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Acts 21

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Paul’s Journey to Jerusalem

21:1 After 1  we 2  tore ourselves away 3  from them, we put out to sea, 4  and sailing a straight course, 5  we came to Cos, 6  on the next day to Rhodes, 7  and from there to Patara. 8  21:2 We found 9  a ship crossing over to Phoenicia, 10  went aboard, 11  and put out to sea. 12  21:3 After we sighted Cyprus 13  and left it behind on our port side, 14  we sailed on to Syria and put in 15  at Tyre, 16  because the ship was to unload its cargo there. 21:4 After we located 17  the disciples, we stayed there 18  seven days. They repeatedly told 19  Paul through the Spirit 20  not to set foot 21  in Jerusalem. 22  21:5 When 23  our time was over, 24  we left and went on our way. All of them, with their wives and children, accompanied 25  us outside of the city. After 26  kneeling down on the beach and praying, 27  21:6 we said farewell 28  to one another. 29  Then 30  we went aboard the ship, and they returned to their own homes. 31  21:7 We continued the voyage from Tyre 32  and arrived at Ptolemais, 33  and when we had greeted the brothers, we stayed with them for one day. 21:8 On the next day we left 34  and came to Caesarea, 35  and entered 36  the house of Philip the evangelist, who was one of the seven, 37  and stayed with him. 21:9 (He had four unmarried 38  daughters who prophesied.) 39 

21:10 While we remained there for a number of days, 40  a prophet named Agabus 41  came down from Judea. 21:11 He came 42  to us, took 43  Paul’s belt, 44  tied 45  his own hands and feet with it, 46  and said, “The Holy Spirit says this: ‘This is the way the Jews in Jerusalem will tie up the man whose belt this is, and will hand him over 47  to the Gentiles.’” 21:12 When we heard this, both we and the local people 48  begged him not to go up to Jerusalem. 21:13 Then Paul replied, “What are you doing, weeping and breaking 49  my heart? For I am ready not only to be tied up, 50  but even to die in Jerusalem for the name of the Lord Jesus.” 21:14 Because he could not be persuaded, 51  we said no more except, 52  “The Lord’s will be done.” 53 

21:15 After these days we got ready 54  and started up 55  to Jerusalem. 21:16 Some of the disciples from Caesarea 56  came along with us too, and brought us to the house 57  of Mnason of Cyprus, a disciple from the earliest times, 58  with whom we were to stay. 21:17 When we arrived in Jerusalem, the brothers welcomed us gladly. 59  21:18 The next day Paul went in with us to see James, and all the elders were there. 60  21:19 When Paul 61  had greeted them, he began to explain 62  in detail 63  what God 64  had done among the Gentiles through his ministry. 21:20 When they heard this, they praised 65  God. Then they said to him, “You see, brother, how many thousands of Jews 66  there are who have believed, and they are all ardent observers 67  of the law. 68  21:21 They have been informed about you – that you teach all the Jews now living 69  among the Gentiles to abandon 70  Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children 71  or live 72  according to our customs. 21:22 What then should we do? They will no doubt 73  hear that you have come. 21:23 So do what 74  we tell you: We have four men 75  who have taken 76  a vow; 77  21:24 take them and purify 78  yourself along with them and pay their expenses, 79  so that they may have their heads shaved. 80  Then 81  everyone will know there is nothing in what they have been told 82  about you, but that you yourself live in conformity with 83  the law. 84  21:25 But regarding the Gentiles who have believed, we have written a letter, having decided 85  that they should avoid 86  meat that has been sacrificed to idols 87  and blood and what has been strangled 88  and sexual immorality.” 21:26 Then Paul took the men the next day, 89  and after he had purified himself 90  along with them, he went to the temple and gave notice 91  of the completion of the days of purification, 92  when 93  the sacrifice would be offered for each 94  of them. 21:27 When the seven days were almost over, 95  the Jews from the province of Asia 96  who had seen him in the temple area 97  stirred up the whole crowd 98  and seized 99  him, 21:28 shouting, “Men of Israel, 100  help! This is the man who teaches everyone everywhere against our people, our law, 101  and this sanctuary! 102  Furthermore 103  he has brought Greeks into the inner courts of the temple 104  and made this holy place ritually unclean!” 105  21:29 (For they had seen Trophimus the Ephesian in the city with him previously, and 106  they assumed Paul had brought him into the inner temple courts.) 107  21:30 The whole city was stirred up, 108  and the people rushed together. 109  They seized 110  Paul and dragged him out of the temple courts, 111  and immediately the doors were shut. 21:31 While they were trying 112  to kill him, a report 113  was sent up 114  to the commanding officer 115  of the cohort 116  that all Jerusalem was in confusion. 117  21:32 He 118  immediately took 119  soldiers and centurions 120  and ran down to the crowd. 121  When they saw 122  the commanding officer 123  and the soldiers, they stopped beating 124  Paul. 21:33 Then the commanding officer 125  came up and arrested 126  him and ordered him to be tied up with two chains; 127  he 128  then asked who he was and what 129  he had done. 21:34 But some in the crowd shouted one thing, and others something else, 130  and when the commanding officer 131  was unable 132  to find out the truth 133  because of the disturbance, 134  he ordered Paul 135  to be brought into the barracks. 136  21:35 When he came to the steps, Paul 137  had to be carried 138  by the soldiers because of the violence 139  of the mob, 21:36 for a crowd of people 140  followed them, 141  screaming, “Away with him!” 21:37 As Paul was about to be brought into the barracks, 142  he said 143  to the commanding officer, 144  “May I say 145  something to you?” The officer 146  replied, 147  “Do you know Greek? 148  21:38 Then you’re not that Egyptian who started a rebellion 149  and led the four thousand men of the ‘Assassins’ 150  into the wilderness 151  some time ago?” 152  21:39 Paul answered, 153  “I am a Jew 154  from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of an important city. 155  Please 156  allow me to speak to the people.” 21:40 When the commanding officer 157  had given him permission, 158  Paul stood 159  on the steps and gestured 160  to the people with his hand. When they had become silent, 161  he addressed 162  them in Aramaic, 163 

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1 tn Grk “It happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Since the action described by the participle ἀποσπασθέντας (apospasqenta", “tearing ourselves away”) is prior to the departure of the ship, it has been translated as antecedent action (“after”).

2 sn This marks the beginning of another “we” section in Acts. These have been traditionally understood to mean that Luke was in the company of Paul for this part of the journey.

3 tn BDAG 120 s.v. ἀποσπάω 2.b has “pass. in mid. sense . ἀπό τινος tear oneself away Ac 21:1”; LSJ 218 gives several illustrations of this verb meaning “to tear or drag away from.”

4 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

5 tn BDAG 406 s.v. εὐθυδρομέω has “of a ship run a straight course”; L&N 54.3 has “to sail a straight course, sail straight to.”

6 sn Cos was an island in the Aegean Sea.

7 sn Rhodes was an island off the southwestern coast of Asia Minor.

8 sn Patara was a city in Lycia on the southwestern coast of Asia Minor. The entire journey was about 185 mi (295 km).

9 tn Grk “and finding.” The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun in the translation.

10 sn Phoenicia was the name of an area along the Mediterranean coast north of Palestine.

11 tn Grk “going aboard, we put out to sea.” The participle ἐπιβάντες (epibante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

12 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

13 sn Cyprus is a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

14 sn The expression left it behind on our port side here means “sailed past to the south of it” since the ship was sailing east.

15 tn BDAG 531 s.v. κατέρχομαι 2 states, “arrive, put in, nautical t.t. of ships and those who sail in them, who ‘come down’ fr. the ‘high seas’…ἔις τι at someth. a harbor 18:22; 21:3; 27:5.”

16 sn Tyre was a city and seaport on the coast of Phoenicia. From Patara to Tyre was about 400 mi (640 km). It required a large cargo ship over 100 ft (30 m) long, and was a four to five day voyage.

map For location see Map1-A2; Map2-G2; Map4-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3.

17 tn BDAG 78 s.v. ἀνευρίσκω has “look/search for (w. finding presupposed) τινάτοὺς μαθητάς Ac 21:4.” The English verb “locate,” when used in reference to persons, has the implication of both looking for and finding someone. The participle ἀνευρόντες (aneuronte") has been taken temporally.

18 tn BDAG 154 s.v. αὐτοῦ states, “deictic adv. designating a position relatively near or far…thereAc 21:4.”

19 tn The imperfect verb ἔλεγον (elegon) has been taken iteratively.

20 sn Although they told this to Paul through the Spirit, it appears Paul had a choice here (see v. 14). Therefore this amounted to a warning: There was risk in going to Jerusalem, so he was urged not to go.

21 tn BDAG 367 s.v. ἐπιβαίνω places Ac 21:4 under 1, “go up/upon, mount, boardπλοίῳAc 27:2…Abs. go on board, embark21:1 D, 2. – So perh. also . εἰς ᾿Ιεροσόλυμα embark for Jerusalem (i.e. to the seaport of Caesarea) vs. 4.” BDAG notes, however, “But this pass. may also belong to 2. to move to an area and be there, set foot in.” Because the message from the disciples to Paul through the Holy Spirit has the character of a warning, the latter meaning has been adopted for this translation.

22 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

23 tn Grk “It happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

24 tn Grk “When our days were over.” L&N 67.71 has “ὅτε δὲ ἐγένετο ἡμᾶς ἐξαρτίσαι τὰς ἡμέρας ‘when we brought that time to an end’ or ‘when our time with them was over’ Ac 21:5.”

25 tn Grk “accompanying.” Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation and the participle προπεμπόντων (propempontwn) translated as a finite verb.

26 tn Grk “city, and after.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

27 sn On praying in Acts, see 1:14, 24; 2:47; 4:23; 6:6; 10:2; 12:5, 12; 13:3; 16:25.

28 tn BDAG 98 s.v. ἀπασπάζομαι has “take leave of, say farewell to τινά someoneἀπησπασάμεθα ἀλλήλους we said farewell to one another Ac 21:6.”

29 sn These words are part of v. 5 in the standard critical Greek text.

30 tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence.

31 tn Grk “to their own”; the word “homes” is implied.

32 sn Tyre was a city and seaport on the coast of Phoenicia.

33 sn Ptolemais was a seaport on the coast of Palestine about 30 mi (48 km) south of Tyre.

34 tn Grk “On the next day leaving, we came.” The participle ἐξελθόντες (exelqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

35 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1. This was another 40 mi (65 km).

map For location see Map2-C1; Map4-B3; Map5-F2; Map7-A1; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

36 tn Grk “and entering…we stayed.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

37 sn Philip was one of the seven deacons appointed in the Jerusalem church (Acts 6:1-7).

38 tn Grk “virgin.” While the term παρθένος (parqeno") can refer to a woman who has never had sexual relations, the emphasis in this context seems to be on the fact that Philip’s daughters were not married (L&N 9.39).

39 sn This is best taken as a parenthetical note by the author. Luke again noted women who were gifted in the early church (see Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 3.31; 3.39).

40 tn BDAG 848 s.v. πολύς 1.b.α has “ἐπὶ ἡμέρας πλείους for a (large) number of days, for many daysAc 13:31. – 21:10…24:17; 25:14; 27:20.”

41 sn Agabus also appeared in Acts 11:28. He was from Jerusalem, so the two churches were still in contact with one another.

42 tn Grk “And coming.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here. The participle ἐλθών (elqwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

43 tn Grk “and taking.” This καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more. The participle ἄρας (aras) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

44 sn The belt was a band or sash used to keep money as well as to gird up the tunic (BDAG 431 s.v. ζώνη).

45 tn The participle δήσας (dhsas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

46 tn The words “with it” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

47 tn Grk “and will deliver him over into the hands of” (a Semitic idiom).

sn The Jews…will tie up…and will hand him over. As later events will show, the Jews in Jerusalem did not personally tie Paul up and hand him over to the Gentiles, but their reaction to him was the cause of his arrest (Acts 21:27-36).

48 tn Or “the people there.”

49 tn The term translated “breaking” as used by Josephus (Ant. 10.10.4 [10.207]) means to break something into pieces, but in its only NT use (it is a hapax legomenon) it is used figuratively (BDAG 972 s.v. συνθρύπτω).

50 tn L&N 18.13 has “to tie objects together – ‘to tie, to tie together, to tie up.’” The verb δέω (dew) is sometimes figurative for imprisonment (L&N 37.114), but it is preferable to translate it literally here in light of v. 11 where Agabus tied himself up with Paul’s belt.

51 tn The participle πειθομένου (peiqomenou) in this genitive absolute construction has been translated as a causal adverbial participle.

52 tn Grk “we became silent, saying.”

53 sn “The Lord’s will be done.” Since no one knew exactly what would happen, the matter was left in the Lord’s hands.

54 tn Or “we made preparations.”

55 tn Grk “were going up”; the imperfect verb ἀνεβαίνομεν (anebainomen) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

sn In colloquial speech Jerusalem was always said to be “up” from any other location in Palestine. The group probably covered the 65 mi (105 km) in two days using horses. Their arrival in Jerusalem marked the end of Paul’s third missionary journey.

56 sn Caesarea was a city on the coast of Palestine south of Mount Carmel (not Caesarea Philippi). See the note on Caesarea in Acts 10:1.

map For location see Map2-C1; Map4-B3; Map5-F2; Map7-A1; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

57 tn Grk “to Mnason…”; the words “the house of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the verb ξενισθῶμεν (xenisqwmen).

58 tn Or perhaps, “Mnason of Cyprus, one of the original disciples.” BDAG 137 s.v. ἀρχαῖος 1 has “. μαθητής a disciple of long standing (perh. original disc.) Ac 21:16.”

59 tn Or “warmly” (see BDAG 144 s.v. ἀσμένως).

60 tn BDAG 760 s.v. παραγίνομαι 1 has this use under the broad category of meaning “draw near, come, arrive, be present.”

sn All the elders were there. This meeting shows how the Jerusalem church still regarded Paul and his mission with favor, but also with some concerns because of the rumors circulating about his actions.

61 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

62 tn Or “to report,” “to describe.” The imperfect verb ἐξηγεῖτο (exhgeito) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

63 tn BDAG 293 s.v. εἷς 5.e has “καθ᾿ ἕν one after the other (hence τὸ καθ᾿ ἕν ‘a detailed list’: PLille 11, 8 [III bc]; PTebt. 47, 34; 332, 16) J 21:25. Also καθ᾿ ἕν ἕκαστονAc 21:19.”

64 sn Note how Paul credited God with the success of his ministry.

65 tn Or “glorified.”

66 tn Grk “how many thousands there are among the Jews.”

sn How many thousands of Jews. See Acts 2-5 for the accounts of their conversion, esp. 2:41 and 4:4. Estimates of the total number of Jews living in Jerusalem at the time range from 20,000 to 50,000.

67 tn Or “are all zealous for the law.” BDAG 427 s.v. ζηλωτής 1.a.β has “of thing…τοῦ νόμου an ardent observer of the law Ac 21:20.”

68 sn That is, the law of Moses. These Jewish Christians had remained close to their Jewish practices after becoming believers (1 Cor 7:18-19; Acts 16:3).

69 tn BDAG 511 s.v. κατά B.1.a has “τοὺς κ. τὰ ἔθνη ᾿Ιουδαίους the Judeans (dispersed) throughout the nations 21:21.” The Jews in view are not those in Palestine, but those who are scattered throughout the Gentile world.

70 tn Or “to forsake,” “to rebel against.” BDAG 120 s.v. ἀποστασία has “ἀποστασίαν διδάσκεις ἀπὸ Μωϋσέως you teach (Judeans) to abandon Moses Ac 21:21.”

sn The charge that Paul was teaching Jews in the Diaspora to abandon Moses was different from the issue faced in Acts 15, where the question was whether Gentiles needed to become like Jews first in order to become Christians. The issue also appears in Acts 24:5-6, 13-21; 25:8.

71 sn That is, not to circumcise their male children. Biblical references to circumcision always refer to male circumcision.

72 tn Grk “or walk.”

73 tn L&N 71.16 has “pertaining to being in every respect certain – ‘certainly, really, doubtless, no doubt.’…‘they will no doubt hear that you have come’ Ac 21:22.”

74 tn Grk “do this that.”

75 tn Grk “There are four men here.”

76 tn L&N 33.469 has “‘there are four men here who have taken a vow’ or ‘we have four men who…’ Ac 21:23.”

77 tn On the term for “vow,” see BDAG 416 s.v. εὐχή 2.

78 sn That is, undergo ritual cleansing. Paul’s cleansing would be necessary because of his travels in “unclean” Gentile territory. This act would represent a conciliatory gesture. Paul would have supported a “law-free” mission to the Gentiles as an option, but this gesture would represent an attempt to be sensitive to the Jews (1 Cor 9:15-22).

79 tn L&N 57.146 has “δαπάνησον ἐπ᾿ αὐτοῖς ‘pay their expenses’ Ac 21:24.”

80 tn The future middle indicative has causative force here. BDAG 686 s.v. ξυράω has “mid. have oneself shavedτὴν κεφαλήν have ones head shavedAc 21:24.”

sn Having their heads shaved probably involved ending a voluntary Nazirite vow (Num 6:14-15).

81 tn Grk “and.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the logical sequence.

82 tn The verb here describes a report or some type of information (BDAG 534 s.v. κατηχέω 1).

83 tn Grk “adhere to the keeping of the law.” L&N 41.12 has “στοιχέω: to live in conformity with some presumed standard or set of customs – ‘to live, to behave in accordance with.’”

84 sn The law refers to the law of Moses.

85 tn L&N 13.154 has “‘having decided that they must keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from an animal that has been strangled, and from sexual immorality’ Ac 21:25.”

sn Having decided refers here to the decision of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:6-21). Mention of this previous decision reminds the reader that the issue here is somewhat different: It is not whether Gentiles must first become Jews before they can become Christians (as in Acts 15), but whether Jews who become Christians should retain their Jewish practices. Sensitivity to this issue would suggest that Jewish Christians and Gentile Christians might engage in different practices.

86 tn This is a different Greek word than the one used in Acts 15:20, 29. BDAG 1068 s.v. φυλάσσω 3 has “to be on one’s guard against, look out for, avoid…w. acc. of pers. or thing avoided…Ac 21:25.” The Greek word used in Acts 15:20, 29 is ἀπέχω (apecw). The difference in meaning, although slight, has been maintained in the translation.

87 tn There is no specific semantic component in the Greek word εἰδωλόθυτος that means “meat” (see BDAG 280 s.v. εἰδωλόθυτος; L&N 5.15). The stem –θυτος means “sacrifice” (referring to an animal sacrificially killed) and thereby implies meat.

88 sn What has been strangled. That is, to refrain from eating animals that had been killed without having the blood drained from them. According to the Mosaic law (Lev 17:13-14) Jews were forbidden to eat flesh with the blood still in it (note the preceding provision in this verse, and blood).

89 tn BDAG 422 s.v. ἔχω 11.b.β has “temporal, to be next, immediately followingτῇ ἐχομένῃon the next day Lk 13:33Ac 20:15; w. ἡμέρᾳ added…21:26.”

90 tn That is, after he had undergone ritual cleansing. The aorist passive participle ἁγνισθείς (Jagnisqei") has been taken temporally of antecedent action.

91 tn Grk “entered the temple, giving notice.” The participle διαγγέλλων (diangellwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

92 sn The days of purification refers to the days of ritual cleansing.

93 tn Grk “until” (BDAG 423 s.v. ἕως 1.b.β.א), but since in English it is somewhat awkward to say “the completion of the days of purification, until the sacrifice would be offered,” the temporal clause was translated “when the sacrifice would be offered.” The point is that the sacrifice would be offered when the days were completed. Paul honored the request of the Jewish Christian leadership completely. As the following verse makes clear, the vow was made for seven days.

94 tn Grk “for each one.”

95 tn BDAG 975 s.v. συντελέω 4 has “to come to an end of a duration, come to an end, be overAc 21:27.”

96 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.

sn Note how there is a sense of Paul being pursued from a distance. These Jews may well have been from Ephesus, since they recognized Trophimus the Ephesian (v. 29).

97 tn Grk “in the temple.” See the note on the word “temple” in v. 28.

98 tn Or “threw the whole crowd into consternation.” L&N 25.221 has “συνέχεον πάντα τὸν ὄχλον ‘they threw the whole crowd into consternation’ Ac 21:27. It is also possible to render the expression in Ac 21:27 as ‘they stirred up the whole crowd.’”

99 tn Grk “and laid hands on.”

100 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage since “the whole crowd” is mentioned in v. 27, although it can also be argued that these remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

101 sn The law refers to the law of Moses.

102 tn Grk “this place.”

sn This sanctuary refers to the temple. The charges were not new, but were similar to those made against Stephen (Acts 6:14) and Jesus (Luke 23:2).

103 tn BDAG 400 s.v. ἔτι 2.b has “. δὲ καί furthermore…al. . τε καίLk 14:26; Ac 21:28.” This is a continuation of the same sentence in Greek, but due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was begun here in the translation.

104 tn Grk “into the temple.” The specific reference is to the Court of the Sons of Israel (see the note following the term “unclean” at the end of this verse). To avoid giving the modern reader the impression that they entered the temple building itself, the phrase “the inner courts of the temple” has been used in the translation.

105 tn Or “and has defiled this holy place.”

sn Has brought Greeks…unclean. Note how the issue is both religious and ethnic, showing a different attitude by the Jews. A Gentile was not permitted to enter the inner temple precincts (contrast Eph 2:11-22). According to Josephus (Ant. 15.11.5 [15.417]; J. W. 5.5.2 [5.193], cf. 5.5.6 [5.227]), the inner temple courts (the Court of the Women, the Court of the Sons of Israel, and the Court of the Priests) were raised slightly above the level of the Court of the Gentiles and were surrounded by a wall about 5 ft (1.5 m) high. Notices in both Greek and Latin (two of which have been discovered) warned that any Gentiles who ventured into the inner courts would be responsible for their own deaths. See also Philo, Embassy 31 (212). In m. Middot 2:3 this wall was called “soreq” and according to m. Sanhedrin 9:6 the stranger who trespassed beyond the soreq would die by the hand of God.

106 tn Grk “whom.”

107 tn On the phrase “inner temple courts” see the note on the word “temple” in v. 28.

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The note explains the cause of the charge and also notes that it was false.

108 tn On this term see BDAG 545 s.v. κινέω 2.b.

109 tn Or “the people formed a mob.” BDAG 967 s.v. συνδρομή has “formation of a mob by pers. running together, running togetherἐγένετο σ. τοῦ λαοῦ the people rushed together Ac 21:30.”

110 tn Grk “and seizing.” The participle ἐπιλαβόμενοι (epilabomenoi) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has not been translated here.

111 tn Grk “out of the temple.” See the note on the word “temple” in v. 28.

112 tn Grk “seeking.”

113 tn Or “information” (originally concerning a crime; BDAG 1050 s.v. φάσις).

114 tn Grk “went up”; this verb is used because the report went up to the Antonia Fortress where the Roman garrison was stationed.

115 tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). In Greek the term χιλίαρχος (ciliarco") literally described the “commander of a thousand,” but it was used as the standard translation for the Latin tribunus militum or tribunus militare, the military tribune who commanded a cohort of 600 men.

116 sn A cohort was a Roman military unit of about 600 soldiers, one-tenth of a legion.

117 tn BDAG 953 s.v. συγχέω has “Pass. w. act.force be in confusionὅλη συγχύννεται ᾿Ιερουσαλήμ 21:31.”

118 tn Grk “who.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, the relative pronoun (“who”) was translated as a pronoun (“he”) and a new sentence was begun here in the translation.

119 tn Grk “taking…ran down.” The participle κατέδραμεν (katedramen) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

120 sn See the note on the word centurion in 10:1.

121 tn Grk “to them”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

122 tn Grk “seeing.” The participle ἰδόντες (idonte") has been taken temporally.

123 tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). See note on the term “commanding officer” in v. 31.

124 sn The mob stopped beating Paul because they feared the Romans would arrest them for disturbing the peace and for mob violence. They would let the Roman officials take care of the matter from this point on.

125 tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers). See note on the term “commanding officer” in v. 31.

126 tn Grk “seized.”

127 tn The two chains would be something like handcuffs (BDAG 48 s.v. ἅλυσις and compare Acts 28:20).

128 tn Grk “and he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was begun in the translation, and καί (kai) has been replaced with a semicolon. “Then” has been supplied after “he” to clarify the logical sequence.

129 tn Grk “and what it is”; this has been simplified to “what.”

130 tn L&N 33.77 has “ἄλλοι δὲ ἄλλο τι ἐπεφώνουν ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ‘some in the crowd shouted one thing; others, something else’ Ac 21:34.”

131 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the commanding officer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

132 tn This genitive absolute construction has been translated temporally; it could also be taken causally: “and since the commanding officer was unable to find out the truth.”

133 tn Or “find out what had happened”; Grk “the certainty” (BDAG 147 s.v. ἀσφαλής 2).

134 tn Or “clamor,” “uproar” (BDAG 458 s.v. θόρυβος).

135 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

136 tn Or “the headquarters.” BDAG 775 s.v. παρεμβολή 2 has “barracks/headquarters of the Roman troops in Jerusalem Ac 21:34, 37; 22:24; 23:10, 16, 32.”

137 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

138 sn Paul had to be carried. Note how the arrest really ended up protecting Paul. The crowd is portrayed as irrational at this point.

139 tn This refers to mob violence (BDAG 175 s.v. βία b).

140 tn Grk “the multitude of people.” While πλῆθος (plhqo") is articular, it has been translated “a crowd” since it was probably a subset of the larger mob that gathered in v. 30.

141 tn The word “them” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

142 tn Or “the headquarters.” BDAG 775 s.v. παρεμβολή 2 has “barracks/headquarters of the Roman troops in Jerusalem Ac 21:34, 37; 22:24; 23:10, 16, 32.”

143 tn Grk “says” (a historical present).

144 tn Grk “the chiliarch” (an officer in command of a thousand soldiers) See note on the term “commanding officer” in v. 31.

145 tn Grk “Is it permitted for me to say” (an idiom).

146 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the officer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

147 tn Grk “said.”

148 sn “Do you know Greek?” Paul as an educated rabbi was bilingual. Paul’s request in Greek allowed the officer to recognize that Paul was not the violent insurrectionist he thought he had arrested (see following verse). The confusion of identities reveals the degree of confusion dominating these events.

149 tn L&N 39.41 has “οὐκ ἄρα σὺ εἶ ὁ Αἰγύπτιος ὁ πρὸ τούτων τῶν ἡμερῶν ἀναστατώσας ‘then you are not that Egyptian who some time ago started a rebellion’ Ac 21:38.”

150 tn Grk “of the Sicarii.”

sn The term ‘Assassins’ is found several times in the writings of Josephus (J. W. 2.13.3 [2.254-257]; Ant. 20.8.10 [20.186]). It was the name of the most fanatical group among the Jewish nationalists, very hostile to Rome, who did not hesitate to assassinate their political opponents. They were named Sicarii in Latin after their weapon of choice, the short dagger or sicarius which could be easily hidden under one’s clothing. In effect, the officer who arrested Paul had thought he was dealing with a terrorist.

151 tn Or “desert.”

152 tn Grk “before these days.”

153 tn Grk “said.”

154 tn Grk “a Jewish man.”

155 tn Grk “of a not insignificant city.” The double negative, common in Greek, is awkward in English and has been replaced by a corresponding positive expression (BDAG 142 s.v. ἄσημος 1).

156 tn Grk “I beg you.”

157 tn The referent (the commanding officer) has been supplied here in the translation for clarity.

158 tn Grk “Giving him permission.” The participle ἐπιτρέψαντος (epitreyanto") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

159 tn Grk “standing.” The participle ἑστώς (Jestws) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

160 tn Or “motioned.”

161 tn γενομένης (genomenhs) has been taken temporally. BDAG 922 s.v. σιγή has “πολλῆς σιγῆς γενομένης when a great silence had fallen = when they had become silent Ac 21:40.”

162 tn Or “spoke out to.” L&N 33.27 has “to address an audience, with possible emphasis upon loudness – ‘to address, to speak out to.’ πολλῆς δέ σιγῆς γενομένης προσεφώνησεν τῇ ᾿Εβραίδι διαλέκτῳ ‘when they were quiet, he addressed them in Hebrew’ Ac 21:40.”

163 tn Grk “in the Hebrew dialect, saying.” This refers to the Aramaic spoken in Palestine in the 1st century (BDAG 270 s.v. ῾Εβραΐς). The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.



TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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