16, 18); the unfaithful who associate with Jesus but do not trust him (v. 21); and the enemies (v. 27).
75 tn Grk “to rule over them.”
76 tn This term, when used of people rather than animals, has some connotations of violence and mercilessness (L&N 20.72).
77 sn Slaughter them. To reject the king is to face certain judgment from him.
78 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
79 tn This could mean “before [his disciples],” but that is slightly more awkward, requiring an elided element (the disciples) to be supplied.
81 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
82 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most locate it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.
83 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” This form of reference is awkward in contemporary English, so the more familiar “Mount of Olives” has been used in the translation.
sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.
84 tn Grk “saying.”
85 tn Grk “the village lying before [you]” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.a).
86 tn Grk “in which entering.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation.
87 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”
88 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.
89 tn Grk “sent ahead and went and found.”
91 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
92 tn Grk “said to them.”
93 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
96 tn Although ἐπεβίβασαν (epebibasan) is frequently translated “set [Jesus] on it” or “put [Jesus] on it,” when used of a riding animal the verb can mean “to cause to mount” (L&N 15.98); thus here “had Jesus get on it.” The degree of assistance is not specified.
97 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
98 tn The disciples initiated this action (since in 19:35 and 37 they are the subject) but the other gospels indicate the crowds also became involved. Thus it is difficult to specify the referent here as “the disciples” or “people.”
99 tn Grk “the descent of”; this could refer to either the slope of the hillside itself or the path leading down from it (the second option has been adopted for the translation, see L&N 15.109).
101 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
102 tn Here the participle χαίροντες (caironte") has been translated as a finite verb in English; it could also be translated adverbially as a participle of manner: “began to praise God joyfully.”
105 tn Grk “they had seen, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
106 sn Luke adds the title king to the citation from Ps 118:26 to make clear who was meant (see Luke 18:38). The psalm was used in looking for the deliverance of the end, thus leading to the Pharisees’ reaction.
108 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Not all present are willing to join in the acclamation.
110 sn Teacher, rebuke your disciples. The Pharisees were complaining that the claims were too great.
111 tn Grk “and answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation to “He answered.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
112 tn Grk “these.”
114 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
115 tn Grk “he.”
116 sn When Jesus approached and saw the city. This is the last travel note in Luke’s account (the so-called Jerusalem journey), as Jesus approached and saw the city before entering it.
118 tn Grk “the things toward peace.” This expression seems to mean “the things that would ‘lead to,’ ‘bring about,’ or ‘make for’ peace.”
119 sn But now they are hidden from your eyes. This becomes an oracle of doom in the classic OT sense; see Luke 13:31-35; 11:49-51; Jer 9:2; 13:7; 14:7. They are now blind and under judgment (Jer 15:5; Ps 122:6).
120 sn Jesus now predicted the events that would be fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem in
121 sn An embankment refers to either wooden barricades or earthworks, or a combination of the two.
122 tn Grk “They will raze you to the ground.”
sn The singular pronoun you refers to the city of Jerusalem personified.
123 tn Grk “your children within you.” The phrase “[your] walls” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the city of Jerusalem, metaphorically pictured as an individual, is spoken of here.
124 sn (Not) one stone on top of another is an idiom for total destruction.
125 tn Grk “leave stone on stone.”
126 tn Grk “the time of your visitation.” To clarify what this refers to, the words “from God” are supplied at the end of the verse, although they do not occur in the Greek text.
sn You did not recognize the time of your visitation refers to the time God came to visit them. They had missed the Messiah; see Luke 1:68-79.
127 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
128 tn Grk “he.”
sn The merchants (those who were selling things there) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles.
130 sn Matthew (21:12-27), Mark (11:15-19) and Luke (here, 19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another.
132 tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57).
133 sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.
134 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
136 tn Grk “to destroy.”
sn The action at the temple was the last straw. In their view, if Jesus could cause trouble in the holy place, then he must be stopped, so the leaders were seeking to assassinate him.
137 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
138 tn Grk “they did not find the thing that they might do.”
139 sn All the people hung on his words is an idiom for intent, eager listening. Jesus’ popularity and support made it unwise for the leadership to seize him.