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Acts 17

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Paul and Silas at Thessalonica

17:1 After they traveled through 1  Amphipolis 2  and Apollonia, 3  they came to Thessalonica, 4  where there was a Jewish synagogue. 5  17:2 Paul went to the Jews in the synagogue, 6  as he customarily did, and on three Sabbath days he addressed 7  them from the scriptures, 17:3 explaining and demonstrating 8  that the Christ 9  had to suffer and to rise from the dead, 10  saying, 11  “This Jesus I am proclaiming to you is the Christ.” 12  17:4 Some of them were persuaded 13  and joined Paul and Silas, along with a large group 14  of God-fearing Greeks 15  and quite a few 16  prominent women. 17:5 But the Jews became jealous, 17  and gathering together some worthless men from the rabble in the marketplace, 18  they formed a mob 19  and set the city in an uproar. 20  They attacked Jason’s house, 21  trying to find Paul and Silas 22  to bring them out to the assembly. 23  17:6 When they did not find them, they dragged 24  Jason and some of the brothers before the city officials, 25  screaming, “These people who have stirred up trouble 26  throughout the world 27  have come here too, 17:7 and 28  Jason has welcomed them as guests! They 29  are all acting against Caesar’s 30  decrees, saying there is another king named 31  Jesus!” 32  17:8 They caused confusion among 33  the crowd and the city officials 34  who heard these things. 17:9 After 35  the city officials 36  had received bail 37  from Jason and the others, they released them.

Paul and Silas at Berea

17:10 The brothers sent Paul and Silas off to Berea 38  at once, during the night. When they arrived, 39  they went to the Jewish synagogue. 40  17:11 These Jews 41  were more open-minded 42  than those in Thessalonica, 43  for they eagerly 44  received 45  the message, examining 46  the scriptures carefully every day 47  to see if these things were so. 17:12 Therefore many of them believed, along with quite a few 48  prominent 49  Greek women and men. 17:13 But when the Jews from Thessalonica 50  heard that Paul had also proclaimed the word of God 51  in Berea, 52  they came there too, inciting 53  and disturbing 54  the crowds. 17:14 Then the brothers sent Paul away to the coast 55  at once, but Silas and Timothy remained in Berea. 56  17:15 Those who accompanied Paul escorted him as far as Athens, 57  and after receiving an order for Silas and Timothy to come to him as soon as possible, they left. 58 

Paul at Athens

17:16 While Paul was waiting for them in Athens, 59  his spirit was greatly upset 60  because he saw 61  the city was full of idols. 17:17 So he was addressing 62  the Jews and the God-fearing Gentiles 63  in the synagogue, 64  and in the marketplace every day 65  those who happened to be there. 17:18 Also some of the Epicurean 66  and Stoic 67  philosophers were conversing 68  with him, and some were asking, 69  “What does this foolish babbler 70  want to say?” Others said, “He seems to be a proclaimer of foreign gods.” 71  (They said this because he was proclaiming the good news about Jesus and the resurrection.) 72  17:19 So they took Paul and 73  brought him to the Areopagus, 74  saying, “May we know what this new teaching is that you are proclaiming? 17:20 For you are bringing some surprising things 75  to our ears, so we want to know what they 76  mean.” 17:21 (All the Athenians and the foreigners who lived there used to spend their time 77  in nothing else than telling 78  or listening to something new.) 79 

17:22 So Paul stood 80  before the Areopagus and said, “Men of Athens, I see that you are very religious 81  in all respects. 82  17:23 For as I went around and observed closely your objects of worship, 83  I even found an altar with this inscription: 84  ‘To an unknown god.’ Therefore what you worship without knowing it, 85  this I proclaim to you. 17:24 The God who made the world and everything in it, 86  who is 87  Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by human hands, 88  17:25 nor is he served by human hands, as if he needed anything, 89  because he himself gives life and breath and everything to everyone. 90  17:26 From one man 91  he made every nation of the human race 92  to inhabit the entire earth, 93  determining their set times 94  and the fixed limits of the places where they would live, 95  17:27 so that they would search for God and perhaps grope around 96  for him and find him, 97  though he is 98  not far from each one of us. 17:28 For in him we live and move about 99  and exist, as even some of your own poets have said, ‘For we too are his offspring.’ 100  17:29 So since we are God’s offspring, we should not think the deity 101  is like gold or silver or stone, an image 102  made by human 103  skill 104  and imagination. 105  17:30 Therefore, although God has overlooked 106  such times of ignorance, 107  he now commands all people 108  everywhere to repent, 109  17:31 because he has set 110  a day on which he is going to judge the world 111  in righteousness, by a man whom he designated, 112  having provided proof to everyone by raising 113  him from the dead.”

17:32 Now when they heard about 114  the resurrection from the dead, some began to scoff, 115  but others said, “We will hear you again about this.” 17:33 So Paul left the Areopagus. 116  17:34 But some people 117  joined him 118  and believed. Among them 119  were Dionysius, who was a member of the Areopagus, 120  a woman 121  named Damaris, and others with them.

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1 tn BDAG 250 s.v. διοδεύω 1 has “go, travel through” for this verse.

2 sn Amphipolis. The capital city of the southeastern district of Macedonia (BDAG 55 s.v. ᾿Αμφίπολις). It was a military post. From Philippi this was about 33 mi (53 km).

3 sn Apollonia was a city in Macedonia about 27 mi (43 km) west southwest of Amphipolis.

4 sn Thessalonica (modern Salonica) was a city in Macedonia about 33 mi (53 km) west of Apollonia. It was the capital of Macedonia. The road they traveled over was called the Via Egnatia. It is likely they rode horses, given their condition in Philippi. The implication of v. 1 is that the two previously mentioned cities lacked a synagogue.

map For location see JP1-C1; JP2-C1; JP3-C1; JP4-C1.

5 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

6 tn Grk “he went in to them”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

7 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:2. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

8 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 2.b has “demonstrate, point out” here.

9 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.

10 sn The Christ had to suffer and to rise from the dead. These two points (suffering and resurrection) would have been among the more controversial aspects of Paul’s messianic preaching. The term translated “had to” (δεῖ, dei) shows how divine design and scripture corresponded here.

11 tn The Greek words used here (καὶ ὅτι, kai {oti, “and that”) mark the switch from indirect to direct discourse. Contemporary English requires the use of an introductory verb of speaking or saying to make this transition.

12 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31. The identification of the Messiah with Jesus indicates Paul was proclaiming the fulfillment of messianic promise.

13 tn Or “convinced.”

14 tn Or “a large crowd.”

15 tn Or “of devout Greeks,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Luke frequently mentions such people (Acts 13:43, 50; 16:14; 17:17; 18:7).

16 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).

17 tn Grk “becoming jealous.” The participle ζηλώσαντες (zhlwsante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. So elsewhere in Acts (5:17; 7:9; 13:45).

18 tn Literally ἀγοραῖος (agoraio") refers to the crowd in the marketplace, although BDAG 14-15 s.v. ἀγοραῖος 1 gives the meaning, by extension, as “rabble.” Such a description is certainly appropriate in this context. L&N 15.127 translates the phrase “worthless men from the streets.”

19 tn On this term, which is a NT hapax legomenon, see BDAG 745 s.v. ὀχλοποιέω.

20 tn BDAG 458 s.v. θορυβέω 1 has “set the city in an uproar, start a riot in the city” for the meaning of ἐθορύβουν (eqoruboun) in this verse.

21 sn The attack took place at Jason’s house because this was probably the location of the new house church.

22 tn Grk “them”; the referents (Paul and Silas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

23 tn BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2 has “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly προάγειν εἰς τὸν δ. Ac 17:5.”

24 tn See BDAG 977-78 s.v. σύρω on this verb. It was used in everyday speech of dragging in fish by a net, or dragging away someone’s (presumably) dead body (Paul in Acts 14:19).

25 tn L&N 37.93 defines πολιτάρχης (politarch") as “a public official responsible for administrative matters within a town or city and a member of the ruling council of such a political unit – ‘city official’” (see also BDAG 845 s.v.).

26 tn Or “rebellion.” BDAG 72 s.v. ἀναστατόω has “disturb, trouble, upset,” but in light of the references in the following verse to political insurrection, “stirred up rebellion” would also be appropriate.

27 tn Or “the empire.” This was a way of referring to the Roman empire (BDAG 699 s.v. οἰκουμένη 2.b).

sn Throughout the world. Note how some of those present had knowledge of what had happened elsewhere. Word about Paul and his companions and their message was spreading.

28 tn Grk “whom.” Because of the awkwardness in English of having two relative clauses follow one another (“who have stirred up trouble…whom Jason has welcomed”) the relative pronoun here (“whom”) has been replaced by the conjunction “and,” creating a clause that is grammatically coordinate but logically subordinate in the translation.

29 tn Grk “and they.” Because of the length of the Greek sentence, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.

30 tn Or “the emperor’s” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).

31 tn The word “named” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied for clarity.

32 sn Acting…saying…Jesus. The charges are serious, involving sedition (Luke 23:2). If the political charges were true, Rome would have to react.

33 tn Grk “They troubled the crowd and the city officials”; but this could be understood to mean “they bothered” or “they annoyed.” In reality the Jewish instigators managed to instill doubt and confusion into both the mob and the officials by their false charges of treason. Verse 8 suggests the charges raised again Paul, Silas, Jason, and the others were false.

34 tn L&N 37.93 defines πολιτάρχης (politarch") as “a public official responsible for administrative matters within a town or city and a member of the ruling council of such a political unit – ‘city official.’”

35 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

36 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the city officials) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

37 tn That is, “a payment” or “a pledge of security” (BDAG 472 s.v. ἱκανός 1) for which “bail” is the most common contemporary English equivalent.

38 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) west of Thessalonica.

map For location see JP1-C1; JP2-C1; JP3-C1; JP4-C1.

39 tn Grk “who arriving there, went to.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (οἵτινες, Joitine") has been left untranslated and a new English sentence begun. The participle παραγενόμενοι (paragenomenoi) has been taken temporally.

40 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

41 tn Grk “These”; the referent (the Jews in the synagogue at Berea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

42 tn Or “more willing to learn.” L&N 27.48 and BDAG 404 s.v. εὐγενής 2 both use the term “open-minded” here. The point is that they were more receptive to Paul’s message.

43 sn Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia (modern Salonica).

map For location see JP1-C1; JP2-C1; JP3-C1; JP4-C1.

44 tn Or “willingly,” “readily”; Grk “with all eagerness.”

45 tn Grk “who received.” Here the relative pronoun (“who”) has been translated as a pronoun (“they”) preceded by a semicolon, which is less awkward in contemporary English than a relative clause at this point.

46 tn This verb (BDAG 66 s.v. ἀνακρίνω 1) refers to careful examination.

47 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

48 tn Grk “not a few”; this use of negation could be misleading to the modern English reader, however, and so has been translated as “quite a few” (which is the actual meaning of the expression).

49 tn Or “respected.”

50 sn Thessalonica was a city in Macedonia (modern Salonica).

51 tn Grk “that the word of God had also been proclaimed by Paul.” This passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation for stylistic reasons.

52 sn Berea (alternate spelling in NRSV Beroea; Greek Beroia) was a very old city in Macedonia on the river Astraeus about 45 mi (75 km) from Thessalonica.

53 tn BDAG 911 s.v. σαλεύω 2 has “incite” for σαλεύοντες (saleuonte") in Acts 17:13.

sn Inciting. Ironically, it was the Jews who were disturbing the peace, not the Christians.

54 tn Or “stirring up” (BDAG 990-91 s.v. ταράσσω 2). The point is the agitation of the crowds.

55 tn Grk “to the sea.” Here ἕως ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ({ew" epi thn qalassan) must mean “to the edge of the sea,” that is, “to the coast.” Since there is no mention of Paul taking a ship to Athens, he presumably traveled overland. The journey would have been about 340 mi (550 km).

56 tn Grk “remained there”; the referent (Berea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

57 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

58 sn They left. See 1 Thess 3:1-2, which shows they went from here to Thessalonica.

59 map For location see JP1 C2; JP2 C2; JP3 C2; JP4 C2.

60 tn Grk “greatly upset within him,” but the words “within him” were not included in the translation because they are redundant in English. See L&N 88.189. The term could also be rendered “infuriated.”

sn His spirit was greatly upset. See Rom 1:18-32 for Paul’s feelings about idolatry. Yet he addressed both Jews and Gentiles with tact and reserve.

61 tn Or “when he saw.” The participle θεωροῦντος (qewrounto") has been translated as a causal adverbial participle; it could also be translated as temporal.

62 tn Although the word διελέξατο (dielexato; from διαλέγομαι, dialegomai) is frequently translated “reasoned,” “disputed,” or “argued,” this sense comes from its classical meaning where it was used of philosophical disputation, including the Socratic method of questions and answers. However, there does not seem to be contextual evidence for this kind of debate in Acts 17:17. As G. Schrenk (TDNT 2:94-95) points out, “What is at issue is the address which any qualified member of a synagogue might give.” Other examples of this may be found in the NT in Matt 4:23 and Mark 1:21.

63 tn Or “and the devout,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44, and the note on the phrase “God-fearing Greeks” in 17:4.

64 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

65 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase in this verse.

66 sn An Epicurean was a follower of the philosophy of Epicurus, who founded a school in Athens about 300 b.c. Although the Epicureans saw the aim of life as pleasure, they were not strictly hedonists, because they defined pleasure as the absence of pain. Along with this, they desired the avoidance of trouble and freedom from annoyances. They saw organized religion as evil, especially the belief that the gods punished evildoers in an afterlife. In keeping with this, they were unable to accept Paul’s teaching about the resurrection.

67 sn A Stoic was a follower of the philosophy founded by Zeno (342-270 b.c.), a Phoenician who came to Athens and modified the philosophical system of the Cynics he found there. The Stoics rejected the Epicurean ideal of pleasure, stressing virtue instead. The Stoics emphasized responsibility for voluntary actions and believed risks were worth taking, but thought the actual attainment of virtue was difficult. They also believed in providence.

68 tn BDAG 956 s.v. συμβάλλω 1 has “converse, confer” here.

69 tn Grk “saying.”

70 tn Or “ignorant show-off.” The traditional English translation of σπερμολόγος (spermologo") is given in L&N 33.381 as “foolish babbler.” However, an alternate view is presented in L&N 27.19, “(a figurative extension of meaning of a term based on the practice of birds in picking up seeds) one who acquires bits and pieces of relatively extraneous information and proceeds to pass them off with pretense and show – ‘ignorant show-off, charlatan.’” A similar view is given in BDAG 937 s.v. σπερμολόγος: “in pejorative imagery of persons whose communication lacks sophistication and seems to pick up scraps of information here and there scrapmonger, scavenger…Engl. synonyms include ‘gossip’, ‘babbler’, chatterer’; but these terms miss the imagery of unsystematic gathering.”

71 tn The meaning of this phrase is not clear. Literally it reads “strange deities” (see BDAG 210 s.v. δαιμόνιον 1). The note of not being customary is important. In the ancient world what was new was suspicious. The plural δαιμονίων (daimoniwn, “deities”) shows the audience grappling with Paul’s teaching that God was working through Jesus.

72 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

73 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Paul) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

74 tn Or “to the council of the Areopagus.” See also the term in v. 22.

sn The Areopagus has been traditionally understood as reference to a rocky hill near the Acropolis in Athens, although this place may well have been located in the marketplace at the foot of the hill (L&N 93.412; BDAG 129 s.v. ῎Αρειος πάγος). This term does not refer so much to the place, however, as to the advisory council of Athens known as the Areopagus, which dealt with ethical, cultural, and religious matters, including the supervision of education and controlling the many visiting lecturers. Thus it could be translated the council of the Areopagus. See also the term in v. 22.

75 tn BDAG 684 s.v. ξενίζω 2 translates the substantival participle ξενίζοντα (xenizonta) as “astonishing things Ac 17:20.”

76 tn Grk “these things”; but since the referent (“surprising things”) is so close, the repetition of “these things” sounds redundant in English, so the pronoun “they” was substituted in the translation.

77 tn The imperfect verb ηὐκαίρουν (hukairoun) has been translated as a customary or habitual imperfect.

78 tn BDAG 406-7 s.v. εὐκαιρέω has “used to spend their time in nothing else than telling Ac 17:21.”

79 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. The reference to newness may be pejorative.

80 tn Grk “standing…said.” The participle ζηλώσαντες (zhlwsante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

81 tn The term δεισιδαιμονεστέρους (deisidaimonesterou") is difficult. On the one hand it can have the positive sense of “devout,” but on the other hand it can have the negative sense of “superstitious” (BDAG 216 s.v. δεισιδαίμων). As part of a laudatory introduction (the technical rhetorical term for this introduction was capatatio), the term is probably positive here. It may well be a “backhanded” compliment, playing on the ambiguity.

82 tn BDAG 513 s.v. κατά B.6 translates the phrase κατὰ πάντα (kata panta) as “in all respects.

83 tn Or “your sanctuaries.” L&N 53.54 gives “sanctuary” (place of worship) as an alternate meaning for the word σεβάσματα (sebasmata).

84 tn Grk “on which was written,” but since it would have been carved in stone, it is more common to speak of an “inscription” in English. To simplify the English the relative construction with a passive verb (“on which was inscribed”) was translated as a prepositional phrase with a substantive (“inscription”).

85 tn BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b has “Abs. ὅ ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε what you worship without knowing it (on the subject matter Maximus Tyr. 11, 5e: all sorts of philosophers ἴσασιν οὐκ ἑκόντες καὶ λέγουσιν ἄκοντες sc. τὸ θεῖον = they know and name God without intending to do so) Ac 17:23.” Paul, in typical Jewish Christian style, informs them of the true God, of whom their idols are an ignorant reflection.

86 tn Grk “all the things that are in it.” The speech starts with God as Creator, like 14:15.

87 tn Or “because he is.” The participle ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) could be either adjectival, modifying οὗτος (Joutos, “who is Lord…”) or adverbial of cause (“because he is Lord…”). Since the participle διδούς (didou") in v. 25 appears to be clearly causal in force, it is preferable to understand ὑπάρχων as adjectival in this context.

88 sn On the statement does not live in temples made by human hands compare Acts 7:48. This has implications for idols as well. God cannot be represented by them or, as the following clause also suggests, served by human hands.

89 tn L&N 57.45 has “nor does he need anything more that people can supply by working for him.”

90 tn Grk “he himself gives to all [people] life and breath and all things.”

91 sn The one man refers to Adam (the word “man” is understood).

92 tn Or “mankind.” BDAG 276 s.v. ἔθνος 1 has “every nation of humankind Ac 17:26.”

93 tn Grk “to live over all the face of the earth.”

94 tn BDAG 884-85 s.v. προστάσσω has “(οἱ) προστεταγμένοι καιροί (the) fixed times Ac 17:26” here, but since the following phrase is also translated “fixed limits,” this would seem redundant in English, so the word “set” has been used instead.

95 tn Grk “the boundaries of their habitation.” L&N 80.5 has “fixed limits of the places where they would live” for this phrase.

96 tn See BDAG 1097-98 s.v. ψηλαφάω, which lists “touch, handle” and “to feel around for, grope for” as possible meanings.

97 sn Perhaps grope around for him and find him. The pagans’ struggle to know God is the point here. Conscience alone is not good enough.

98 tn The participle ὑπάρχοντα (Juparconta) has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

99 tn According to L&N 15.1, “A strictly literal translation of κινέω in Ac 17:28 might imply merely moving from one place to another. The meaning, however, is generalized movement and activity; therefore, it may be possible to translate κινούμεθα as ‘we come and go’ or ‘we move about’’ or even ‘we do what we do.’”

100 sn This quotation is from Aratus (ca. 310-245 b.c.), Phaenomena 5. Paul asserted a general relationship and accountability to God for all humanity.

101 tn Or “the divine being.” BDAG 446 s.v. θεῖος 1.b has “divine being, divinity” here.

102 tn Or “a likeness.” Again idolatry is directly attacked as an affront to God and a devaluation of him.

103 tn Grk “by the skill and imagination of man,” but ἀνθρώπου (anqrwpou) has been translated as an attributive genitive.

104 tn Or “craftsmanship” (cf. BDAG 1001 s.v. τέχνη).

105 tn Or “thought.” BDAG 336 s.v. ἐνθύμησις has “thought, reflection, idea” as the category of meaning here, but in terms of creativity (as in the context) the imaginative faculty is in view.

106 tn Or “has deliberately paid no attention to.”

107 tn Or “times when people did not know.”

108 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).

109 sn He now commands all people everywhere to repent. God was now asking all mankind to turn to him. No nation or race was excluded.

110 tn Or “fixed.”

111 sn The world refers to the whole inhabited earth.

112 tn Or “appointed.” BDAG 723 s.v. ὁρίζω 2.b has “of persons appoint, designate, declare: God judges the world ἐν ἀνδρὶ ᾧ ὥρισεν through a man whom he has appointed Ac 17:31.”

sn A man whom he designated. Jesus is put in the position of eschatological judge. As judge of the living and the dead, he possesses divine authority (Acts 10:42).

113 tn The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") indicates means here.

114 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.

115 tn L&N 33.408 has “some scoffed (at him) Ac 17:32” for ἐχλεύαζον (ecleuazon) here; the imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive imperfect (“began to scoff”).

116 tn Grk “left out of their midst”; the referent (the Areopagus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

117 tn Although the Greek word here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which normally refers to males, husbands, etc., in this particular context it must have a generic force similar to that of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), since “a woman named Damaris” is mentioned specifically as being part of this group (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. ἀνήρ 1.a).

118 tn Grk “joining him, believed.” The participle κολληθέντες (kollhqente") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. On the use of this verb in Acts, see 5:13; 8:29; 9:26; 10:28.

119 tn Grk “among whom.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence, the relative pronoun (“whom”) has been translated as a third person plural pronoun (“them”) and a new sentence begun in the translation.

120 tn Grk “the Areopagite” (a member of the council of the Areopagus). The noun “Areopagite” is not in common usage today in English. It is clearer to use a descriptive phrase “a member of the Areopagus” (L&N 11.82). However, this phrase alone can be misleading in English: “Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus, and a woman named Damaris” could be understood to refer to three people (Dionysius, an unnamed member of the Areopagus, and Damaris) rather than only two. Converting the descriptive phrase to a relative clause in English (“who was a member of the Areopagus”) removes the ambiguity.

121 tn Grk “and a woman”; but this καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.



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